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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Reena Pandarum, Simon Christopher Harlock, Lawrance Hunter and Gerald Aurther Vernon Leaf

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype categories.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a method to quantitatively define women's body morphotypes derived from the visual assessments of the 3-D scans of the body. Nine morphotype categories are defined and algorithms are derived to define the range of values of bust-to-waist and hip-to-waist girth ratios corresponding to the different categories. The method showed an 81.9% prediction accuracy between the visually assessed and predicted morphotypes. This compared to a 71.9% prediction accuracy of another published method. This new normative method (NNM) enables a quantitative evaluation of how visual assessments of body morphotypes from different populations of women, made by different assessors, differ.

Findings

The panel assessed morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (52.0%), followed by spoon (39.5%), hourglass (5.6%) and triangle (2.9%). The NNM shows similar predicted categories, with only slightly differing values, viz. the morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (54.1%) followed by spoon (40.4%), hourglass (4.8%), inverted U (0.6%) and Y (0.3%). The morphotype with the worst correlation between the predicted and the assessed was the triangle (0% – 0/10), followed by the hourglass (31.6% – 6/19). The NNM did not generate more than one prediction for a given visually assessed morphotype.

Research limitations/implications

The geographical location of the authors meant that it was convenient to develop and evaluate the NNM from a sample of South African women. Further work can be conducted where a large number of national and international experts perform an assessment of a set of body morphotypes. The anthropometric data derived according to ISO 8559-1 protocols may then be used to determine the criteria used by each assessor with the aim of reaching a consensus and, hence, movement toward body morphotype standardization for both men and women and thereby mass customization.

Practical implications

The advantage of the method is that it provides for a, transparent, universally applicable procedure that is simple to use and implement in the clothing and retail sectors The NNM did not predict more than one morphotype for a given category; hence, it enables objective comparisons to be made between the visual assessments of morphotype categories of different populations by different assessors, to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ.

Social implications

Studies such as this highlight the need for standardization of both the criteria used in the expert panel visual assessments and an agreement on the anthropometric measures or landmarks required to define women 3-D body morphotypes standardized to international protocols for target market segmenting in the clothing and retail sectors and in industries where variability in body morphotype, size and proportions has ergonomic implications.

Originality/value

The theoretical concept is novel, easy to follow and implement in the clothing and related sectors and has not been published to date. The approach was to develop a theoretical concept standardized to ISO 8559-1 that enable objective comparisons between visual assessments of morphotypes of different populations by different assessors, and to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. The knowledge and experience of domain experts were to initially conduct the visual assessments of women morphotypes from their 3-D scans and thereafter to use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype category.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Mi Kyung Yoon, Yun Ja Nam and Woong Kim

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for defining and categorizing upper lateral somatotypes for clothing size systems used for clothing pattern creation based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for defining and categorizing upper lateral somatotypes for clothing size systems used for clothing pattern creation based on directional angles of 3D space vectors.

Design/methodology/approach

3D data for 317 men in their twenties obtained from the fifth Size Korea survey were used in this study. Standard landmarks and surfaces were set on the 3D shapes, and six space vector angles of the lateral form were defined and measured. Relationships among the measurement results were clarified, and the results were compared with those obtained using existing classifying methods.

Findings

The measurement of the defined directional angles indicated that the swayback type and bend-forward type had the two extreme values, and the straight type was between the two values. The analysis of the correlation between six directional angles indicated that some points in the lower area of the upper body had a high correlation with other points in the lower area.

Researchlimitations/implications

The subjects of this study were limited to lateral somatotypes, and there is a need for future studies that focus on frontal somatotypes. This research is confined to the upper lateral somatotypes of men in their twenties. Further study is needed to extend the results of this study to other body types such as those of elderly and overweight persons.

Practical implications

Major angle measurements quantified by the somatotypes can be specifically reflect in developing and revised to the right patterns which is spread body shell replica or individual pattern for MTM.

Social implications

This objective somatotype analysis method can be involved in determining individual body somatotype of ordermade clothes or can provided the accurate information interactively to MTM automatic customized pattern making system.

Originality/value

Accurate measurements of size, shape, and posture were applied and characterized to realize the process. Accuracy was improved compared to existing 2D analysis methods through three-dimensional analysis using directional space vector angles based on 3D forms.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Jeong Yim Lee, Cynthia L. Istook, Yun Ja Nam and Sun Mi Park

The purpose of this paper is to compare body shape between USA and Korean women. It aims to analyze the distribution and proportion of body shapes of two countries and…

3039

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare body shape between USA and Korean women. It aims to analyze the distribution and proportion of body shapes of two countries and compare the differences of body shape according to age.

Design/methodology/approach

SizeUSA and SizeKorea measurement data were evaluated using the Female Figure Identification Technique for apparel system developed at North Carolina State University. Once the samples were defined by shape, comparisons were made of the distribution according to age and country through statistical analysis.

Findings

The paper finds that the largest shape category was the rectangle shape in both countries, but the distribution within each shape category for Korean women was different from that of USA women. More body shape categories were found in the USA women than in Korean women. In addition, most body shape categories had different body proportions when comparing the USA women and Korean women. The USA women had the higher measurements in the waist, high hip, and hips height and the larger measurements in the bust, waist, high hip, and hips circumference.

Research limitations/implications

Of the over 6,300 US female subjects in this study, only five failed to be identified by the seven shapes identified. These subjects had over 50.2 in. of hip circumference, over 10 in. larger hips than bust circumference, and over 15.5 in. larger hips than waist circumference. Further refinement of the mathematical definitions or a second group of criteria may be required for sorting the women that have no shape as defined by this study.

Originality/value

The opportunity to compare the body shapes between two very different countries, using national anthropometric survey data, is very rare, indeed. This comparison allows the opportunity to discover ways to improve the sizing systems of each country, as well as impact the development of international sizing standards that could have a significant impact on brands producing product for a variety of international consumers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Hyunsook Han, Yunja Nam and Su‐Jeong Hwang Shin

The purpose of this paper is to provide algorithms of the automatic landmark extraction software program that are applicable for any torso shape.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide algorithms of the automatic landmark extraction software program that are applicable for any torso shape.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, Automatic Landmark Identification (AULID), an automatic landmark extraction software program, was developed to extract consistent landmark locations from any torso shape. A methodology of geometrical characteristics of the body surfaces around each landmark was used for the algorithms and implemented with C++. The accuracy of the AULID was tested on various torso shapes. The verification methodology consisted of mean difference (MD), mean absolute differences (MAD), and one‐way analysis of variance. Duncan test for multiple comparisons was used to evaluate the significant differences of MAD values among different torso groups. The MAD values were compared to the anthropometric survey allowable errors.

Findings

The algorithms of AULID provided both accuracy and consistency of identifying landmarks on any body torso types.

Originality/value

Most 3D body scanning systems often show landmark location errors when dealing with nonstandard body shapes. None of automatic landmark extraction software program provides consistency of identifying landmarks in various body shapes. However, algorithms of AULID, an automatic landmark extraction software program, in this study are only consistent definitions for identifying landmarks in any torso shape.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Caroline Hogue

When simulating the behaviour of granular assemblies and multi‐body systems using a discrete element analysis, the shape representation of the bodies and the contact…

1508

Abstract

When simulating the behaviour of granular assemblies and multi‐body systems using a discrete element analysis, the shape representation of the bodies and the contact detection algorithm greatly influence the flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the simulation. Several geometrical shape descriptors of two and three dimensional arbitrary rigid bodies are reviewed and a flexible 3‐D descriptor introduced. The aim is to identify appropriate shape descriptors which allow a variety of types of bodies to be investigated while ensuring accurate and efficient detection of inter‐particle contacts. Polygons/polyhedrons, and continuous and discrete function representations are examined. The investigation favours discrete representations due to their efficiency and flexibility, but illustrates the elegance and efficiency of using a continuous function representation, e.g. a superquadric, to generate the discrete representation and simplify the contact detection process.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Sun Mi Park, Kueng Mi Choi, Yun Ja Nam and Young‐A Lee

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐purpose body form that could be used to develop different types of garments by putting body skins with ease on the standard…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐purpose body form that could be used to develop different types of garments by putting body skins with ease on the standard body form.

Design/methodology/approach

Free form deformation method was used to generate a virtual model upon the basis of the averaged wire frame. The virtual model was made into a real‐life model by a rapid prototyping (RP) process, and then, the standard body form was made by molding the RP. The 3D polygon shell for a body skin got flattened down to 2D patterns and made by a urethane material.

Findings

The standard body form developed by using 3D body scan data better represented the characteristics of the body shapes than the previously hand‐made ones. In addition, by standardizing the production of the body form itself, it is now possible to make body forms into the standards and be consistent in their qualities.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the methodology of utilizing 3D body scan data in a garment design, which is possible by incorporating advanced 3D modeling technologies and 3D data of a human body in making body forms. For the mass production of a body skin, it is necessary to develop various special materials simulating soft tissues.

Originality/value

The apparel industry can enjoy cost cutting effects by using this multi‐purpose body form. A company does not have to spend money in purchasing different sizes and shapes of body forms, let alone saving the spaces to store them once purchased.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Youngsook Kim, Hwa Kyung Song and Susan P. Ashdown

The purpose of this paper is to analyze petite women’s body size and figure and investigate whether current petite sizing charts accurately reflect actual petit size…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze petite women’s body size and figure and investigate whether current petite sizing charts accurately reflect actual petit size women’s bodies. This study also categorizes petite women’s body shapes and suggests primary body measurements as a base size for each shape. The ultimate goal is to suggest fundamental body measurements for apparel companies to modify and improve their sizing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data from SizeUSA data to compare body measurements of 18-35-year-old petite women to regular women. The authors compared the results to measurement differences between petite and regular sizing charts of 14 apparel companies. Then, using the principal component analysis and cluster analysis, the authors classified petite women’s body shapes. Body measurements for each body type are contrasted with the current petite sizing charts, and then, the authors present differences as suggestions for modification and improvement of petite sizing.

Findings

Industry sizing system do not generally represent average petite size women preciously except for stature. Within the petite women, four body types were identified (top petite: 30.0 percent, bottom petite: 30.8 percent, regular petite: 23.6 percent, and plus size: 15.4 percent). Of the four groups, the ASTM D7878 generally represented the “top petite” sizing.

Originality/value

It is the first to analyze the industry petite sizing system utilizing population data and focus petite sizing for women aged 18-35. The authors believe this study could draw attention of the apparel industry, providing companies with ideas of how to improve their petite sizing for young women.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Marina Alexander, Lenda Jo Connell and Ann Beth Presley

This paper explores the relationships between body type and fit preferences with body cathexis, clothing benefits sought by consumers, and demographic profiles of consumers.

11512

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the relationships between body type and fit preferences with body cathexis, clothing benefits sought by consumers, and demographic profiles of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey instrument consisted of a questionnaire with scales assessing fit preference, body type, body cathexis, clothing benefits sought and consumer demographics.

Findings

Significant associations were found between body cathexis (satisfaction with head/upper body, lower body, height, weight and torso) and body shape. The degree of satisfaction with different body parts depended on the body type of the individual. The level of satisfaction with head/upper body, height and torso did not vary by body type. No significant differences were found between fit preferences and body type for lower body garments.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of respondents were between the ages 18 and 28, affluent Caucasian Americans, with an hourglass body type, who had a family income of $85,000 or more and shopped in department or boutique/specialty stores.

Originality/value

Understanding the fit preferences of female consumers could help apparel companies to produce and meet demands for comfortable and well fitting clothes for women. The results of this research may be used as a first step to develop an expert system to correlate body shape and fit preferences of consumers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Jaekyung Park, Yunja Nam, Kueng‐mi Choi, Yuri Lee and Kyu‐Hye Lee

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between consumers' body types and characteristics such as shopping orientation, past experience with fit…

3586

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships between consumers' body types and characteristics such as shopping orientation, past experience with fit problems, attitudes toward internet shopping and attitudes toward 3‐D body scanning.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected body data from 441 Korean females who participated in 3‐D body scanning. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, the body scanning identified five body types. Then body types and shopping characteristics variables were analyzed.

Findings

Slim respondents showed significantly higher hedonic shopping orientation and their attitude to internet shopping was positive, since they evaluated using the internet as being “fun”. By contrast, respondents with larger body types considered the convenience of internet shopping to be the most important feature. Respondents, regardless of their body types, regarded 3‐D body scanning as an enjoyable, futuristic and interesting experience. Moreover, respondents showed a high inclination to spend more money for customization services which utilize the 3‐D scanning technique.

Originality/value

This study analyzed Korean females' body shapes using 3‐D scanned body measurements. This study can contribute to integrate knowledge in the body measurement sector and the consumer behavior sector.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Jie Sun, Qianyun Cai, Tao Li, Lei Du and Fengyuan Zou

Considering two-dimensional features in the body shape classification system cannot fully reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphological characteristics of human body

Abstract

Purpose

Considering two-dimensional features in the body shape classification system cannot fully reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphological characteristics of human body. The purpose of this paper is to propose a 3D feature based method to characterize and classify the upper body shape of women, and then obtained the corresponding garment block and improved the fitness of clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the [TC]2 3D scanner was used to obtain human data, and 15 layers of cross-sections of young females’ upper body were extracted. In total, 240 space vectors were obtained with the center of the bust cross-section as the original point. By using the principal component analysis and K-means clustering analysis, the body shape classification based on the space vectors length was realized. The garment block corresponding to three body types was obtained using the 3D scanning data and the cross-section convex hull, and compared with existing garment block and evaluated fitness of the blocks.

Findings

In total, 11 main components used to characterize the 3D morphological features of young women were obtained, which could explain 95.28 percent features of young women’s upper body. By cluster analysis, the body shape of women was divided into three categories. The block of three body types was obtained by the construction of the convex hull model.

Originality/value

This paper investigates a classification method of the body shape based on space vector length, which can effectively reflect the difference of surface shape of human body and further improve the matching degree of human body and clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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