The purpose of this paper is a description of DITCI, its drop loads and sensors, the impact tools, the robot dynamic impact safety artifacts, data analysis, and modeling of test results. The dynamic impact testing and calibration instrument (DITCI) is a simple instrument with a significant data collection and analysis capability that is used for the testing and calibration of biosimulant human tissue artifacts. These artifacts may be used to measure the severity of injuries caused in the case of a robot impact with a human.
In this paper, we describe the DITCI adjustable impact and flexible foundation mechanism, which allows the selection of a variety of impact force levels and foundation stiffness. The instrument can accommodate arrays of a variety of sensors and impact tools, simulating both real manufacturing tools and the testing requirements of standards setting organizations.
A computer data acquisition system may collect a variety of impact motion, force and torque data, which are used to develop a variety of mathematical model representations of the artifacts. Finally, we describe the fabrication and testing of human abdomen soft tissue artifacts with embedded markers, used to display the severity of impact injury tissue deformation.
DITCI and the use of biosimulant human tissue artifacts will permit a better understanding of the severity of injury, which will be caused in the case of a robot impact with a human, without the use of expensive cadaver parts. The limitations are set by the ability to build artifacts with material properties similar to those of various parts of the human body.
This technology will be particularly useful for small manufacturing companies that cannot afford the use of expensive instrumentation and technical consultants.
Impact tests were performed at maximum impact force and average pressure levels that are below, at and above the levels recommended by a proposed International Organization for Standardization standard. These test results will be used to verify whether the adopted safety standards will protect interactive robots human operators for various robot tools and control modes.
Various research groups have used human subjects to collect data on pain induced by industrial robots. Unfortunately, human safety testing is not an option for human–robot collaboration in industrial applications every time there is a change of a tool or control program, so the use of biosimulant artifacts is expected to be a good alternative.
The authors would like to thank John Stopher for his help with the development of data analysis and modeling software. We would also like to thank Jay Brandenburg, Richard Lake, and Dana Strawbridge, of the NIST Fabrication Technology Division for the fabrication of the various mechanical parts of DITCI. We also want to thank the reviewers of this paper for their constructive comments.
This work was supported by the Robotic Systems for Smart Manufacturing Program of the Intelligent Systems Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
Dagalakis, N., Yoo, J. and Oeste, T. (2016), "Human-robot collaboration dynamic impact testing and calibration instrument for disposable robot safety artifacts", Industrial Robot, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 328-337. https://doi.org/10.1108/IR-06-2015-0125Download as .RIS
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