The present study examines entrepreneurship in established firms holistically and critically. The authors start by reviewing previous research and highlight a variety of…
The present study examines entrepreneurship in established firms holistically and critically. The authors start by reviewing previous research and highlight a variety of definitional, conceptual, methodological, contextual, and temporal factors that have been confounding the research. The authors then present a multidimensional framework that specifies a more nuanced picture of the determinants, motives, activities, and consequences of corporate in established firms. Finally, the authors discuss conceptual, methodological, and practical implications, as well as outline future research avenues.
Building on the entrepreneurship, marketing and strategic management literature, we propose a conceptual model to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial strategic…
Building on the entrepreneurship, marketing and strategic management literature, we propose a conceptual model to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial strategic posture (ESP), perceived environmental uncertainty and international diversifi cation strategy on performance. The ESP‐International diversification‐Performance relationship is investigated using a contingency framework. Entrepreneurial strategic posture is postulated to influence the use of international diversifi cation strategy of entrepreneurial fi rms. Moreover, perceived environmental uncertainty is hypothesized to strengthen the relationship between a firm’s entrepreneurial strategic posture and international diversification strategy, which ultimately affect the firm’s performance. Propositions for further empirical studies are provided in addition to managerial and theoretical contributions.
Studies of entrepreneurial orientation tend to merge its three components‐proactiveness, risk-taking, and innovativeness‐into a monolithic construct and analyze its…
Studies of entrepreneurial orientation tend to merge its three components‐proactiveness, risk-taking, and innovativeness‐into a monolithic construct and analyze its relationship with firm outcomes at one point in time. This has resulted in knowledge voids related to the relative importance of the different components, their specific effect on value created by the firm, and their evolution over time. The present study links each component of entrepreneurial orientation to economic value creation using a longitudinal dataset. Results provide support for hypothesized relationships. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to study how dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness and risk taking) affect…
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to study how dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness and risk taking) affect international performance in competitive and technology-intensive international environments.
Methodology/approach – To address the research questions, structural equation modelling is applied to Finnish survey data (N=271).
Findings – Our findings reveal that the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation are differentially related to international performance, and that their effect is contingent on moderating variables.
Research limitations – One limitation is the use of cross-sectional data as it limits the possibility of drawing strong conclusions from the development of the relationships between the different constructs. Also the fact that the study was conducted in a single-country setting is a limitation.
Practical implications – Results indicate that entrepreneurial behaviour is of importance for international business managers. However, results imply that prior to striving for proactive behaviour, competitive aggressiveness and venturesome risk taking managers should study their international market environments carefully and truly understand the nature of these turbulent markets, as in many occasions strong emphasis on entrepreneurial behaviour did not contribute positively to the international performance indicators, such as increasing sales and profits.
Originality/value of the chapter – Present study extends the works of Zahra and Garvis (2000), Lumpkin and Dess (2001) and Wiklund and Shepherd (2005), for example, by (a) applying entrepreneurial orientation on international business, (b) examining the effects of different dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation on a firm's international performance and (c) extending the research of the role of moderating effects on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance.
In this chapter, the authors examine the main effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – a firm’s strategic entrepreneurial posture – on balancing exploration and…
In this chapter, the authors examine the main effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – a firm’s strategic entrepreneurial posture – on balancing exploration and exploitation in the form of organizational ambidexterity. Resource-constrained firms face an imperative to conduct innovative activities, survive hostile environments, and compete with larger and more resource-rich firms. The authors contend that firms can address these potential impediments through achieving ambidexterity via dynamic capabilities, firm-specific resources, and institutional factors. Specifically, The authors review the EO and ambidexterity literatures and summarize extant arguments related to the relationship between EO, exploration, and exploitation. The authors also discuss the most prominent scales and measures of EO, exploration, and exploitation. Moreover, the authors discuss operationalizational challenges that should be considered when conducting EO–ambidexterity research and suggest future research directions by specifying an agenda outlining useful theoretical perspectives and various contingencies that may influence the EO–ambidexterity relationship.
The purpose of this study is to assess the current prevalence of empirical research in the field of social entrepreneurship. Further, we identify secondary datasets and…
The purpose of this study is to assess the current prevalence of empirical research in the field of social entrepreneurship. Further, we identify secondary datasets and explain their relative strengths and weaknesses for use by social entrepreneurship scholars.
The authors conducted a search of academic articles in the EBSCO and ProQuest databases mentioning social entrepreneurship, social venture(s), social enterprise(s), or social entrepreneur(s) in the title, abstract, or keywords published from 2009 to 2013. Papers were coded and analyzed based upon the nature of their methods.
We find that while qualitative studies are still the norm, quantitative methods are increasing, thanks to the creation of large-scale datasets and the use of analysis techniques new to the field. Three such large-scale datasets – the PSED II, GEM, and nonprofit tax collections – are discussed in depth. We find several strengths and weaknesses for each dataset, yet each provides social entrepreneurship scholars with fruitful opportunities.
Value of chapter
Through a deeper understanding of empirical research and sources of social entrepreneurship data, scholars may be more attracted to social entrepreneurship, better equipped to conduct high-quality research and publish in high-quality outlets. Moreover, by moving beyond case studies and small-sample research to engaging larger pools of subjects and producing more generalizable findings, social entrepreneurship scholars will have the ability to impact a much broader scope of practitioners.
Research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has attracted researchers’ attention for over 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively analyze the body of…
Research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has attracted researchers’ attention for over 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively analyze the body of literature resulting from 30 years of research in EO, and to answer the following questions: what are the major themes that have emerged? What areas are missing? What degree of convergence do we see in the field of EO, and what concepts/topics has the field converged around?
A bibliometric study with a sample of 405 articles published from January 1987 to July 2014 was developed. Techniques of bibliometric, lexical, and content analysis were used. The analysis involved: the evolution of published articles; the main authors, their nationalities, and institutional affiliations; citation and co-citations analysis; the journals that have published the most articles; and the most frequently-searched topics. Opting for bibliometric techniques permit an analysis of a larger number of articles and a greater variety of articles than other methodologies such as meta-analyses and systematic review studies. Accordingly, a more comprehensive look at the field of EO can be taken.
Two distinct but complementary classifications are proposed to characterize the body of the literature resulting from 30 years of research in EO. The first one demonstrates that the field presents a convergence of the themes in four axis which together comprise studies on EO: performance, strategy, entrepreneurial attitude, and management. The second one presents the frequency of occurrence of the themes in the field: high-frequency themes or classical themes, frequently in the literature; moderate-frequency themes or emerging issues have not been sufficiently explored; low-frequency themes or potential opportunities related to understudied issues and contexts less frequently surveyed. A future research agenda is proposed for emerging themes and specific contexts.
The identification of key themes in the field of EO contributes to assess the research evolution in order to recognize emerging themes and contexts, and the research gaps. With this, it is possible to lead new studies to cover a lack of research and advance knowledge in the field. The themes most studied also show the contribution for EO to organizational practice, especially in relation to the impact on the performance, the stimulus to the development of innovations, and the effects on organizational growth. Additionally, the identification of the authors most cited, most productive on the theme and the identification of the core journals for publishing of the area is recommended as a general reference for researchers interested in the topic of EO.
Although EO literature has been widely developed in Anglo regions (especially in the USA and UK) and Germanic Europe (especially Spain), there are others lacking these studies, especially Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Middle East, with rare articles published internationally. The results can guide the advancement of research in these different contexts and realities where even issues more widely treated in the literature have been unexplored. The lack of studies in certain contexts can lead to new studies for inserting new insights into EO, such as potential differences between developed regions and in development. For regions where the studies on EO are more developed, the results of this paper contribute to signaling issues and contexts little explored that may be the focus of attention.
The generation of literature indicators of EO through bibliometric fills a research gap on the theme, providing a more comprehensive view of the field and of the current status of the research on EO. Identifying the most frequent topics in EO literature, and little-explored themes and contexts makes it possible to propose an agenda for future research and knowledge generation on EO. Thus, it is suggested the development of studies focus on emerging themes like growth, learning, knowledge, resources, and capabilities; also in specific contexts with potential for aggregating new knowledges in the EO field such as family firms, non-profit organizations, social contexts, the public sector, university, spin-off, firms in emerging and developing economies.
A large body of research has exhibited the positive effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance. However, research that attempts to explore what happens…
A large body of research has exhibited the positive effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance. However, research that attempts to explore what happens to high EO firms when they mature is sorely needed. Every firm establishes a heritage over time that impacts future capabilities. In the current research, we build on the international business literature to examine how a firmʼs administrative heritage moderates the long-term effects of the EO-performance relationship, examined through the firmʼs asset specificity, founder tenure, and home culture embeddedness. From this, implications are derived for EO retention and the firmʼs awareness of administrative heritage and how to shape it to their advantage.
The purpose of this study is twofold. First, the authors aim to investigate the applicability of the five (EO) dimensions of autonomy, innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness, and competitive aggressiveness to a medium‐sized firm. Second, the research seeks to explore firm processes leading to the development of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in a medium‐sized domestic US firm. Thus, it endeavours to examine the applicability of EO dimensions as well as the processes by which EO arose in the focal company.
The authors use a multi‐method approach entailing analysis of archival data as well as semi‐structured interviews of executives to examine the applicability of EO dimensions as well as the processes associated with the development of EO to a medium sized firm competing in a Midwestern US market. Such an in‐depth analysis of one firm provides rich data, enabling the exploration of EO using qualitative methods.
While the medium‐sized domestic US business had high levels of autonomy and proactiveness, it exhibited moderate levels of innovativeness and risk‐taking, and only a low level of competitive aggressiveness. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that organizational artifacts facilitate the development of EO and support organizational culture. Specifically, the organizational artifacts of having an ESOP, a flat hierarchy, inter‐unit coordination, and customer communication facilitated EO, and reinforced the organizational culture aspects of empowerment, openness, teamwork, quality services, customer satisfaction, and adaptability.
This study is among the first to examine all five EO dimensions as well as to use qualitative methods to do so. It also illustrates how EO applies to medium‐sized firms, and identifies processes by which these dimensions develop.
This chapter provides an article-by-article annotated bibliography of the extant social entrepreneurship literature from the top management and entrepreneurship journals…
This chapter provides an article-by-article annotated bibliography of the extant social entrepreneurship literature from the top management and entrepreneurship journals. Special emphasis is given to the methods used in empirical studies, providing a one-stop reference to scholars interested in conducting social entrepreneurship research.
Forty-three social entrepreneurship articles from ten top management and entrepreneurship journals were selected and summarized.