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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2007

Mohamed E. Bayou and Alan Reinstein

The few management accounting pricing methods in the management accounting literature are ineffective in helping small firms use their idle capacity during lingering…

Abstract

The few management accounting pricing methods in the management accounting literature are ineffective in helping small firms use their idle capacity during lingering economic recessions, and some of these methods may even worsen this problem.

Extending the traditional break-even-cost-volume-profit model, we derive a more effective pricing method, the break-even-full-capacity-utilization (BEFCU) model, to handle this problem. Seeking full capacity utilization, the BEFCU model has two characteristics: (a) highlighting the importance of the exigent fixed cost category for utilizing idle capacity and (b) using a functional cost structure that focuses on a hierarchy of value drivers in the firm's value creation process. Accordingly, under the BEFCU model, management has an instrumental pricing continuum extending from the minimum acceptable BEFCU sale price to the regular sale price.

To demonstrate its practicality, the authors apply the BEFCU model to an actual job shop. This model integrates certain strategies based on built-in flexibility in commitments with suppliers and customers and maintaining a mode of conservatism in accounting for plant assets. The model can also help small tooling companies currently seeking entrance into China; it may take a while for these companies to gain a foothold in this new market because copyrights and other legalities are rarely enforced (Bunkley, 2004).

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1387-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Irene C.L. Ng, Jochen Wirtz and Khai Sheang Lee

Services are by nature perishable. As such, managing a service firm’s capacity to match supply and demand has been touted as one of the key problems of services marketing…

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7218

Abstract

Services are by nature perishable. As such, managing a service firm’s capacity to match supply and demand has been touted as one of the key problems of services marketing and management practice. This paper advances an alternative perspective of unused service capacity. Based on a review of current literature and an exploratory study, this paper employs a theory‐in‐use methodology to map out a set of capacity strategy propositions. These propositions show a divergence between what literature suggests and what service firms actually practise with regard to reducing the occurrence of unused service capacity. The paper also demonstrates that capacity can be employed as a resource to achieve a series of strategic objectives that serve to improve the performance of the firm. Service firms should therefore approach capacity management not only from the standpoint of operations management, but also from that of marketing.

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International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Hui-Huang Tai and Dung-Ying Lin

The expansion of the Panama Canal that is completed in 2016 provides container carriers with new opportunities to redeploy global oceangoing trunk routes. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The expansion of the Panama Canal that is completed in 2016 provides container carriers with new opportunities to redeploy global oceangoing trunk routes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the cargo sources and geographical locations of three trunk routes, the departure points of which are all in East Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The operating conditions of various shipping practices were used to simulate trunk route deployment after canal expansion. Subsequently, a clean-line strategy featuring liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a replacement for heavy oil is proposed to explore the effects that container carriers have on energy savings and emission reductions.

Findings

The results showed that the unit emissions of ships traveling trunk routes in East Coast North America and East Coast South America did not differ significantly regardless of whether the container carrier employed a conventional method or the new deployment plan following the expansion of the Panama Canal. By contrast, the adoption of a new method for sailing through the canal yields significant emission reductions for Far East/Europe routes. In addition, the slow-steam strategy adopted by carriers and the more costly clean-line strategy of LNG-fueled ships are both effective when applied to trunk routes.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide a reference to container carriers deploying route structures and the International Maritime Organization when promoting emission-reduction policies.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Y. Helio Yang, Kamal Haddad and Chee W. Chow

Reviews the literature on capacity planning at strategic, tactical and operational levels but points out that, in practice, many enterprise resource planning systems make…

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1296

Abstract

Reviews the literature on capacity planning at strategic, tactical and operational levels but points out that, in practice, many enterprise resource planning systems make unrealistic assumptions for production planning; and the advanced production software packages which can deal with uncertainty are both complex and expensive. Uses a theoretical company to demonstrate how a normal Excel spreadsheet can be used in conjunction with a common add‐on package (@RISK) to improve analysis and run Monte Carlo simulations as a basis for decision making. Compares the results produced with standard spreadsheet analysis and discusses the additional financial and operational insights they provide into the implications of different capacity levels under conditions of uncertainty. Warns that the validity of the simulation depends on the quality of the data and model; and that human judgement is still required to actually make a decision.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Dayananda Palihawadana and Stavroula Spyropoulou

Although exporting can offer many benefits to smaller manufacturers, a large number of these firms refrain from export operations as a result of insufficient stimulation…

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6562

Abstract

Purpose

Although exporting can offer many benefits to smaller manufacturers, a large number of these firms refrain from export operations as a result of insufficient stimulation. This paper seeks to critically analyse and creatively synthesise the reasons that may stimulate a smaller firm to export, based on a review of 32 empirical studies conducted in various parts of the world during the period 1974‐2005.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 40 export stimuli were systematically identified from the extant empirical literature, which, for analytical purposes, were divided into internal and external, as well as proactive and reactive. Within each study, stimuli were ranked in terms of their importance, frequency, or intensity, and the aggregate impact of each stimulus in all studies under review was evaluated.

Findings

The review revealed that export stimulation stems from a variety of factors, and may vary according to time, spatial, and industry contexts. Irrespective of contextual factors, there are certain motives that systematically play a key role in encouraging smaller firms to export, such as the desire to achieve extra sales, profits, and growth, utilise better idle production capacity, exploit a unique/patented product, avoid the threats of a saturated domestic market, reduce home market dependence, and respond to unsolicited orders from abroad. Some of these motives may lead to an opportunistic approach to exporting, while others denote deliberate export adoption. It was also shown that, although there are numerous other stimulating factors, with a lower impact on exporting, these should not be underestimated because their role may increase under certain conditions or become complementary to export stimuli with a stronger impact.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study have serious implications for both public and company policy makers. Policy makers may use this insightful analysis of export stimulation as a guide to developing proper export promotion programmes and sound export marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper offers a comprehensive review and synthesis of all factors with a possible stimulating effect on exporting; evaluates the aggregate effect of each factor, as collectively derived from all empirical studies conducted on the subject; and provides an in‐depth analysis of the nature and the stimulating mechanism of each factor.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Li‐Ting (Grace) Yang and Zheng Gu

The purpose of this study is to identify the optimal meetings, incentive travel, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) capacity for Las Vegas and analyze the over‐ and under…

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3710

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the optimal meetings, incentive travel, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) capacity for Las Vegas and analyze the over‐ and under‐capacity situation in Las Vegas from 2010 through 2014. The study provides recommendations for Las Vegas's future MICE development based on the capacity analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A single‐period inventory model, which involves cost of over‐capacity, cost of under‐capacity, and forecasted future MICE demand, was used to identify the optimal capacity in terms of MICE square foot days for each year from 2010 through 2014. The model, which identified optimal capacity, was compared to the planned available capacity for each year to determine the magnitude of over‐ or under‐capacity.

Findings

The cost of over‐capacity was found much greater than the cost of under‐capacity. The model that identified optimal capacity indicates that Las Vegas will experience severe over‐capacity from 2010 to 2014.

Research limitations/ implications

The findings of this study should help researchers and practitioners evaluate the current status of the Las Vegas MICE industry in terms of capacity efficiency. The results suggest that the MICE development in Las Vegas is heading for over‐capacity and the industry must downscale its development plan in the near future to avoid severe over‐capacity.

Originality/value

For the first time in MICE research, this study develops an inventory model for determining the optimal MICE capacity. The model enables researchers and practitioners to identify and quantify over‐ and under‐capacity in the MICE industry in a scientific way.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Alberto G. Canen and Nelio D. Pizzolato

Reports on a study of a vehicle routeing problem as a pilot project.Outlines the motivation to embark on such an experimental study, thedata collection process, the…

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1460

Abstract

Reports on a study of a vehicle routeing problem as a pilot project. Outlines the motivation to embark on such an experimental study, the data collection process, the software, and the problems detected. Summarizes the gains derived from the research and explains resistance.

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Michael J. Showalter and J. Dennis White

Although research attention has been given to the modelling processfor simultaneous demand‐output management in manufacturing systems,little interest has been demonstrated…

Abstract

Although research attention has been given to the modelling process for simultaneous demand‐output management in manufacturing systems, little interest has been demonstrated in service organisations despite the fact that such organisations face unique conditions that further complicate the demand‐output management issue. In response to this lack of emphasis, we review the relevant research from both marketing and operations management and present a cost‐effectiveness model for balancing demand and service output.

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International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Javier Oubiña, Natalia Rubio and María Jesús Yagüe

The main aim of this research is to provide empirical analyses about the store brand management by manufacturers and retailers from the manufacturer's perspective, in the…

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3682

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this research is to provide empirical analyses about the store brand management by manufacturers and retailers from the manufacturer's perspective, in the current context, which is one of intense competition between manufacturer and store brands. Particularly, this research pursues to analyse the profile of store brand manufacturers, their perceptions about the retail management of these brands and their own product management of the same.

Design/methodology/approach

A postal survey was carried out directed at manufacturing business units of mass consumer products in Spain. Multivariate techniques are used in the information analysis such as contingency tables, variance and principal component analysis.

Findings

The results highlight the differences between manufacturers and non‐manufacturers of store brands in their competitive position and in the type of manufactured product; the consensus of both groups regarding the perception of favourable merchandising for store brands; the greater number of production and market motivations versus the relational motivations in the manufacture of store brands; the no convenience of producing store brands for leading manufacturers, and the slight differences in the manufacturing process between manufacturer and store brands.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this research is the fact that only the manufacturers' perceptions have been considered. It would be beneficial in future research to consider the opinion of retailers about their own management of these brands.

Originality/value

The main value of the paper is the empirical analyse of the store brand management from the manufacturer's perspective. This subject has been analysed from a general and basically theoretical perspective until now.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

M. Goormans

Looks at the introduction and marketing of generic products in Belgium. Examines the costs and benefits of their introduction and indicates that their introduction must be…

Abstract

Looks at the introduction and marketing of generic products in Belgium. Examines the costs and benefits of their introduction and indicates that their introduction must be made at a time when the market is ready for them. States that introduction for these is best when consumers have a changed opinion about price‐quality relationships and there is a decrease in disposable income.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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