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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Nicholas Ryan Prince and Rüdiger Kabst

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of national culture on organizations’ use of selection practices, specifically to investigate the impact of in-group

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of national culture on organizations’ use of selection practices, specifically to investigate the impact of in-group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and power distance on interview panels, one-on-one interviews, applications forms, references, ability, technical and psychometric tests.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses survey data from the 2008–2010 CRANET database. It uses OLS regression analysis to test the impact of national culture on organizations’ use of selection practices.

Findings

In-group collectivism increases the use of panel interviews and technical tests, and decreases the use of one-on-one interviews and application forms. Uncertainty avoidance increases the use of panel interviews and technical tests, and a decrease in one-on-one interviews, applications ability, and psychometric tests. Power distance leads to an increase in one-on-one interviews, applications and ability tests, and a decrease in panel interviews, psychometric tests and references.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the use of the impact of national culture on selection practices. Specifically, it looks at the use of a large number of selection practices panel interviews, one-on-one interviews, applications and references, and several different tests, ability, technical and psychometric.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Smaranda Boroş, Nicoleta Meslec, Petru L. Curşeu and Wilco Emons

The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of group composition in cultural values on conflict management styles in groups.

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7347

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of group composition in cultural values on conflict management styles in groups.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study using data from 125 groups was conducted.

Findings

The results show that in groups where members feel they are equal and connected (horizontal collectivism) cooperation is better, and contending and avoiding conflict management styles are used less. When people view themselves as unequal and independent (vertical individualism (VI)) the avoiding style of conflict management is more frequently used. Within‐group similarity (low variety) in VI leads to more cooperation and less avoidant conflict management strategies as well as less third party interventions. High group variety in views of being unequal, but interconnected (vertical collectivism), as well as in the views of being equal but independent (horizontal individualism), leads to more cooperative conflict resolution strategy.

Practical implications

The results show that small and consistent within‐group differences in cultural values are beneficial (with the exception of VI) for cooperative strategies. By showing that group compositional configurations in cultural values (vertical/horizontal individualism and collectivism) impact on conflict management strategies, the study has important implications for team design.

Originality/value

The paper extends current research by conceptualizing cultural values (it considers the horizontal vs vertical orientation in individualism‐collectivism) as configural group properties and by testing the impact of specific team configurations in cultural values on conflict management strategies.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Yusuf Munir Sidani

This study aims to address gender gaps in labor participation and earned income. The paper assesses the role of education and cultural dimensions in impacting female labor…

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1419

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address gender gaps in labor participation and earned income. The paper assesses the role of education and cultural dimensions in impacting female labor indicators. The paper tests two separate models predicting female labor participation as a percentage of male participation (FPM) and female earned income as a percentage of male earned income (FIM) across 59 nations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were taken from those published by World Bank and International Labor Organization, in addition to the GLOBE study. The paper relies on relationships among such data to assess the hypotheses under investigation.

Findings

FPM was explained by institutional collectivism, gender egalitarianism, and education. FIM was explained by gender egalitarianism and institutional collectivism. Contrary to expectations, in-group collectivism was not found to be a predictor in this model. Based on earlier research and this study, the paper presents the “female labor indicators model”.

Research limitations/implications

More data need to be collected about gender-related attitudes and behaviors from a larger number of countries. There is also a need to collect culture data at the individual level not only at the country level. The model that the paper presents – explaining gaps in female participation and pay – deserves additional research support.

Practical implications

There is a need for practitioners to be conscious of hidden forces that work against women who aspire to work despite their high educational levels. Improving women's labor conditions requires a concerted effort from many parties including government and private sector.

Originality/value

The link between GLOBE's cultural dimensions and female labor indicators has not been sufficiently addressed in prior research. The paper suggests that explaining deficits in female labor indicators requires looking past economic and demographic variables into institutional and cultural factors. The paper presents a comprehensive model that helps in explaining gender gaps in participation and pay.

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2018

Nicholas R. Prince, J. Bruce Prince and Rüediger Kabst

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of national culture on the adoption of four different incentive pay bundles (incentive maximizer, contingent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of national culture on the adoption of four different incentive pay bundles (incentive maximizer, contingent rewarder, profit rewarder, and incentive minimizer) using GLOBE national culture dimensions in 14 countries. It uses incentive pay bundles derived by Prince et al. (2016).

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted multilevel random-intercept logistic modeling using firm incentive practice usage from the CRANET database and country culture scores from the GLOBE study.

Findings

Evidence suggests that in-group collectivism is associated with increased use of the incentive maximizer approach, in which firms use a combination of high levels of individual, team, and profit sharing incentives, and decreased use of the incentive minimizer approach (where firms minimally employ incentives) and the individual and team bonus focused contingent rewarder configuration. Higher uncertainty avoidance is linked to increased use of the profit rewarder approach (where only profit sharing is emphasized) and decreased use of the contingent rewarder approach. Performance-orientation cultures appear to support using the incentive maximizer and avoiding the incentive minimizer bundles.

Originality/value

This study investigates incentive practice bundles that firms use verses separate analysis of practices and use the GLOBE culture metrics. It utilizes multilevel modeling, which has been lacking in past studies of culture and incentives.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Francesco Calza, Chiara Cannavale and Ilaria Tutore

The purpose of this paper is to verify if and how national culture affects firms’ environmental proactivity, by using a specific index: the Carbon Disclosure Score (CDS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify if and how national culture affects firms’ environmental proactivity, by using a specific index: the Carbon Disclosure Score (CDS).

Design/methodology/approach

The study, an analysis of two linear regression models, examines how cultural values, measured by the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research “should be” scores, affect companies’ environmental proactivity measured by CDS. Data about CDS derive from the Carbon Disclosure Project, which monitors Global 500 companies each year.

Findings

The analysis reveals that the values of in-group collectivism, performance orientation, assertiveness and uncertainty avoidance negatively affect firms’ environmental proactivity, while future orientation and gender egalitarianism have a positive impact.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of the limitations inherent in the indicator and the limited sample, the paper has some interesting implications. On a theoretical level, this study extends prior research in the field of organizations and natural environment, by examining the specific role exerted by national cultural dimensions on firms’ environmental proactivity.

Practical implications

From a practical standpoint, the study suggests that corporations and policy regulators should be sensitive toward national idiosyncrasies and formulate the environmental strategies according to the cultural values and contextual environment of the relevant region. Creating policies based on cultural values and adapting policies to a country’s culture can improve the effectiveness of environmental policies and raise individual and corporation awareness on the topic.

Originality/value

Most contributions consider environmental strategy at the national level. This study, instead, focusses on the effects of national culture on the environmental proactivity of firms.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Katja Soyez

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of…

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8049

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of pro‐environmental value orientations differs cross‐culturally. A value‐based model is proposed and tested in a multinational study.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical investigation of 1,096 consumers was conducted in five nations with a different cultural profile on the two cultural dimensions in‐group collectivism and assertiveness. The paper applies multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the moderating effect of culture on the impact of pro‐environmental values on attitudes and subjective norms.

Findings

The study reveals that the influence of a pro‐environmental value orientation differs substantially, according to national cultural values. While an ecocentric value orientation is important in the US, Canadian, German, and Australian samples which hold individualistic values, an anthropocentric value orientation is salient in the Russian sample, characterized by collectivistic values. The hypothesized influence of the national cultural value assertiveness, however, could not be established decisively.

Research limitations/implications

First, the present study considers culture as a national value on an aggregated level. Future studies should take into account cultural values at different levels of aggregation. Second, since only one collectivistic society is the object of the investigation, the results are limited in terms of generalizability.

Practical implications

In order to address the ecocentric value orientation in the analyzed individualistic societies, marketers should emphasize benefits for the environment in the USA, Canada, Australia, and Germany. By contrast, the positive consequences for humankind in general and future generations should be stressed in the collectivistic Russian sample.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by integrating both individual and national perspectives on the value‐based drivers of environmental concern. The study also provides insight into pro‐environmental consumer behavior in an emerging market (namely Russia), which has so far been neglected in cross‐cultural research.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Seyyed Babak Alavi and John McCormick

It has been argued that some management theories and models may not be universal and are based on some cultural assumptions. It is argued in this paper that the…

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3046

Abstract

It has been argued that some management theories and models may not be universal and are based on some cultural assumptions. It is argued in this paper that the effectiveness of applying the Learning Organization (LO) model in school contexts across different countries may be associated with cultural differences such as individualism, collectivism, power distance, and future orientation. The implementation of elements of the LO model such as systems thinking, managing mental models, team learning, and developing shared visions, may face some difficulties in some cultures. This paper develops some theoretical propositions for further empirical investigations.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

K. Praveen Parboteeah, Helena M. Addae and John B. Cullen

Absenteeism is a costly behavior that occurs around the world. However, in spite of the growth in cross‐cultural research in organizational research and in global…

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1895

Abstract

Absenteeism is a costly behavior that occurs around the world. However, in spite of the growth in cross‐cultural research in organizational research and in global businesses, very few studies have examined absenteeism from a cross‐cultural perspective. This study examined the effect of national culture on absenteeism using a sample of 17,842 respondents from 24 countries. Based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, we postulated that uncertainty avoidance, power distance, individualism, and masculinity will be negatively related to absenteeism. Similarly, based on the GLOBE cultural dimensions, we proposed that there will be positive relationships between societal collectivism and assertiveness, and absenteeism. However, we hypothesized that in‐group collectivism and gender egalitarianism will have negative relationships with absenteeism. To test our cross‐level hypotheses, we used Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Our results indicated that with the exception of uncertainty avoidance and assertiveness, all our hypothesized relationships were supported. Consistent findings were obtained for the common elements of both the Hofstede and GLOBE cultural dimensions, demonstrating convergence of our findings. We offer theoretical and practical implications of our study and suggest future research directions in the culture‐absenteeism link

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Nancy Papalexandris and Leda Panayotopoulou

This paper attempts to interpret the HRM practices studied through the CRANET research in the light of the general societal culture tendencies as revealed by the GLOBE…

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9520

Abstract

This paper attempts to interpret the HRM practices studied through the CRANET research in the light of the general societal culture tendencies as revealed by the GLOBE study. The study analyses the nine dimensions of societal culture, using data from 19 countries that have participated in both studies (Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (former East and West), Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and UK). The most significant correlations between societal culture and HRM have been isolated and will be discussed. Results show that the function that seems to be related the most to culture is internal communication, while the least related is rewards and benefits. This study's findings could serve as a guide in transferring HRM policies within MNCs or across countries, as they give an indication of the most culture‐sensitive practices and the way they are related to societal culture characteristics.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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