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The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use…
The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype categories.
This paper presents a method to quantitatively define women's body morphotypes derived from the visual assessments of the 3-D scans of the body. Nine morphotype categories are defined and algorithms are derived to define the range of values of bust-to-waist and hip-to-waist girth ratios corresponding to the different categories. The method showed an 81.9% prediction accuracy between the visually assessed and predicted morphotypes. This compared to a 71.9% prediction accuracy of another published method. This new normative method (NNM) enables a quantitative evaluation of how visual assessments of body morphotypes from different populations of women, made by different assessors, differ.
The panel assessed morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (52.0%), followed by spoon (39.5%), hourglass (5.6%) and triangle (2.9%). The NNM shows similar predicted categories, with only slightly differing values, viz. the morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (54.1%) followed by spoon (40.4%), hourglass (4.8%), inverted U (0.6%) and Y (0.3%). The morphotype with the worst correlation between the predicted and the assessed was the triangle (0% – 0/10), followed by the hourglass (31.6% – 6/19). The NNM did not generate more than one prediction for a given visually assessed morphotype.
The geographical location of the authors meant that it was convenient to develop and evaluate the NNM from a sample of South African women. Further work can be conducted where a large number of national and international experts perform an assessment of a set of body morphotypes. The anthropometric data derived according to ISO 8559-1 protocols may then be used to determine the criteria used by each assessor with the aim of reaching a consensus and, hence, movement toward body morphotype standardization for both men and women and thereby mass customization.
The advantage of the method is that it provides for a, transparent, universally applicable procedure that is simple to use and implement in the clothing and retail sectors The NNM did not predict more than one morphotype for a given category; hence, it enables objective comparisons to be made between the visual assessments of morphotype categories of different populations by different assessors, to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ.
Studies such as this highlight the need for standardization of both the criteria used in the expert panel visual assessments and an agreement on the anthropometric measures or landmarks required to define women 3-D body morphotypes standardized to international protocols for target market segmenting in the clothing and retail sectors and in industries where variability in body morphotype, size and proportions has ergonomic implications.
The theoretical concept is novel, easy to follow and implement in the clothing and related sectors and has not been published to date. The approach was to develop a theoretical concept standardized to ISO 8559-1 that enable objective comparisons between visual assessments of morphotypes of different populations by different assessors, and to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. The knowledge and experience of domain experts were to initially conduct the visual assessments of women morphotypes from their 3-D scans and thereafter to use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype category.
The study in this article aims to focus on a novel design concept of virtual 3D garment which is realized with the help of traditional patternmaking methodology and the…
The study in this article aims to focus on a novel design concept of virtual 3D garment which is realized with the help of traditional patternmaking methodology and the CAD softwares in order to directly conceive the virtual clothing on a mannequin morphotype in cyberspace in consideration of the ease allowance between the body shape and the garment.
The method of acquisition of 3D human body was explained at first. Then the process of creation of garment 3D model associated with the draping technique was presented. The superposition of patterns from the 3D modeling and the traditional method used in industries was done in order to visualize the right results. At last, the dynamic validation of the garment was carried out in order to analyze the fitting results of try‐on simulation.
The 3D modeling technique method based on the draping technique shows that the garment fits perfectly to the body shape of the wearer.
For the ready‐to‐wear manufacture, this method can be also involved on the parametric mannequin in order to reduce the lifetime of development by eliminating the process of pattern grading in the future.
The originality of this article comes from the combination of the traditional draping technique with the advanced CAD softwares in consideration of the fitting and draping of the garment. This concept is used not only in the context of mass customized product but also in mass production for the ready‐to‐wear apparel industries. The patterns are directly adjusted in 3D and can immediately be tried on in 3D simulation. As a result, the process in 2D patternmaking design can be eliminated.
Adolescent aggressive behavior has generated concern about/increasing rates of youth violence in schools. It is important to perform new research using different methods…
Adolescent aggressive behavior has generated concern about/increasing rates of youth violence in schools. It is important to perform new research using different methods and approximations to obtain a better understanding of this multifactorial phenomenon. A poorly studied area consists of the presence of seasonal differences in adolescent aggressive behavior. Accordingly, several studies (with contradictory results) have found that adult aggressive behavior varies according to seasonality. The purpose of this paper is to use observational descriptive methods to analyze, during different seasons, adolescent aggressive behavior among students in schools of Santiago de Chile.
In all, 32 aggressive interactions between dyads of male adolescents (14-18 years) were recorded using observational methods (i.e. ethological methodology) in a complete academic class in two schools from Santiago de Chile. Subsequently, the paper constructed intensity aggressive indexes based on behavioral data.
The first contact, initiating aggressive interaction, and the aggression frequency were higher during warm season (i.e. spring) rather than cold season (autumn-winter). The aggression intensity of the complete interaction was higher during cold season. In addition, temperature was negatively associated to aggression intensity.
These results, apparently contradictory, can serve to support classic models used to explain seasonal differences in aggressiveness, where the intensity of the first aggression could be the mediator of aggressiveness intensity in the interaction. Finally, the paper proposes that seasonal differences must be taken into account as an impact factor over the frequency of adolescent male aggression in schools.