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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Faiza Syed, Malik Shah Zaman Latif, Iftikhar Ahmed, Sadia Bibi, Saif Ullah and Nauman Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Ahmed Taha Al Ajlouni

This paper aims to develop an instrument that helps in managing liquidity. Liquidity is one of the most critical issues to be considered by the financial management of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an instrument that helps in managing liquidity. Liquidity is one of the most critical issues to be considered by the financial management of the business firms to meet its financial obligations. It is more vital for banks because of the liquid nature of its assets and liabilities, along with the fact that the confidence in the bank and degree of risk depends heavily on liquidity as an indicator of its wellbeing. Islamic banks (IBs) look at the liquidity issue from the same side as the traditional banks. IBs – the most apparent Islamic financial institution – suffered from the problem of not benefiting from the lender of last resort that Central Banks (CBs) offer to traditional banks because IBs cannot borrow from the CBs at interest. The experience of Institution(s) offering Islamic Financial Services[1] (IIFS) regarding the establishment of Islamic money markets did not show a tangible success instead of the early studies done by some scholars. In spite of the rich experience of some countries in creating new money market instruments or configuration of the interest-based ones according to Islamic - Sharī’ah[2], the designs of these instruments have many limitations in terms of their tradability and flexibility, restricting their use for open-market operations by CBs.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of calculating the time weighted debt units (TWDUs) is to find the equivalent amount of money that the supplier can borrow to the lender in the future for a maturity that differs from the first credit contract. It is a swap between an amount of credit for a particular period of time and another amount for another period. The scheme are called traditionally as reciprocal (mutual) loans, reciprocal (mutual) deposits, swapped conditional loans and “I lend you, provided you lend me” (Hammad, 2010). It is also well known in Pakistan as time multiple counter loan (TMCL), and known within some Arabic IBs as specks (Nomar = numbers) system. This contract will be called the reciprocal loans in the current paper.

Findings

The current paper represents a blue print of suggested money market instrument (scheme) that is based on the idea of Al Qardh El Hasan (interest-free loan) – called TWDUs. This instrument does not promise any revenue for the supplier and no charge for the lender.

Research limitations/implications

The suggested model is known in traditional and contemporary writings of Islamic economists and - Sharī’ah scholars. It is accepted by many - Sharī’ah Boards in IBs (Merah, 2011) and was accepted by the Council of Islamic Ideology in Pakistan in 1980 through the TMCL. Despite that, it is still not discussed in depth by international - Sharī’ah boards as the International Islamic Fiqh Academy – in addition to the wide spread of opponent viewpoint that considers this contract as a kind of riba.

Originality/value

TWDUs is presumed to help IBs and other IIFS to add more flexibility in liquidity management in the side of risk management[3] (represented by the potential loss to IIFS arising from their inability either to meet their obligations or to fund increases in assets as they fall due without incurring unacceptable costs or losses) in addition to avoiding the case of hoarding surplus funds in the short term. Also, the suggested instrument will not be exclusive to IBs or IIFS; it can be developed to be used at a later stage by them as a mean of overdraft between IBs and their clients. Moreover, beside its viability to help in liquidity management for other firms in business sector (non-financial) or government agencies in liquidity management, TWDUs look for Islamic financial theory as an alternative to the traditional financial theory that is based on interest. Moreover, TWDUs is expected to play an important role in monetary policy in a totally Islamic financial system or even in a mixed one (Islamic and capitalistic).

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Sana Azeem, Malik Asghar Naeem, Abdul Waheed and Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the barriers inhibiting the adoption of green building and measures to promote this approach in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the barriers inhibiting the adoption of green building and measures to promote this approach in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Barriers and measures were identified and examined by using a combination of research methods, including literature review, questionnaire survey, and in-depth interviews with the construction industry-related practitioners working in Pakistan. Ranking technique and factor analysis were used to identify the significant issues associated with the adoption of green building practices.

Findings

As per the survey results, the most critical barrier is “lack of awareness among people about the importance and advantages of adopting green building practices,” followed by “lack of incentives from government” and “lack of green building codes and regulations,” respectively. The results also indicate that most important measure to promote the adoption of green buildings is “creation of public awareness toward green initiatives through seminars, workshops, and discussions,” followed by “availability of green building codes and regulations (mandatory to apply)” and “financial incentives and penalties by the government (e.g. soft loan, tax) for promoting green building practices,” respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitation is that its findings, other than Pakistan, cannot be generalized to other developing countries.

Practical implications

Findings of the research will be helpful in sensitizing the regulatory agencies, the policy makers, and the building construction practitioners about the barriers to adoption of green building practices. The suggested measures will help in devising policies and economic measures to promote the construction of green and environment-friendly buildings.

Social implications

This research will help the common people to know about the importance of green buildings that may lead to a deviation from the practice of traditional buildings to a widespread trend of building green buildings. This will lead to drastic reduction in demand for energy and considerable monetary savings for the common people.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are expected to contribute valuable information to decision makers for the better understanding of key issues that call for more attention in the promotion of efforts of green building practices in Pakistan. The results are based on the perception of local stakeholders, but might also be helpful for policy makers in other countries.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Mohammad A. Hassanain, Ali Iftikhar, Abdul-Mohsen Al-Hammad, Adel Alshibani, Ahmed M. Ibrahim and Abdullatif Abdallah

This paper provides an exemplary systematic conduct of post‐occupancy evaluation (POE) on higher education facilities in Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides an exemplary systematic conduct of post‐occupancy evaluation (POE) on higher education facilities in Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study utilized several qualitative and quantitative POE techniques which were systematically comprising (1) scoping and reviewing the facilities-related documents, (2) identification of performance indicators through the review of literature, (3) development and collection of questionnaire survey responses from stakeholders, (4) collection of physical measurements and (5) assessing the facilities by walk-throughs. Then, the data were analyzed and the findings were reported to representative samples of users through focus group meetings. Then, recommendations were drawn for improving the occupational conditions of the case study facilities.

Findings

The synthesis of literature led to three main categories of performance elements that are relevant for higher education facilities. These include technical, functional and behavioral elements, in which each of the elements has specific performance indicators, 97 in total. The research study exemplifies a systematic conduct of POE. The stakeholders' perspectives on the performance elements through surveys, measurements and walk-throughs were collected. The assessment led to recommendations toward satisfactory and quality occupation of the case study facilities.

Originality/value

This research aims to standardize POE by introducing its methods as a tool for evaluating higher education facilities and by elaborating the most prominent performance indicators for ensuring higher education core functions, namely, teaching, research and community collaboration.

Details

Property Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Amr Ahmed Moussa

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze and identify key factors affecting working capital behavior of companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze and identify key factors affecting working capital behavior of companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Working capital requirement and cash conversion cycle were used to proxy working capital behavior. The study explored nine main factors widely discussed in previous research to explain working capital behavior: operating cash flow, growth opportunities, performance, firm value, age, size, leverage, economic conditions and industry type. The study employed a panel data analysis for 68 listed Egyptian industrial firms for the period 2000–2010. Different techniques of the generalized method of moments were used to test the validity of the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that working capital behavior is affected by various factors related to firm characteristics, economic conditions and industry type.

Originality/value

This study provides financial managers with a better understanding of the impact of different internal and macroeconomic factors on working capital behavior in an emerging market, such as Egypt’s.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Syed Hassan Raza, Ogadimma C. Emenyeonu, Muhammad Yousaf and Moneeba Iftikhar

Citizen journalism practices through social networking sites are increasingly becoming an imperative source of public opinion formation. Given the increase in the volume…

Abstract

Purpose

Citizen journalism practices through social networking sites are increasingly becoming an imperative source of public opinion formation. Given the increase in the volume of information sharing on social media during COVID-19, this study aims to grasp the largely unknown interaction of the individual’s trust in citizen journalism practices and public perception formulation. Drawing on this idea, the study has twofold objectives: first, to examine the influence of user-generated information about economic policies of government during COVID-19 as the antecedent of public perception about government performance and second, to identify the moderating role of trust in citizen journalism practices during COVID-19 through social networking sites.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a survey method and a sample of 464 adults were collected through an online administrated questionnaire.

Findings

The findings specify that user-generated content that is pro-government economic policies during COVID-19 positively influenced the perception of government performance. On the other hand, user-generated information that criticized government economic policies had a negative influence on public perception.

Originality/value

This study seeks to intensify the understudied phenomenon of how nature and source of the information could interact to influence one’s information processing during a crisis such as pandemic COVID-19. Furthermore, only a little research has been conducted in this area focusing on two mechanisms, namely; citizen journalism and trust in social media user-generated information about prevailing economic insecurities during crisis provided through citizen journalism.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Chengtao Cai, Bing Fan, Xiangyu Weng, Qidan Zhu and Li Su

Because of their large field of view, omnistereo vision systems have been widely used as primary vision sensors in autonomous mobile robot tasks. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of their large field of view, omnistereo vision systems have been widely used as primary vision sensors in autonomous mobile robot tasks. The purpose of this article is to achieve real-time and accurate tracking by the omnidirectional vision robot system.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide in this study the key techniques required to obtain an accurate omnistereo target tracking and location robot system, including stereo rectification and target tracking in complex environment. A simple rectification model is proposed, and a local image processing method is used to reduce the computation time in the localization process. A target tracking method is improved to make it suitable for omnidirectional vision system. Using the proposed methods and some existing methods, an omnistereo target tracking and location system is established.

Findings

The experiments are conducted with all the necessary stages involved in obtaining a high-performance omnistereo vision system. The proposed correction algorithm can process the image in real time. The experimental results of the improved tracking algorithm are better than the original algorithm. The statistical analysis of the experimental results demonstrates the effectiveness of the system.

Originality/value

A simple rectification model is proposed, and a local image processing method is used to reduce the computation time in the localization process. A target tracking method is improved to make it suitable for omnidirectional vision system. Using the proposed methods and some existing methods, an omnistereo target tracking and location system is established.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2020

Ishfaq Ahmed, Talat Islam and Ahmad Usman

Entrepreneurial activities are the outcome of various individual dispositional and environmental factors. Taking both internal and external factors as the basic premise of…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial activities are the outcome of various individual dispositional and environmental factors. Taking both internal and external factors as the basic premise of venturing, this study aims to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on intentions through the mediating role of regret and moderation of family support.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected through a questionnaire from 435 students of three large public sector universities at two points of time with an interval of four months.

Findings

Self-efficacy influences entrepreneurial intentions through regret, while the absence of family support increases regret. As the family support is often perceived to be absent in the Pakistani entrepreneurial culture, the outcomes are distinctive.

Originality/value

These findings add value in the existing literature by linking family support, self-efficacy and regret association, and their ultimate influence on entrepreneurial intentions.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Mohammad Saud Khan, Djavlonbek Kadirov, Ahmet Bardakci, Rehan Iftikhar, Tamer Baran, Murat Kantar and Nazan Madak

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of food anti-consumption in fast growing markets within an emerging economy context of Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of food anti-consumption in fast growing markets within an emerging economy context of Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Recently posted customer comments, complaints and suggestions related to the selected fast-food chains were examined from the following domains: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Sikayetvar.com. These comments were reviewed, assessed and classified by four trained independent raters. After examining the comments one-by-one the raters arrived at the final (triangulated) decision regarding the comment’s category after an iterative process including cross-examination.

Findings

Reasons for fast-food avoidance were primarily linked to customers’ negative past experiences (experiential avoidance). Identity avoidance, moral avoidance and interactivity avoidance.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the anti-consumption literature by examining the food avoidance framework of Lee et al. (2009) in an emerging market context. New categories were identified for reasons of food avoidance which have not been identified before in the anti-consumption literature such as interactivity avoidance.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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