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1 – 10 of 216
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Peter R.M. Jones, Peng Li, Katherine Brooke‐Wavell and Gordon M. West

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of…

643

Abstract

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of horizontal cross‐sections. Each cross‐section was described by 16 data points. The 3‐D surface can be calculated by interpolating between these sections. This procedure allowed editing and manipulation of raw scanned data, as well as substantial data reduction. Horizontal cross‐sections of the body were chosen to correspond to particular anatomical surface landmarks, rather than distances from a reference point. Hence, each data element described a particular anatomical location, irrespective of body shape and size. This feature allowed comparison and averaging of 3‐D shapes, greatly enhancing the application of 3‐D scanned data. The standard data format allows 3‐D scanned data to be transferred into CAD/CAM systems for automated garment design and manikin manufacture.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2018

Muditha Senanayake, Amar Raheja and Yuhan Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to develop an automated human body measurement extraction system using simple inexpensive equipment with minimum requirement of human…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an automated human body measurement extraction system using simple inexpensive equipment with minimum requirement of human assistance. This research further leads to the comparison of extracted measurements to established methods to analyze the error. The extracted measurements can be used to assist the production of custom-fit apparel. This is an effort to reduce the cost of expensive 3-D body scanners and to make the system available to the user at home.

Design/methodology/approach

A single camera body measurement system is proposed, implemented, and pilot tested. This system involves a personal computer and a webcam operating within a space of controlled lighting. The system will take two images of the user, extract body silhouettes, and perform measurement extraction. The camera is automatically calibrated using the software each time of scanning considering the scanning space. The user will select a front view and a side view among the images captured, and specify the height. In this pilot study, 31 subjects were recruited and the accuracy of 8 human body measurements were compared with the manual measurements and measurements extracted from a commercial 3-D body scanner.

Findings

The system achieved reasonable measurement performance within 10 percent accuracy for seven out of the eight measurements, while four out of eight parameters obtained a performance similar to the commercial scanner. It is proved that human body measurement extraction can be done using inexpensive equipment to obtain reasonable results.

Originality/value

This study is aimed at developing a proof-of-concept for inexpensive body scanning system, with an effort to benchmark measurement accuracy, available to an average user providing the ability to acquire self-body measurements to be used to purchase custom-fit apparel. This system can potentially boost the customization of apparel and revolutionize online shopping of custom-fit apparel.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Reena Pandarum, Simon Christopher Harlock, Lawrance Hunter and Gerald Aurther Vernon Leaf

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype categories.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a method to quantitatively define women's body morphotypes derived from the visual assessments of the 3-D scans of the body. Nine morphotype categories are defined and algorithms are derived to define the range of values of bust-to-waist and hip-to-waist girth ratios corresponding to the different categories. The method showed an 81.9% prediction accuracy between the visually assessed and predicted morphotypes. This compared to a 71.9% prediction accuracy of another published method. This new normative method (NNM) enables a quantitative evaluation of how visual assessments of body morphotypes from different populations of women, made by different assessors, differ.

Findings

The panel assessed morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (52.0%), followed by spoon (39.5%), hourglass (5.6%) and triangle (2.9%). The NNM shows similar predicted categories, with only slightly differing values, viz. the morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (54.1%) followed by spoon (40.4%), hourglass (4.8%), inverted U (0.6%) and Y (0.3%). The morphotype with the worst correlation between the predicted and the assessed was the triangle (0% – 0/10), followed by the hourglass (31.6% – 6/19). The NNM did not generate more than one prediction for a given visually assessed morphotype.

Research limitations/implications

The geographical location of the authors meant that it was convenient to develop and evaluate the NNM from a sample of South African women. Further work can be conducted where a large number of national and international experts perform an assessment of a set of body morphotypes. The anthropometric data derived according to ISO 8559-1 protocols may then be used to determine the criteria used by each assessor with the aim of reaching a consensus and, hence, movement toward body morphotype standardization for both men and women and thereby mass customization.

Practical implications

The advantage of the method is that it provides for a, transparent, universally applicable procedure that is simple to use and implement in the clothing and retail sectors The NNM did not predict more than one morphotype for a given category; hence, it enables objective comparisons to be made between the visual assessments of morphotype categories of different populations by different assessors, to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ.

Social implications

Studies such as this highlight the need for standardization of both the criteria used in the expert panel visual assessments and an agreement on the anthropometric measures or landmarks required to define women 3-D body morphotypes standardized to international protocols for target market segmenting in the clothing and retail sectors and in industries where variability in body morphotype, size and proportions has ergonomic implications.

Originality/value

The theoretical concept is novel, easy to follow and implement in the clothing and related sectors and has not been published to date. The approach was to develop a theoretical concept standardized to ISO 8559-1 that enable objective comparisons between visual assessments of morphotypes of different populations by different assessors, and to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. The knowledge and experience of domain experts were to initially conduct the visual assessments of women morphotypes from their 3-D scans and thereafter to use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype category.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Cynthia L. Istook and Su‐Jeong Hwang

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements…

4234

Abstract

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements, a basic knowledge and set of skills are required that are not often found in the average salesperson at a retail clothing outlet. The development of three‐dimensional body‐scanning technologies may have significant potential for use in the apparel industry, particularly for customisation or mass customisation strategies to be employed. The purpose of this study was to review all the 3D body scanning systems currently available and to determine the underlying principles that allow these systems to work. Specifications of each system were compared in order to provide some direction for further research into the integration of these systems with current apparel CAD pattern design or pattern generation technologies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Siti Zulaikha Binti Zulkifli, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

This study aimed to clarify the criteria for subjective evaluation of the similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants and propose a quantitative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to clarify the criteria for subjective evaluation of the similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants and propose a quantitative evaluation method for those similarities and differences based on geometric features related to the evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using patterns, we made five pairs of actual pants for a dummy in five fabrics. We simulated virtual pants with a 3-D simulator. Sensory evaluation was conducted with images of the virtual and actual pants: 20 participants compared the images based on a questionnaire. For the structure of evaluation, the authors undertook analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The actual and virtual pants were geometrically compared using the 3-D scanned data. To investigate the relationship between quantitative and sensory evaluation, the authors calculated the correlation coefficients.

Findings

The authors found that subjects perceived the differences between actual and simulated pants. When comparing the virtual and actual pants, the criteria for the differences were the silhouette from the front view, hem width, waist and wrinkles. Using differences in the hem width, it would be possible to evaluate the differences between actual and simulated pants. Roughness and smoothness of the silhouette also affected evaluation.

Originality/value

The authors clarified the evaluation criteria for the similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants. The authors proposed a quantitative evaluation method for the similarities and differences between virtual and actual garment based on our criteria. This study will be of benefit to 3-D simulator users and developers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Karla P. Simmons and Cynthia L. Istook

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the…

6132

Abstract

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body‐scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of 21 measurements were chosen as being critical to the design of well‐fitting garments. Current body scanners were analyzed for availability of information, willingness of company cooperation, and relevance to applications in the apparel industry. On each of the 21 measurements, standard measurement procedure was identified for three different scanners: [TC]2, Cyberware, and SYMCAD. Of the 21 measures in the study, [TC]2 was the scanner that had the most measures identified for the study and also had the capability of producing many more with specific application for apparel.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Terry Lerch, Sean Anthony and Tanya Domina

The purpose of this paper is to validate the accuracy of point cloud data generated from a 3D body scanner.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the accuracy of point cloud data generated from a 3D body scanner.

Design/methodology/approach

A female dress form was scanned with an X‐ray computed tomography (CT) system and a 3D body scanning system. The point cloud data from four axial slices of the body scan (BS) data were compared with the corresponding axial slices from the CT data. Length and cross‐sectional area measurements of each slice were computed for each scanning technique.

Findings

The point cloud data from the body scanner were accurate to at least 2.0 percent when compared with the CT data. In many cases, the length and area measurements from the two types of scans varied by less than 1.0 percent.

Research limitations/implications

Only two length measurements and a cross‐sectional area measurement were compared for each axial slice, resulting in a good first attempt of validation of the BS data. Additional methods of comparison should be employed for complete validation of the data. The dress form was scanned only once with each scanning device, so little can be said about the repeatability of the results.

Practical implications

Accuracy of the point cloud data from the 3D body scanner indicates that the main issues for the use of body scanners as anthropometric measurement tools are those of standardization, feature locations, and positioning of the subject.

Originality/value

Comparisons of point cloud data from a 3D body scanner with CT data had not previously been performed, and these results indicate that the point cloud data are accurate to at least 2.0 percent.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Elisa Mussi, Michaela Servi, Flavio Facchini, Rocco Furferi and Yary Volpe

Among thoracic malformations, pectus deformities have the highest incidence and can result in a wide range of severe and mild clinical manifestations. Recently, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Among thoracic malformations, pectus deformities have the highest incidence and can result in a wide range of severe and mild clinical manifestations. Recently, the treatment of pectus deformities is shifting from traditional approaches toward customized solutions. This occurs by leveraging innovative rapid prototyping tools that allow for the design and fabrication of patient-specific treatments and medical devices. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive view of the growing literature in this area to analyze the progress made in this direction.

Design/methodology/approach

The search was performed on major search engines through keywords inherent to reverse engineering (RE) and additive manufacturing (AM) technologies applied to pectus deformities and related treatments, selecting 54 papers. These were analyzed according to the addressed pathology, the hardware and software tools used and/or implemented and their integration within the clinical pathway.

Findings

First, the analysis led to analyze and divide the papers according to how RE and AM technologies are applied for surgical and non-surgical treatments, pathological assessment and preoperative simulation and planning. Second, all papers were considered within the typical rapid prototyping framework consisting of the three phases of three-dimensional (3D) scanning, 3D modelling and 3D printing.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, to date, no survey has provided a comprehensive view of innovative and personalized treatment strategies for thoracic malformations; the present work fills this gap, allowing researchers in this field to have access to the most promising findings on the treatment and evaluation of pathology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Alison Beazley

To obtain sizing systems a specialist knowledge is required to analyse statistically body measurements from surveys. Control measurements, size ranges, body proportions…

Abstract

To obtain sizing systems a specialist knowledge is required to analyse statistically body measurements from surveys. Control measurements, size ranges, body proportions and size intervals have to be calculated. A survey of 100 young women was undertaken in 1993/93 at Manchester Metropolitan University and 10 body measurements were taken. This is used to illustrate the statistical analysis of body measurements, the formulation of sizing systems and body measurement tables. A review of previous surveys and their methods of analysis was undertaken. The main control measurements of height, bust, waist and hips denoting the size of the wearer were obtained by correlation. Size ranges and intervals were obtained by normalising the data and comparing the sizes young women bought and previous size charts. Sizing systems for five sizes 8 to 16 were suggested for three heights, short, medium and tall and bust fittings medium, small and very small. This retained the same proportion for the five sizes within each of the nine systems. A further system of changing proportion in girth measurements was developed from the survey of young women based on percentiles and bust fittings. The neck girth which did not correlate strongly with any measurement was analysed separately. Two examples of body measurement tables covering 30 measurements were formulated to illustrate the procedure. Analysing body measurements statistically is problematic especially in small surveys. It is hoped the suggested guidelines will clarify this area. The coding of sizes is still not uniform. A comparison was made with previous tables. It was concluded that the body proportion had changed and the young women were taller and broader in the waist and hips. Part 3 of this study will cover comparing the problems of taking accurate body measurements with different equipment, formulating size charts for different garments and fabrics and relating these to different systems of pattern construction, and finally, testing prototype garments for size and fit.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Kiseol Yang and Allison P. Young

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of customized site features on consumers' purchasing decision aids and consumers' attitudes toward internet apparel shopping.

3192

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of customized site features on consumers' purchasing decision aids and consumers' attitudes toward internet apparel shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model was developed and tested using structural equation modeling to identify the effects of customized site features on internet apparel shopping. Participants were members of an opt‐in‐e‐mail marketing company and were required to experience the customized site features at a given web site prior to the survey. A sample of 107 participants was used for the analysis, totaling a 34 percent response rate.

Findings

Interactivity of customized site features indicated a significant direct effect on consumers' purchasing decision aids and an indirect effect on positive attitude toward internet apparel shopping. Virtual experience and customized alternative information offerings showed significant direct effects on positive consumer attitude toward internet apparel shopping.

Research limitations/implications

Direct measures of the effects of customized site features on consumers' apparel purchase risks on the internet are suggested for future research.

Practical implications

E‐retailers should explore and develop the easy‐to‐use web interface of customized site features to enhance site usability and they should diffuse into their own retail web sites.

Originality/value

Examination of the effects of customized site features on internet apparel shopping is an area of research that has not been fully explored. The study provides e‐retailers with the insights to renegotiate the interaction with consumers regarding apparel shopping on the internet.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

1 – 10 of 216