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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1971

H.B. Heath

It was established way back in the middle of the last century that the sensory organs responsible for our appreciation of taste, as distinct from that of flavour, are located on…

Abstract

It was established way back in the middle of the last century that the sensory organs responsible for our appreciation of taste, as distinct from that of flavour, are located on the tongue. Since then considerable research has been carried out into the structure and mechanisms involved. It has long been recognised that the prime organs of taste are the taste buds. This name was originally applied to special cells which had been observed in the mouths of fishes. Early research soon established that certain raised portions, distributed over the surface of the tongue, the papillae as they became called, are the site of the receptor organs and that those areas of the tongue which do not bear the papillae are insensitive to the taste stimulus.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

S. Sarkar

The purpose of this article is to attempt to highlight various approaches for enhancing the viability of probiotics, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to attempt to highlight various approaches for enhancing the viability of probiotics, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

Design/methodology/approach

Various techniques, such as selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable packaging materials, two‐step fermentation, stress adaptation, inclusion of micro‐nutrient, sonication of bacteria and micro‐encapsulation, which could be employed for maintaining or enhancing probiotic viability are discussed, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

Findings

Probiotics lose their viability during gastro‐intestinal transit due to unfavorable intestinal environment. Amongst diverse techniques micro‐encapsulation could confer protection to the probiotics both in the product as well as in the gastro‐intestinal environment.

Originality/value

The paper shows that micro‐encapsulation of probiotics renders them stable both in the product as well as in the intestinal environment and application of encapsulated probiotics would result in a product with greater prophylactic activities.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1971

H.B. Heath

One of the prime motivations of life is the necessity to maintain it and that implies a primitive inborn urge to seek food and water. This inherited characteristic is shared by…

Abstract

One of the prime motivations of life is the necessity to maintain it and that implies a primitive inborn urge to seek food and water. This inherited characteristic is shared by all animals but man, with his considerably improved ability and mental capacity, coupled with experience, has become increasingly discriminative about what he eats and drinks. It is in man's innate capacity to observe, learn, and reason and in consequence, early man must have been quick to appreciate what meats were succulent and pleasant to eat and what could only be eaten with difficulty— and then only to satisfy a nagging hungry belly.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Reena Pandarum, Simon Christopher Harlock, Lawrance Hunter and Gerald Aurther Vernon Leaf

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype categories.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a method to quantitatively define women's body morphotypes derived from the visual assessments of the 3-D scans of the body. Nine morphotype categories are defined and algorithms are derived to define the range of values of bust-to-waist and hip-to-waist girth ratios corresponding to the different categories. The method showed an 81.9% prediction accuracy between the visually assessed and predicted morphotypes. This compared to a 71.9% prediction accuracy of another published method. This new normative method (NNM) enables a quantitative evaluation of how visual assessments of body morphotypes from different populations of women, made by different assessors, differ.

Findings

The panel assessed morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (52.0%), followed by spoon (39.5%), hourglass (5.6%) and triangle (2.9%). The NNM shows similar predicted categories, with only slightly differing values, viz. the morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (54.1%) followed by spoon (40.4%), hourglass (4.8%), inverted U (0.6%) and Y (0.3%). The morphotype with the worst correlation between the predicted and the assessed was the triangle (0% – 0/10), followed by the hourglass (31.6% – 6/19). The NNM did not generate more than one prediction for a given visually assessed morphotype.

Research limitations/implications

The geographical location of the authors meant that it was convenient to develop and evaluate the NNM from a sample of South African women. Further work can be conducted where a large number of national and international experts perform an assessment of a set of body morphotypes. The anthropometric data derived according to ISO 8559-1 protocols may then be used to determine the criteria used by each assessor with the aim of reaching a consensus and, hence, movement toward body morphotype standardization for both men and women and thereby mass customization.

Practical implications

The advantage of the method is that it provides for a, transparent, universally applicable procedure that is simple to use and implement in the clothing and retail sectors The NNM did not predict more than one morphotype for a given category; hence, it enables objective comparisons to be made between the visual assessments of morphotype categories of different populations by different assessors, to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ.

Social implications

Studies such as this highlight the need for standardization of both the criteria used in the expert panel visual assessments and an agreement on the anthropometric measures or landmarks required to define women 3-D body morphotypes standardized to international protocols for target market segmenting in the clothing and retail sectors and in industries where variability in body morphotype, size and proportions has ergonomic implications.

Originality/value

The theoretical concept is novel, easy to follow and implement in the clothing and related sectors and has not been published to date. The approach was to develop a theoretical concept standardized to ISO 8559-1 that enable objective comparisons between visual assessments of morphotypes of different populations by different assessors, and to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. The knowledge and experience of domain experts were to initially conduct the visual assessments of women morphotypes from their 3-D scans and thereafter to use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype category.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Brenda Tsang, C.K. Chan and G. Taylor

This paper applies the study of kinanthropometry to define the physique of 49 Hong Kong‐Chinese Fire Services recruits. Kinanthropometry has been widely used in predicting the…

1156

Abstract

This paper applies the study of kinanthropometry to define the physique of 49 Hong Kong‐Chinese Fire Services recruits. Kinanthropometry has been widely used in predicting the secular trend in increased body size of and among different ethnic groups world‐wide. It has also been applied in the studies of the physiques of Olympic athletes. The criteria developed for this research can be used as standards for physical recruitment in the disciplined forces, as well as for streamlining and improving the basic measurement scale for the manufacture of uniforms. The results showed that the somatotypes of the studied disciplined personnel were distributed in the range of endomorphic mesomorph. Significant correlation was observed between somatotype components and body girths and length measurements.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Elsa Uttamo Wirawan and See Wan Yan

Over the past decades, there has been a rising trend in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malaysia. Consequently, functional food is gaining…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decades, there has been a rising trend in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malaysia. Consequently, functional food is gaining interest amongst health-conscious consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the functional potential of cookie enhanced with Strobilanthes crispus (SC) and to evaluate its physicochemical and organoleptic properties.

Design/methodology/approach

Sensory evaluation was carried out using nine-point hedonic and line scales and the ranking test amongst consumer panels (n = 150) to evaluate control, 2, 4 and 6% SC cookies. Preferred formulation and control cookies were then subjected to chemical (moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, calcium, sodium and potassium contents) and physical (texture profile and water activity [Aw]) analyses.

Findings

There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in terms of overall acceptability and ranking scores between control and 2% SC cookies upon gender discrimination. Results indicated that incorporation of 2% SC into cookie caused significant enhancement (p < 0.05) of moisture, fat, ash, calcium and potassium contents but did not cause a significant effect on hardness, although loss of crispiness was observed after two weeks of storage at room temperature. This study showed that the 2% SC cookie did not diminish consumers' acceptance while increasing potassium content. Most notably, it can be declared as a source of calcium.

Originality/value

This original research features the incorporation of medicinal plant SC in the development of novel functional cookie and the results constitute unique findings pertaining to its nutritional contents. Remarkably, the findings of this research have contributed knowledge to existing literature as well as benefits food manufacturers in creating nutritious functional cookie to better meet the needs and expectations of consumers, healthcare providers, governmental organisations and consumer advocacy groups while maintaining health benefits without compromising consumers' acceptance.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2023

Jiayi Song, Hao Jiao and Canhao Wang

Innovative behavior is a microfoundation of an organization’s innovation. Knowledge workers are the main creators of innovations. With the boundaries between work and family…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovative behavior is a microfoundation of an organization’s innovation. Knowledge workers are the main creators of innovations. With the boundaries between work and family becoming increasingly ambiguous, the purpose of this study is to explore how the work–family conflict affects knowledge workers’ innovative behavior and when such a conflict arises.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the theoretical model, this study collected data from a time-lagged matched sample of 214 dual-career couples. The data were analyzed with the bias-corrected bootstrapping method.

Findings

The results of this study showed that work-to-family conflict had not only a direct negative effect on knowledge workers’ innovative behavior but also an indirect effect through spouses’ within-family emotional exhaustion and knowledge workers’ family-to-work conflict. If wives’ gender role perceptions are traditional, then the indirect serial mediating effect is weakened, but if such perceptions are egalitarian, then the mentioned effect is aggravated.

Practical implications

In terms of organizational implications, managers could alter their approach by reducing detrimental factors such as work–family conflict to improve knowledge workers’ innovative behavior. Emotional assistance programs for both knowledge workers and their spouses can be used to prevent the detrimental effect of work–family conflict on innovative behavior. As to social implications, placing dual-career couples into a community of likeminded individuals and promoting their agreement on gender role identity will greatly reduce the negative effects of work–family conflict.

Originality/value

Starting from the perspective of the behavior outcome of knowledge management, this study advances the existing knowledge management literature by enriching the antecedents of knowledge workers’ innovative behavior, illuminating a spillover–crossover–spillover effect of work–family conflict on knowledge workers’ innovative behavior and identifying the boundary condition of this transmission process.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1954

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Abstract

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1908

EVERYONE interested in the British library movement will learn with sorrow and regret that one of its greatest friends and strongest champions has passed away, in the person of…

Abstract

EVERYONE interested in the British library movement will learn with sorrow and regret that one of its greatest friends and strongest champions has passed away, in the person of Thomas Greenwood, the kind‐hearted and generous advocate of libraries, who won the respect and regard of every English libiarian. From one of his own periodicals the following particulars are abstracted:—

Details

New Library World, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1949

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields…

Abstract

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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