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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Michał Medowski, Jacek Pogorzelski and Marcin Ostachowski

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of…

Abstract

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.

The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).

Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Tricia Vilkinas, Greg Cartan and Judith Saebel

The purpose of this paper is to understand what was important to managers of businesses in desert Australia, and in particular, what they needed for the businesses to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand what was important to managers of businesses in desert Australia, and in particular, what they needed for the businesses to be successful.

Design/methodology/approach

There were two studies. In Study 1, 88 managers of business in remote desert Australia were interviewed. In Study 2, 112 managers who had business in regional desert Australia participated in an on‐line survey.

Findings

In both studies, the respondents claimed that their businesses were reasonably successful. In Study 1, the interviewees said that making a living and seeing the business grow were important indices of success. In Study 2, customer/client satisfaction was the strongest indicator of business success. Factors such as safe and all‐weather roads, internet/e‐mail access and reliable power supplies were important to this success. The importance to business success of a number of leadership behaviours was also identified.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to encourage a larger number of managers to participate. In addition, suppliers and customers of the businesses need to be included.

Originality/value

This is the first study in which managers were included, because normally, only owner‐managers are involved. It is also the first study of its kind to be undertaken in desert Australia.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Yugang Ji and Wen-Hwa Ko

This study used the literature review and the modified Delphi method to evaluate the importance of the catering quality indices of university canteens in China. In order…

Abstract

Purpose

This study used the literature review and the modified Delphi method to evaluate the importance of the catering quality indices of university canteens in China. In order to compile the catering quality indices of university canteens in China as reference for the subsequent improvement of Chinese canteens.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first analysed literature data to establish the preliminary quality indices and used the modified Delphi method for measurement. After three rounds of Delphi analysis by 35 experts, the results of the catering quality indices of university canteens in China are summarised.

Findings

The research results show that university canteen catering quality issues are divided into six dimensions, including catering safety management, employee hygiene management, catering service, food quality, environmental atmosphere and corporate social responsibility. Catering safety management is the most important index, followed by employee hygiene management.

Originality/value

The research results can be used as suggestions for follow-up improvements in the quality of university canteens in China and a basis of reference for amendments to relevant national or local laws and regulations. The food prices, food quality and whether food hygiene and safety standards are met by university canteens are all related to the health and vital interests of the teachers and students, as well as the stability of the university. Therefore, the government should increase supervision in these aspects to avoid decline in the quality of meals due to low profits and enforce strict requirements for food safety.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Chin‐Tsang Ho

This paper aims to study the correlation between knowledge management (KM) enablers and performance indices of KM.

5245

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the correlation between knowledge management (KM) enablers and performance indices of KM.

Design/methodology/approach

Referring to the literature reviews, it attempts to construct the KM process performance index, analyze its importance, and further analyze a company's characteristics, the relationship between KM enablers with the importance of the KM process performance index, and try to adopt four KM enablers as independent variables. Lastly, it intends to explore whether the relationship between the importance of the KM process performance and financial performance indices affects the importance of the financial performance index.

Findings

Among KM enablers, the factor strategy and leadership appears to be one of the most significant positive relationships among all of the KM process performance indices. The importance of performance indices in knowledge creation and knowledge internalization on the operational and customer sides show a positive, significant relationship in the importance of the financial performance index.

Research limitations/implications

With the constraint of the number of samples, this study does not construct the KM process performance indices of every industry category or strategy.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the paper is that it explores the causes that influence KM process performance indices, and this enriches empirical research literatures in the domain of the KM process performance indices.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2012

Ruth V. Aguilera and Kurt A. Desender

Purpose – This chapter discusses the role that indices of corporate governance have had in comparative corporate governance research.Design/Methodology/Approach – The…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses the role that indices of corporate governance have had in comparative corporate governance research.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The authors begin with a short discussion of what corporate governance is and its main debates. Then, the authors review the main indices (which are also summarized in Table 1), highlighting their strengths and limitations as well as describing some of the findings that emanate from them. Then, the authors discuss the methodological and conceptual assumptions of corporate governance indices that may compromise their construct validity. The authors conclude with some encouraging suggestions for key methodological and research design issues to take into account in future comparative corporate governance.

Findings – Many methodological issues in the measuring and analysis of (comparative) corporate governance remain to be solved. First, although corporate governance practices have a direct effect on some of the firms’ strategic decisions, they may only have an indirect effect on firm performance. Second, it is possible that, after all, causality goes the other way around, i.e., the firm performance explains the adoption of certain governance practices. Third, there are also important challenges in measuring firm financial performance as well as measuring and comparing corporate governance effectiveness between firms from different governance settings.

Originality/Value – This is one of the first chapter to give an overview of the most current corporate governance indices, both academic and commercial, to discuss their underlying assumptions and limitations, and, finally, to provide specific directions for future research regarding comparative corporate governance.

Details

West Meets East: Building Theoretical Bridges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-028-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Guotai Chi and Bin Meng

The purpose of this paper is to propose a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that significantly distinguishes the default state. This debt rating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that significantly distinguishes the default state. This debt rating system is constructed using the F-test and correlation analysis method, with the small industrial enterprise loans of a Chinese commercial bank as the data sample. This study establishes the weighting principle for the debt scoring model: “the more significant the default state, the larger is the weight.” The debt rating system for small industrial enterprises is constructed based on the standard “the higher the debt rating, the lower is the loss given default.”

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors selected indexes that pass the homogeneity of variance test based on the principle that a greater deviation of the default sample’s mean from the whole sample’s mean leads to greater significance in distinguishing the default samples from the non-default samples. The authors removed correlated indexes based on the results of the correlation analysis and constructed a debt rating index system for small industrial enterprises that included 23 indexes.

Findings

Among the 23 indexes, the weights of 12 quantitative indexes add up to 0.547, while the weights of the remaining 11 qualitative indexes add up to 0.453. That is, in the debt rating of the small industry enterprises, the financial indexes are not capable of reflecting all the debt situations, and the qualitative indexes play a more important role in debt rating. The weights of indexes “X17 Outstanding loans to all assets ratio” and “X59 Date of the enterprise establishment” are 0.146 and 0.133, respectively; both these are greater than 0.1, and the indexes are ranked first and second, respectively. The weights of indexes “X6 EBIT-to- current liabilities ratio,” “X13 Ratio of capital to fixed” and “X78 Legal dispute number” are between 0.07 and 0.09, these indexes are ranked third to fifth. The weights of indexes “X3 Quick ratio” and “X50 Per capital year-end savings balance of Urban and rural residents” are both 0.013, and these are the lowest ranked indexes.

Originality/value

The data of index i are divided into two categories: default and non-default. A greater deviation in the mean of the default sample from that of the whole sample leads to greater deviation from the non-default sample’s mean as well; thus, the index can easily distinguish the default and the non-default samples. Following this line of thought, the authors select indexes that pass the F-test for the debt rating system that identifies whether or not the sample is default. This avoids the disadvantages of the existing research in which the standard for selecting the index has nothing to do with the default state; further, this presents a new way of debt rating. When the correlation coefficient of two indexes is greater than 0.8, the index with the smaller F-value is removed because of its weaker prediction capacity. This avoids the mistake of eliminating an index that has strong ability to distinguish default and non-default samples. The greater the deviation of the default sample’s mean from the whole sample’s mean, the greater is the capability of the index to distinguish the default state. According to this rule, the authors assign a larger weight to the index that exhibits the ability to identify the default state. This is different from the existing index system, which does not take into account the ability to identify the default state.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2002

Jing Sun

Process capability indices as an important kind of indices are intended to provide single‐number assessments of the inherent process capability to meet specification…

Abstract

Process capability indices as an important kind of indices are intended to provide single‐number assessments of the inherent process capability to meet specification limits on quality characteristic(s) of interest. In this paper the condition for the application of process capability indices is analyzed. On the basis of process capability indices, dynamic process capability indices as a new kind of indices to show the current process capability are discussed and the condition for the application of dynamic process capability indices is exhibited. Comparison between process capability index and dynamic process capability index and comparison between Dp and Dpk are made and the conclusions provide the approach for process control. According to the requirement of process capability indices provided by customer, quality control based on process capability indices dynamic process capability indices is ciscussed.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

David A. Hales

Despite widespread interest in the resources and people of Alaska, few libraries outside of the state maintain extensive collections on these subjects. In this article…

Abstract

Despite widespread interest in the resources and people of Alaska, few libraries outside of the state maintain extensive collections on these subjects. In this article, David A. Hales reviews a multifarious sample of informative materials.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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