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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

Honghai Liu, Jian S. Dai and Lakmal D. Seneviratne

This paper aims to report a novel practical algorithm for manipulation planning of multiple articulated robots.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report a novel practical algorithm for manipulation planning of multiple articulated robots.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a model‐based approach to distributing trajectory segments to individual robots in a multirobot system, given a task in terms of trajectories. This approach consists of three modules: task trajectory generation, cooperative robots selection, and joint trajectory generation.

Findings

The proposed algorithm has been implemented into a simulation system with four‐planar robots and a multirobot‐packing system, which has shown the effectiveness of the presented method. It improves the flexibility of robot cooperation and handles dynamically cooperative trajectories by using a modularized mapping from Cartesian space to joint space of robots.

Research limitations/implications

The reported research has been developed for task‐oriented applications with prior knowledge. Future work will focus on acquiring prior knowledge using vision systems.

Practical implications

The key contribution of this paper is that it offers a practical real‐time solution to task‐oriented applications. For instance, the proposed method could close the gaps and significantly improve work efficiency in carton packing involved in industrial chains.

Originality/value

The reported work allows a multirobot system realtime, dynamically distributing trajectory segments to individual robots for task‐oriented applications. Industrial practitioners would benefit from employing it in their existing systems, e.g. the car assembly industry.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Zongxing Lu, Chunguang Xu, Qinxue Pan, Dingguo Xiao, Fanwu Meng and Juan Hao

Nondestructive testing based on cooperative twin-robot technology is a significant issue for curved-surface inspection. To achieve this purpose, this paper aims to present…

Abstract

Purpose

Nondestructive testing based on cooperative twin-robot technology is a significant issue for curved-surface inspection. To achieve this purpose, this paper aims to present a kinematic constraint relation method relative to two cooperative robots.

Design/methodology/approach

The transformation relation of the twin-robot base frame can be determined by driving the two robots for a series of handclasp operations on three points that are noncollinear in space. The transformation relation is used to solve the cooperative motion problem of the twin-robot system. Cooperative motions are divided into coupled and combined synchronous motions on the basis of the testing tasks. The position and orientation constraints for the two motion modes are also explored.

Findings

Representative experiments between two industrial robots are conducted to validate the theoretical developments in kinematic constraint analysis. Artificial defects are clearly visible in the C-scan results, thereby verifying the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Originality/value

The transformation relation of the twin-robot base frame is built under a series of handclasp operations. The position and orientation constraints for the coupled and combined synchronous motions are explored. Theoretical foundations of trajectory planning method for the transmitting and receiving transducers of the cooperative twin-robot system are presented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Zhen Zhang, Qixin Cao, Lei Zhang and Charles Lo

The purpose of this paper is to present a distributed multiple mobile robot system that provides a collaborative control and simulation environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a distributed multiple mobile robot system that provides a collaborative control and simulation environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A CORBA‐based cooperative system is designed to implement a robotic layered cooperative mechanism. The mechanism has three layers: mission, transport and execution. In order to realize a flexible and effective communication in the cooperative mechanism, an extended robot event service (federated event service) is proposed to improve the cooperative system's real time performance.

Findings

Experimentation has proved the validity and effectiveness of the system. The federated event service's latency is approximately 9 percent less than the standard event service latency when the CPU is determined.

Practical implications

The robotic modularized system includes the map‐building, path‐planning, robot task‐planning, simulation and actual robot control function modules, and uses CORBA to integrate the whole system. It is easy to implement a layered cooperative mechanism for multiple mobile robots. Given the problem on multiple robots cooperation latency, a useful extended robot event service is proposed.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on the distributed functional modular architecture, and the multiple robots cooperative layered mechanism. In the mechanism, an extended robot event service (federated event service) is proposed to reduce the cooperative system's real time latency. The conducted experiment validates the proposed system with a good performance for multiple mobile robots' cooperation.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Xinbo Yu, Shuang Zhang, Liang Sun, Yu Wang, Chengqian Xue and Bin Li

This paper aims to propose cooperative control strategies for dual-arm robots in different human–robot collaborative tasks in assembly processes. The authors set three…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose cooperative control strategies for dual-arm robots in different human–robot collaborative tasks in assembly processes. The authors set three different regions where robot performs different collaborative ways: “teleoperate” region, “co-carry” region and “assembly” region. Human holds the “master” arm of dual-arm robot to operate the other “follower” arm by our proposed controller in “teleoperation” region. Limited by the human arm length, “follower” arm is teleoperated by human to carry the distant object. In the “co-carry” region, “master” arm and “follower” arm cooperatively carry the object to the region close to the human. In “assembly” region, “follower” arm is used for fixing the object and “master” arm coupled with human is used for assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

A human moving target estimated method is proposed for decreasing efforts for human to move “master” arm, radial basis functions neural networks are used to compensate for uncertainties in dynamics of both arms. Force feedback is designed in “master” arm controller for human to perceive the movement of “follower” arm. Experimental results on Baxter robot platform show the effectiveness of this proposed method.

Findings

Experimental results on Baxter robot platform show the effectiveness of our proposed methods. Different human-robot collaborative tasks in assembly processes are performed successfully under our cooperative control strategies for dual-arm robots.

Originality/value

In this paper, cooperative control strategies for dual-arm robots have been proposed in different human–robot collaborative tasks in assembly processes. Three different regions where robot performs different collaborative ways are set: “teleoperation” region, “co-carry” region and “assembly” region.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

M. Moallem and R. Khoshbin

Discusses development of an open architecture multi‐robot system that can be used for training engineers in the area of networked‐based multi‐robot programming.

Abstract

Purpose

Discusses development of an open architecture multi‐robot system that can be used for training engineers in the area of networked‐based multi‐robot programming.

Design/methodology/approach

The robots are operated under their original controllers connected together through a network of supervisory computers. A preemptive multi‐tasking real time operating system (RTOS) running on these computers is used to perform supervisory and cooperative tasks involving multiple robots. The software environment allows for controlling the motion of one or more robots and their interaction with other devices.

Findings

Robots can be networked to perform more elaborate tasks.

Originality/value

The environment is used to train undergraduate and graduate students on how to develop software for various robotic applications, including scheduling techniques, cooperative manipulation, collision avoidance, and emerging robotic applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Giulio Zecca, Paul Couderc, Michel Banâtre and Roberto Beraldi

The purpose of this paper is to show how a swarm of robots can cooperate to achieve a common task, in a totally distributed and autonomous way, by exploiting powerful…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how a swarm of robots can cooperate to achieve a common task, in a totally distributed and autonomous way, by exploiting powerful clues contained in some devices that are distributed in the environment. This system exploits a coordination mechanism that is twofold, using radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for spatial coordination, and wireless robot‐to‐robot communication for the temporal and semantic synchronization.

Design/methodology/approach

Progress in the pervasive computing field has led to the distribution of knowledge and computational power in the environment, rather than condensing it in a single, powerful entity. This vision of ambient intelligence is supported by the interchange of information between physically sparse agents cooperating to achieve a common goal. An emerging method for this kind of collaboration considers the agents as insects in a swarm, having the possibility of communicating directly or indirectly with each other. The goal is to fulfill a common task, showing that a collaborative behavior can be useful in the real world. The paper focuses on a technique for the coordination of swarm‐robots with low capabilities, driven by instructions learned from RFID tags used as distributed pervasive memories. These robots exploit ubiquitous computing to regroup in a synchronization area, make a formation in space, coordinate with team‐mates in the same zone, and finally complete a cooperative task. The algorithm is validated through a simulation environment, showing its applicability and performance, before the real implementation on Roomba‐like robots.

Findings

The goal of the research is to prove the feasibility of such a novel approach. It is observed that a swarm of robots can achieve a good degree of autonomous cooperation without a central infrastructure or global network, carrying out a goal in a fair time.

Originality/value

The value is given by the benefits of splitting the synchronization semantics into two levels: space, by exploiting RFID landmarks; and time, by exploiting wireless short‐range communication. RFID tags are used to distribute computational power and actively interact with the surrounding areas, allowing to learn and modify the state of the environment. Robot‐to‐robot communication, instead, is used for providing timing and semantic information. In the proposal, this augmented environment is used to allow a good level of coordination among robots, both in time and space, with the aim of building a cooperative system.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Fabrizio Caccavale and Pasquale Chiacchio

Describes the experience of setting up a cooperative arm system based on individual open‐architecture controllers. Two six‐degree‐of‐freedom industrial manipulators, one…

Abstract

Describes the experience of setting up a cooperative arm system based on individual open‐architecture controllers. Two six‐degree‐of‐freedom industrial manipulators, one of which is mounted on a moving track, are installed to realize a cooperative experimental set‐up. The main issues related to the cooperative manipulation are overviewed and its potential applications in industry are discussed. A brief description of the system’s components is given. The most relevant problems encountered in setting up the cooperative system based on individual control architectures are detailed. The result of the experience is that by using available industrial manipulators, rather than prototypes, and without re‐designing the controller hardware, it is possible to realize a cooperative manipulator system.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Jongwon Lee, Inwook Hwang, Keehoon Kim, Seungmoon Choi, Wan Kyun Chung and Young Soo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot position control, and improved ergonomics.

Design/methodology/approach

A human‐guided robot for the spinal fusion surgery has been developed with a dexterous end‐effector that is capable of high‐speed drilling for cortical layer gimleting and tele‐operated insertion of screws into the vertebrae. The end‐effector is position‐controlled by a five degrees‐of‐freedom robot body that has a kinematically closed structure to withstand strong reaction force occurring in the surgery. The robot also allows the surgeon to control cooperatively the position and orientation of the end‐effector in order to provide maximum flexibility in exploiting his or her expertise. Also incorporated for improved safety is a “drill‐by‐wire” mechanism wherein a screw is tele‐drilled by the surgeon in a mechanically decoupled master/slave system. Finally, a torque‐rendering algorithm that adds synthetic open‐loop high‐frequency components on feedback torque increases the realism of tele‐drilling in the screw‐by‐wire mechanism.

Findings

Experimental results indicated that this assistive robot for spinal fusion performs drilling tasks within the static regulation errors less than 0.1 μm for position control and less than 0.05° for orientation control. The users of the tele‐drilling reported subjectively that they experienced torque feedback similar to that of direct screw insertion.

Research limitations/implications

Although the robotic surgery system itself has been developed, integration with surgery planning and tracking systems is ongoing. Thus, the screw insertion accuracy of a whole surgery system with the assistive robot is to be investigated in the near future.

Originality/value

The paper arguably pioneers the dexterous end‐effector appropriately designed for spinal fusion, the cooperative robot position‐control algorithm, the screw‐by‐wire mechanism for indirect screw insertion, and the torque‐rendering algorithm for more realistic torque feedback. In particular, the system has the potential of circumventing the screw‐loosening problem, a common defect in the conventional surgeon‐operated or robot‐assisted spinal fusion surgery.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

O. Reinoso, A. Gil, L. Payá and M. Juliá

This paper aims to present a teleoperation system that allows one to control a group of mobile robots in a collaborative manner. In order to show the capabilities of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a teleoperation system that allows one to control a group of mobile robots in a collaborative manner. In order to show the capabilities of the collaborative teleoperation system, it seeks to present a task where the operator collaborates with a robot team to explore a remote environment in a coordinated manner. The system implements human‐robot interaction by means of natural language interfaces, allowing one to teleoperate multiple mobile robots in an unknown, unstructured environment. With the supervision of the operator, the robot team builds a map of the environment with a vision‐based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technique. The approach is well suited for search and rescue tasks and other applications where the operator may guide the exploration of the robots to certain areas in the map.

Design/methodology/approach

In opposition with a master‐slave scheme of teleoperation, an exploration mechanism is proposed that allows one to integrate the commands expressed by a human operator in an exploration task, where the actions expressed by the human operator are taken as an advice. In consequence, the robots in the remote environment choose their movements that improve the estimation of the map and best suit the requirements of the operator.

Findings

It is shown that the collaborative mechanism presented is suitable to control a robot team that explores an unstructured environment. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the validity of the approach.

Practical implications

The system implements human‐robot interaction by means of natural language interfaces. The robots are equipped with stereo heads and are able to find stable visual landmarks in the environment. Based on these visual landmarks, the robot team is able to build a map of the environment using a vision‐based SLAM technique. SONAR proximity sensors are used to avoid collisions and find traversable ways. The robot control architecture is based on common object request broker architecture technology and allows one to operate a group of robots with dissimilar features.

Originality/value

This work extends the concept of collaborative teleoperation to the exploration of a remote environment using a team of mobile robots.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Ali Leylavi Shoushtari, Paolo Dario and Stefano Mazzoleni

Interaction plays a significant role in robotics and it is considered in all levels of hardware and software control design. Several models have been introduced and…

Abstract

Purpose

Interaction plays a significant role in robotics and it is considered in all levels of hardware and software control design. Several models have been introduced and developed for controlling robotic interaction. This study aims to address and analyze the state-of-the-art on robotic interaction control by which it is revealed that both practical and theoretical issues have to be faced when designing a controller.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, a critical analysis of the control algorithms developed for robotic interaction tasks is presented. A hierarchical classification of distributed control levels from general aspects to specific control algorithms is also illustrated. Hence, two main control paradigms are discussed together with control approaches and architectures. The challenges of each control approach are discussed and the relevant solutions are presented.

Findings

This review presents an evolvement trend of interaction control theories and technologies over time. In addition, it highlights the pros and cons of each control approaches with addressing how the flaws of one control approach were compensated by emerging another control methods.

Originality/value

This review provides the robotic controller designers to select the right architecture and accordingly design the appropriate control algorithm for any given interactive task and with respect to the technology implemented in robotic manipulator.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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