Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2003

Mukesh Khare and Prateek Sharma

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko and Saahil Malik

Although the federal gasoline tax played multiple roles in financing surface transportation infrastructure in the United States, experts did not agree on the tax's…

Abstract

Although the federal gasoline tax played multiple roles in financing surface transportation infrastructure in the United States, experts did not agree on the tax's purpose. Some argued that it was essentially a fee for users of the nation's federally supported highways. Others suggested that it should play a more prominent role in environmental, energy, and transportation policy by correcting for driving-related externalities. Still others suggested that it should be used to reduce the federal budget deficit. Finally, the tax itself had remained at the same level since 1993, and with the Highway Trust Fund virtually insolvent, many experts believed it was time for an increase. The case presents a background on the U.S. federal gasoline tax, an overview of the market for gasoline in the United States, and survey of gasoline taxes in U.S. states as well as several other countries around the world.

The case can be used to discuss the incidence of the gasoline tax, as well as its role as a Pigouvian tax to deal with negative externalities related to gasoline consumption and driving. There is sufficient data in the case to enable students to analyze the incidence of the federal gasoline tax and to determine the socially efficient level of the tax in light of externalities related to gasoline consumption and driving.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Z. Hashisho and M. El‐Fadel

Lead emissions from vehicles using leaded gasoline is a serious environmental problem in urban areas. While leaded gasoline has been completely phased out in many…

Abstract

Lead emissions from vehicles using leaded gasoline is a serious environmental problem in urban areas. While leaded gasoline has been completely phased out in many developed countries, it is still the predominant fuel grade in most developing countries. This paper presents an estimation of the health and economic benefits and costs of the transition from leaded to unleaded gasoline in Lebanon based on relevant dose‐response functions and available country‐specific data. Comparing the potential costs of the phase‐out and the predicted benefits, it was concluded that such action is economically highly justified.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Qiang (Steven) Lu, Chinmay Pattnaik and Mengze Shi

The purpose of this paper is to study the spillover effects of marketing expertise on the market performance of domestic firms and multinational enterprises (MNEs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the spillover effects of marketing expertise on the market performance of domestic firms and multinational enterprises (MNEs). Specifically, this study examines how the adoption of frequency loyalty programs by a domestic firm following an MNE affects the competitive dynamics and the market performance of both firms in a Chinese retail gasoline market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on empirical data that were obtained from a quasi-field experiment in which the MNE entered the market with a frequency loyalty program and the domestic firm later responded with a similar loyalty program. The authors measured the impact of the adoption of a frequency loyalty program by the domestic firm on the market performance of both the domestic firm and the MNE.

Findings

The authors find that the domestic firm’s adoption of a similar loyalty program significantly increased its market share in the regular gasoline market. The domestic firm’s adoption of a loyalty program also increased the market performance of the MNE in the premium gasoline market.

Originality/value

This study explicitly demonstrates the spillover benefits through demonstration effects and provides empirical evidence on specific spillover benefits to domestic firms and MNEs based on their competencies in distinct market segments where they compete.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Rui Liu, Xiaoping Su, Xiaodong Miao, Guang Yang, Xuefei Dong, Yongsheng Liang and Taiqi Huang

The purpose of this paper is to compare the combustion characteristics, including the combustion pressure, heat release rate (HRR), coefficient of variation (COV) of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the combustion characteristics, including the combustion pressure, heat release rate (HRR), coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), flame development period and combustion duration, of aviation kerosene fuel, namely, rocket propellant 3 (RP-3), and gasoline on a two-stoke spark ignition engine.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an experimental investigation using a bench test to reflect the combustion performance of two-stroke spark ignition unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) engine on gasoline and RP-3 fuel.

Findings

Under low load conditions, the combustion performance and HRR of burning RP-3 fuel were shown to be worse than those of gasoline. Under high load conditions, the average IMEP and the COV of IMEP of burning RP-3 fuel were close to those of gasoline. The difference in the flame development period between gasoline and RP-3 fuel was similar.

Practical implications

Gasoline fuel has a low flash point, high-saturated vapour pressure and relatively high volatility and is a potential hazard near a naked flame at room temperature, which can create significant security risks for its storage, transport and use. Adopting a low volatility single RP-3 fuel of covering all vehicles and equipment to minimize the number of different devices with the use of a various fuels and improve the application safeties.

Originality/value

Most two-stroke spark ignition UAV engines continue to combust gasoline. A kerosene-based fuel operation can be applied to achieve a single-fuel policy.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

De-Xing Peng

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends…

Abstract

Purpose

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends and pure unleaded gasoline.

Design/methodology/approach

Biofuels with a concentration of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 per cent were added to unleaded gasoline to form ethanol-blended fuels named E0, E1, E2, E5 and E10. Next, the ethanol-blended fuels and unleaded gasoline were used to power engines to facilitate comparisons between the pollution created from exhaust emissions.

Findings

Using ethanol as a fuel additive in pure unleaded gasoline improves engine performance and reduces exhaust emissions. Because bioethanol does not contain lead but contains low aromatic and high oxygen content, it induces more complete combustion compared with conventional unleaded gasoline.

Originality/value

Using biofuels as auxiliary fuel reduces environmental pollution, strengthens local agricultural economy, creates employment opportunities and reduces demand for fossil fuels.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Theodore N. Beckman

The purpose of this paper is to trace the historical development of gasoline service stations through to 1956, their quantitative importance, the principal types of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to trace the historical development of gasoline service stations through to 1956, their quantitative importance, the principal types of stations in existence in 1956, and the nature of competition in the business.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of historical work on the development of gasoline retailing to 1956 is combined with detailed analysis of US Census statistics covering the period from 1929 through the early 1950s. Beckman was in charge of the Census of Wholesale Distribution for the US Department of Commerce in 1930.

Findings

There was rapid and significant growth in the number of gasoline service stations from the early twentieth century through 1939. This, combined with the effects of the Depression and Second World War, led to intense competition, an increase in the lines of merchandise carried by service stations, and ultimately to a decline in the number of stations.

Originality/value

Beckman combined a fresh interpretation of earlier published research on the history of the oil industry with extensive original historical analysis of US Census data. The article's value is heightened in that it is excerpted from a rare unpublished archival document written by one of the eminent marketing scholars of the twentieth century. This article is a slightly edited version of the first of two sections of the original manuscript written by Beckman in 1956 but never published (Theodore Beckman Collection, RG 40/35/C, Ohio State University Archives). The second section of the original manuscript (not included in this article) deals with changes in merchandise lines and services as well as the factors leading to those changes. The article published here is done so with permission of the Ohio State University Archives.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 January 2019

Hojin Jung, Kyoung-min Kwon and Gun Jea Yu

Using panel data on gasoline and grocery transactions in Korea, the purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the effect of a retail chain store’s establishment of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using panel data on gasoline and grocery transactions in Korea, the purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the effect of a retail chain store’s establishment of on-site fuel sales. The empirical analyses present strong empirical evidence that the sale of fuel had statistically and economically significant effect on retail store traffic and revenue in the short run. However, the effect did not remain significant in the longer run. To explain the dramatic decrease in the effect of the fuel sale, the authors consider the enhanced competition in the local gasoline retail industry and examine cross-sectional price variations at the station level. The results suggest that the increased competition led to the reduction in the price dispersion across stations and thereby to an increase in consumer welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a linear specification that has traditionally been used to model retail chain data, the authors developed a series of difference-in-differences models. This technique is ideal for estimating the effect of a treatment in the presence of possible selection bias and has been widely employed in many social-science studies on policy intervention.

Findings

In a certain environment, introducing fuel sales did not increase retail chain store traffic or revenue in the long run, despite having statistically and economically significant effects in the short run. The results document empirical evidence of myopic management in a common marketing practice, which often leads to a negative impact on the firm value in the long run.

Research limitations/implications

The span of data and sample size were limited to meet the company’s data protection policy.

Practical implications

Considering that many of developed countries are characterized by a gasoline retail environment similar to that which is investigated in this paper, the authors believe that the implications of the results are particularly valid for practitioners and policy makers.

Social implications

The findings document empirical evidence of myopic management in a common marketing practice, which often leads to a negative impact on the firm value in the long run. Marketing researchers should make efforts in establishing metrics to help identify myopic management decision.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an interesting and practical issue related to the effects of the introduction of gasoline sales by a supercenter store on its store traffic.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Shawkat Hammoudeh, Seong-Min Yoon and Ali Kutan

Motivated by the news media and a lack of comprehensive research on the USA, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between changes in road fatalities…

Abstract

Purpose

Motivated by the news media and a lack of comprehensive research on the USA, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between changes in road fatalities and gasoline prices, per capita disposable personal income, alcohol consumption per adult, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs both static and dynamic panel data models, making use of annual data over the 2000–2013 period collected from the 50 states of the USA and the consistent system GMM estimators of the parameters, to estimate the impact of these variables on fatalities per 100,000 persons and per 100,000 vehicles.

Findings

The results highlight the importance of gasoline prices in determining the level of road fatalities, underscoring that a 10 percent decrease in gasoline prices leads to a 248 increase in the total number of road fatalities, but with many more injuries. Increases in the female-to-total driver ratio have a greater significant positive impact on road fatalities where a 10 percent increase in this ratio increases road fatalities by 1,008 deaths. Increases in registered vehicles per capita also increase the number of fatalities. Other variables such as alcohol consumption per adult and BAC limits are not as important. Policy implications are also provided.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study highlight the importance of gasoline prices in determining the number of road fatalities. This factor can be an effective policy measure by which policymakers can offset increases in fatalities due to further drastic declines in future gasoline prices. But the effects of the gasoline prices in determining the number of road fatalities are not as strong as the media would lead us to believe. The media ignores the impact of other factors on fatalities, which results in an overestimation of the impact of gasoline prices.

Originality/value

This study uses the panel data of 50 US states and the dynamic panel data model. In addition to gasoline price effects on the road fatalities, this study also considers other factors such as gender, gasoline taxes, per capita disposable personal income, per capita alcohol consumption, BAC limits and number of registered vehicles.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Erdener Kaynak

In order to be successful, gasoline marketing strategies must anticipate social, economic and technological trends as well as adapt to rapid and somewhat unpredictable…

Abstract

In order to be successful, gasoline marketing strategies must anticipate social, economic and technological trends as well as adapt to rapid and somewhat unpredictable changes in the consumer market. Distribution strategies, which affect the selection of merchandise, advertising and selling, inventory management and other functions, evolve from and adjust to a dynamic, changing environment.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

1 – 10 of over 2000