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Book part
Publication date: 13 February 2001

Richard Blundell, Stephen Bond and Frank Windmeijer

This chapter reviews developments to improve on the poor performance of the standard GMM estimator for highly autoregressive panel series. It considers the use of the …

Abstract

This chapter reviews developments to improve on the poor performance of the standard GMM estimator for highly autoregressive panel series. It considers the use of the ‘systemGMM estimator that relies on relatively mild restrictions on the initial condition process. This system GMM estimator encompasses the GMM estimator based on the non-linear moment conditions available in the dynamic error components model and has substantial asymptotic efficiency gains. Simulations, that include weakly exogenous covariates, find large finite sample biases and very low precision for the standard first differenced estimator. The use of the system GMM estimator not only greatly improves the precision but also greatly reduces the finite sample bias. An application to panel production function data for the U.S. is provided and confirms these theoretical and experimental findings.

Details

Nonstationary Panels, Panel Cointegration, and Dynamic Panels
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-065-4

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Omar Al Farooque, Wonlop Buachoom and Lan Sun

This study aims to investigate the effects of corporate board and audit committee characteristics and ownership structures on market-based financial performance of listed…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of corporate board and audit committee characteristics and ownership structures on market-based financial performance of listed firms in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

It applies system GMM (generalized method of moments) as the baseline estimator approach, and ordinary least squares and fixed effects for robustness checks on a sample of 452 firms listed on the Thai Stock Exchange for the period 2000-2016.

Findings

Relying mainly on the system GMM estimator, the empirical results indicate some emerging trends in the Thai economy. Contrary to expectations for an emerging market and prior research findings, ownership structures, particularly ownership concentration and family ownership, appear to have no significant influence on market-based firm performance, while managerial ownership exerts a positive effect on performance. Moreover, as expected, board structure variables such as board independence; size; meeting and dual role; and audit committee meeting show significant explanatory power on market-based firm performance in Thai firms.

Practical implications

These findings are important for policymakers in constructing an appropriate set of governance mechanisms in an emerging market context, and for corporate entities and investors in shaping their understanding of corporate governance in the Thai institutional context.

Originality/value

Unlike previous literature on the Thai market, this study is the first to use the more advanced econometric method known as system GMM estimator for addressing causality/endogeneity issues in governance–performance relationships. The findings indicate new trends in the explanatory power of ownership structure variables on market-based firm performance in Thai-listed firms.

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Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Zélia Maria Silva Serrasqueiro and Márcia Cristina Rêgo Rogão

This study aims to evaluate the impact of listed Portuguese companies' specific determinants on adjustment of actual debt towards target debt ratio. The specific…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the impact of listed Portuguese companies' specific determinants on adjustment of actual debt towards target debt ratio. The specific determinants on adjustment of actual debt towards target debt ratio that we consider are: asset tangibility, size, profitability and market to book ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

Dynamic panel estimators are used to determine adjustment of the actual level of debt towards optimal level of debt, revealing the level of transaction costs borne by companies. OLS regressions are also used, in order to estimate the impacts of companies' specific determinants on debt adjustment.

Findings

The results suggest that transaction costs are relevant in listed Portuguese companies' access to debt. Tangibility of assets and size are determinants that contribute for a greater adjustment of debt towards optimal level. The results also suggest that the capital structure decisions of listed Portuguese companies can be explained in the light of trade‐off and pecking order theories, and not according to what is forecast by market timing theory.

Originality/value

Through this study, the level of adjustment of actual debt towards target debt ratio in the context of companies belonging to under‐developed capital markets are determined, in the particular case of this study, belonging to the Portuguese capital market. Furthermore, from target debt ratio depending on companies' specific determinants, the explanatory power of trade‐off, pecking order and market timing theories are investigated. The results contribute for a deeper understanding about companies' capital structure decisions.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Manoj Subhash Kamat and Manasvi M. Kamat

This study aims to find whether the Indian private corporate sector follow stable cash dividend policies, whether dividends smoothen earnings, estimate the implicit target…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find whether the Indian private corporate sector follow stable cash dividend policies, whether dividends smoothen earnings, estimate the implicit target dividend ratio, and examine the determinants along with speed of adjustment of dividends towards a long run target ratio.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the instrumental variable (IV) approach for dynamic panel data for 1971‐2010 periods controlling for economic reforms. The GMM‐in‐levels model, GMM‐in‐first‐differences and GMM‐in‐systems are alternatively estimated to include other lag structures.

Findings

In the post‐reform period lower dividends are consistent with rapid growth in the economic environment and the tendency to smoothen dividends has considerably decreased over time. The estimated model suggests dividends substitute for less opportunity for internal growth and increased general likening to relatively retain their earnings and finance their growth, unlike the past.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation to capture substitution, ownership and self selection effects stems up from data as the Annual Studies RBI does not include such variables, does not capture qualitative data and disallows identification of the firm.

Practical implications

The paper documents long run trends and inter‐temporal dividend patterns controlling economic reforms for a relatively larger number of public limited firms nearing four decades for an emerging economy.

Originality/value

This is a first attempt to take a holistic view of dividend using rich set of unexplored dynamic panel data on Indian firms controlling for reforms using contemporary econometric models and analyzes issues relating determinants, smoothening and stability of the corporate dividend structure.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Yoon Heo, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Nguyen Khanh Doanh

This paper aims to analyze the impacts of institutional quality on trade flows of NAFTA with a panel data set of 105 countries spanning the period 2006–2017.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the impacts of institutional quality on trade flows of NAFTA with a panel data set of 105 countries spanning the period 2006–2017.

Design/methodology/approach

We applied the system generalized method of moment (GMM) estimator to investigate the impacts.

Findings

The results show that institutional quality is a positive and significant determinant of international trade flows of the NAFTA bloc and its trading partners. Our results also indicate that the impact of institutional quality depends on the level of economic development of NAFTA's trading partners. Specifically, the trade elasticity of institutional quality is the highest for NAFTA’s trade with middle-income countries and the lowest for NAFTA's trade with low-income countries. In the long run, the trade elasticity of institutional quality increased significantly, with the highest increase in the case of NAFTA's trade with medium-income countries and the lowest increase in the case of NAFTA's trade with low-income countries.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature in three different ways. First, we examine the differential impact of institutions on NAFTA's trade according to the level of economic development of NAFTA's trading partners. Second, we compare the differential trade elasticity of institutional quality in the long run. Finally, we support our findings through an improved research methodology by using the system GMM estimation. This method allows us to overcome the potential sample bias, omitted variable problems and endogeneity of explanatory variables.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the Yemen War on banking services (deposits and loans) at the aggregate and at the level of conventional and Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the Yemen War on banking services (deposits and loans) at the aggregate and at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in GCC countries. The author also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of the Yemen War on bank services.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises a total of 70 banks (45 conventional and 25 Islamic banks) over the period 2000–2018. The static and dynamic panel generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are applied.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that the Yemen War has a significant negative direct impact on deposits and loans of GCC banks. The results lend support for the direct channel hypothesis, but not for the indirect channel hypothesis. The negative direct impact is most prominent on banks in GCC countries that are directly involved in the Yemen War, although the war has an asymmetric effect on conventional and Islamic banks, the former being more vulnerable. The overall conclusion is that the Yemen War exerts an asymmetric impact on the GCC region, across both banks and countries.

Practical implications

These results are a warning to policymakers to be cautious when formulating a strategy for macroeconomic stability.

Originality/value

It is widely recognized that the Yemen War has a significant impact on the economies of the GCC countries. However, the possible impact of the war on GCC bank services has not so far been subjected to robust empirical analysis. This paper therefore seeks to fill this gap by providing an in-depth quantitative analysis of this impact. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which the Yemen War may affect bank services. It is also the first to examine the asymmetric impact of the Yemen War on the GCC region, across both banks (Islamic and conventional banks) and countries (whether or not involved in the war). The study uses both static panel and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Yong Tan and Christos Floros

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of bank performance in China. In particular, the paper examines the effects of stock market volatility…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the determinants of bank performance in China. In particular, the paper examines the effects of stock market volatility, competition and ownership on bank performance in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises a total of 11 banks (four state‐owned and seven joint‐stock commercial banks) listed in the Chinese Stock Exchanges. The period under consideration extends from 2003‐2009. The generalized methods of moments (GMM) difference and system estimators are applied.

Findings

Empirical results show that high level of stock market volatility can translate into higher return on equity (ROE) and excess return on equity (EROE). Rather than leading to improved profitability, the labour productivity has a negative impact on economic value added (EVA). Ownership does not have any effect on the profitability of Chinese banking industry. The bank profitability in terms of ROE and EROE is lower in the banking industry with higher competition. When using the GMM with ROE‐COC and ROE, the paper finds that high taxation has a negative impact on both state‐owned and joint‐stock banks, while the capital level is negatively related to joint‐stock commercial banks. With regards to the other two performance indicators (EVA and NIM), the result suggests that higher cost efficiency and labour productivity improve the performance of both state‐owned and joint‐stock commercial banks. Large volume of non‐traditional activity is the explanation of poor performance of state‐owned commercial banks, while higher credit risk, lower taxation and the mature banking industry are helpful in improving the performance of joint‐stock commercial banks.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should examine other methods (e.g. the Rosse‐Panzar H statistic) to calculate the bank competition in China, and other determinants of bank performance in Asian countries and compare them with these results.

Social implications

The current study has relevant policy implications. First, in order to increase the profit earned from the traditional loan‐deposit services, the Chinese banks should make loans to the high risk projects or companies, and control the expenses including both the operating and personnel expenses. Furthermore, the government and bank regulatory authority should make policy such as inject capital to SOCBs and write‐off NPLs for them to reduce the degree of competition in order to make banks have better performance.

Originality/value

Particular emphasis is given on the investigation into the effects of stock market volatility, competition and ownership on bank performance in China while controlling for the most comprehensive bank‐specific, industry specific and macroeconomic variables.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Ahmed Mohamed Dahir, Fauziah Binti Mahat and Noor Azman Bin Ali

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of funding liquidity risk and liquidity risk on the bank risk-taking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of funding liquidity risk and liquidity risk on the bank risk-taking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation technique and a sample of 57 banks operating in BRICS countries over the period from 2006 to 2015.

Findings

The results reveal that liquidity risk has a significant and negative effect on the bank risk-taking, indicating that a decrease in liquidity risk contributes to higher bank risk-taking. The study also reveals that funding liquidity risk has the substantial impact on bank risk-taking, suggesting lower funding liquidity risk results in higher bank risk-taking. These results are consistent with prior assumptions.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this study highlight the fact that liquidity risk is a risk factor which drives the potential bank default, of which banks tend to take more risks when higher funding liquidity exists.

Practical implications

This study offers a number of valuable implications for the policy makers as well as practitioners. The policy makers should take into account better liquidity risk management framework aimed at preventing banks from taking excessive risks. Bank executives must pay more attention on how banks could hold more liquid securities and cash. Less risk-taking reduces higher borrowing costs undermining earnings through imposing taxes on corporate.

Originality/value

This work uncovered that liquidity risk per se is an important and previously unidentified risk factor, specifically its effects on bank risk-taking and contributes to the view in support of holding more liquid securities than the past.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Eric Osei-Assibey and Seth Obeng Adu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of portfolio equity flows to the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region over the period 1996-2010.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of portfolio equity flows to the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region over the period 1996-2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 14 SSA countries to estimate the baseline regression through employing the system generalized methods of moment dynamic panel estimation framework. To check the robustness of the estimation results, the study further analyses the data set using the random effects-generalized least squares (EGLS) estimator. The Random effects-generalized least squares estimator is also referred to a the Estimated Generalized least Squares (EGLS) estimator.

Findings

The paper finds a significant positive relationship between financial development and portfolio equity flows. Furthermore, while the study surprisingly finds trade openness to have a significant negative relationship, political stability is found to have a significant positive relationship with portfolio equity. To check for the robustness of these results, the authors further analyse the data set using the random EGLS estimator. The result of the EGLS estimator confirms that there is a robust positive relationship between financial development and portfolio equity flows to SSA. However, the results suggest that neither trade openness nor political stability is a robust determinant of portfolio equity flows to the sub-region.

Practical implications

Policy measures should aim at enhancing financial sector development, political stability and rule of law. A transparent judicial system that enhances rule of law and deepens democratic governance in countries in the sub-region is critical, but even more critical is deepening the financial sector, given the important role financial development plays in portfolio equity flows as suggested by the findings. A range of measures and appropriate policy responses are therefore needed for countries that have to manage macroeconomic and financial stability risks to deepen the financial sector.

Originality/value

Most studies on private capital flows to SSA have focussed on foreign direct investment flows with no or scanty evidence on the drivers of portfolio equity flows. This study fills this gap in the literature.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi

This paper aims to examine and compare the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on bank deposits in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on bank deposits in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The study also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of FDI flow and FDI stock on bank deposits.

Design/methodology/approach

Static and dynamic panel generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are applied to analyze a large data set of 491 commercial banks (422 conventional banks and 69 Islamic banks) across 18 MENA countries between 1993 and 2017 (12,275 year observations).

Findings

Empirical results indicate that inflowing FDI flow and FDI stock have a significant negative direct impact on deposits of MENA banks. The results lend support for the direct channel hypothesis for the effect of FDI on bank deposits and find no evidence in support of the indirect channel hypothesis. FDI inflows affect bank deposits directly via increased FDI-related excessive competition in the banking market. Deposits from conventional banks appear to be more affected than those from Islamic banks. The variation may due to the fact that Islamic banks have fewer multinational corporations (MNC) customers than conventional banks and therefore are less sensitive to fluctuations in FDI.

Practical implications

From this analysis, this study concludes that foreign investments have a higher productivity than local investments in MENA region. Attracting more FDI is aimed at increasing overall national productivity through competition. However, governments would be wise to enact such a policy to maximize benefits and minimize potential harm to local industry. Furthermore, FDI policy should encourage small to medium-size banks and firms (SMEs)’ participation and linkage with multinational banks and MNCs, while upgrading research and development institutions and innovation activities to help SMEs to benefit from potential spillovers from foreign presence in the industry. In addition, the linkage and connection between SMEs and foreign firms should be strengthened and promoted by government policy.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of FDI inflows on bank deposits. It also provides an in-depth quantitative analysis of the impact of FDI flow and FDI stock, separately, on bank deposits for both conventional and Islamic banks. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which FDI inflows may affect bank deposits. The study analyzes 25 years of panel data for 491 banks (12,275 year observations) and uses both static and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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