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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Mohammad Tayeenul Hoque, Mohammad Faisal Ahammad, Nikolaos Tzokas, Shlomo Tarba and Prithwiraj Nath

Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities (DMC), this paper examines the role of key internationalization knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities (DMC), this paper examines the role of key internationalization knowledge absorption processes as learning strategies, namely market exploitation and market exploration in enabling internationalization knowledge absorption in export-oriented firms involved in manufacturing goods or producing electrical/engineering products.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered via a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire (i.e. n = 315) on a sample of Bangladeshi manufacturing firms exporting in US and European markets.

Findings

The findings suggest that an export firm's internationalization absorption strategies are positively associated with export performance. The authors also found that the mediator, DMC, strengthened the relationship between knowledge absorption and export performance. Moreover, the findings of moderated mediation model revealed that the direct and indirect effects of market exploitation on export performance are more prevalent when competitive intensity is low. While competitive intensity is high, the direct and indirect effects of market exploration on export performance are more prevalent.

Practical implications

By introducing a higher-level dynamic marketing capability approach and linking it to ambidexterity constructs (learning though exploration and exploitation), export business professionals should appreciate the full spectrum of mid-level marketing capabilities they need to develop alongside their exploration and exploitation strategies to improve their export performance. This study directs attention to the competitive intensity conditions the exporting firm is facing. When export business professionals are faced with high-level of competitive intensity in the market, they should establish a clear focus on their exploration learning strategies if they wish to enhance their export performance.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to two broad domains of literature: organizational learning and DMC strategy. The study results show that how the two components of international ambidexterity as organizational learning constructs (i.e. market exploration and exploitation) influence knowledge management processes within firms through a firm's possession of a fine configuration of higher-level marketing capability. This study also theoretically and empirically examines how higher-level DMC strategy can mediate the consequence of international knowledge absorption mechanism on firm export performance. From a practical perspective, this study provides useful lessons for exporting firms wishing to enhance their performance.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2021

Kerim Karmeni, Lorraine Uhlaner and Lorenzo Lucianetti

As the transition between exploration and exploitation is a unique challenge for SMEs, what mechanism(s) might facilitate this transition? Building on the entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

As the transition between exploration and exploitation is a unique challenge for SMEs, what mechanism(s) might facilitate this transition? Building on the entrepreneurship literature's entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development framework, this study hypothesizes that the novelty-centered business model (NCBM) may serve as such a mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on cross-sectional survey data collected from 169 Italian SMEs in various sectors, this study tests the mediation, moderation and moderated mediation relationships using the statistical PROCESS procedure.

Findings

Supporting the hypotheses that exploration and exploitation are positively associated within SMEs, that NCBM mediates this relationship and that the indirect relationship between exploration and exploitation by way of NCBM is stronger for SMEs with employees of medium to high creative human capital, the results suggest that SMEs can more effectively exploit new ideas identified in the exploration phase by developing an NCBM and accessing their creative human capital.

Research limitations/implications

Although the robustness checks confirm the direction of the proposed hypotheses, given the cross-sectional nature of the dataset used, a longitudinal study would further validate the proposed framework.

Practical implications

SMEs can successfully achieve the transition between exploration and exploitation by reinventing their business model to compensate for their limited resources in terms of financial or relational capital. They can further enhance their ability to reinvent their business model and, in turn, to exploit innovations by hiring and retaining employees with greater creative human capital.

Originality/value

This study draws on the entrepreneurial opportunity, ambidexterity (exploration-exploitation) and business model literature to enhance our understanding of the role of the NCBM design concept (business model innovation) as a mechanism to achieve temporal ambidexterity in SMEs.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Liang-Hung Lin and Yu-Ling Ho

By distinguishing opportunism-based and bounded rationality-based transaction costs, the study examines how firms use equity/relational governance and boundary spanners'…

Abstract

Purpose

By distinguishing opportunism-based and bounded rationality-based transaction costs, the study examines how firms use equity/relational governance and boundary spanners' guanxi to govern their exploration alliances in a transaction cost economizing way.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a survey methodology for data collection, and the sample consists of 150 exploration alliances formed by large Taiwanese information and electronic firms.

Findings

Findings of this study show that exploration alliances incur considerable transaction costs and require high-level equity control and relational governance. The positive exploration of alliance-equity ownership relationship will be weakened by boundary spanners' guanxi when guanxi serves to harmonize conflicts and mitigate opportunism-based transaction costs, thereby reducing the need for using costly equity ownership to govern exploration alliances. In contrast, the positive exploration alliance-relational governance relationship will be amplified when guanxi becomes a source of legitimacy in the Chinese guanxi institution. This relation-augmenting effect will drive more relational governance because guanxi and relational governance together allow alliance managers to obtain sufficient legitimacy in the formation of a common dominant frame, thereby mitigating bounded rationality-based transaction costs.

Originality/value

By distinguishing various moderating effects of boundary spanners' guanxi and separating transaction costs into two forms, this study contributes to the existing literature as well as advances our understanding of alliance governance decisions in the Chinese business environment.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Ahmad Raza Bilal and Tehreem Fatima

This study aims to extend the much-held strategic entrepreneurial orientation stance and conceptualized it as a psychological disposition of small- and medium-scale…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend the much-held strategic entrepreneurial orientation stance and conceptualized it as a psychological disposition of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) owners. Based on this notion, the authors theorized that individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) is a precursor of success in manufacturing sector SMEs. Building on the credo of action regulation, the authors clarified the IEO and SMEs’ success association by introducing exploration activities as a conduit. Further, the authors posited that entrepreneurial alertness augments the nexus of IEO, exploration activities and SMEs success.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-wave survey was done by drawing a cluster-based sample of 389 SME owners in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The mediation and moderation analysis were done by PROCESS macro that uses bootstrapping with 5,000 draws to calculate the indirect (Model 4), conditional and conditional indirect effects (Model 7) at a 95% confidence interval.

Findings

The results offered empirical support to the conjectured association among IEO and SMEs’ success mediated by exploration activities. Moreover, the conditional direct (between IEO and exploration activities) and indirect impact (among IEO and SMEs’ success mediated by exploration activities) of entrepreneurial alertness was substantiated.

Originality/value

The authors added to the sprouting body of knowledge in the field of entrepreneurial orientation by focusing on its individual-level psychological conception. The authors have unlocked the interplay between IEO and SMEs’ success via the role of action characteristics of exploration activities and entrepreneurial alertness based on the action regulation tenet. Thus, the authors made a novel contribution by linking the micro-level entrepreneurial orientation and actions with macro-level SMEs' success.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Miguel Solís-Molina, Miguel Hernández-Espallardo and Augusto Rodríguez-Orejuela

This study aims to analyze the moderating role of a firm’s alliance learning capability. The aim is to investigate the comparative performance of developing exploitation…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the moderating role of a firm’s alliance learning capability. The aim is to investigate the comparative performance of developing exploitation (or exploration) activities in collaboration with others vs adopting a go-it-alone posture.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compare high levels of co-exploitation (or co-exploration) that represent the collaboration stance vs low levels of co-exploitation (or co-exploration) that characterize the go-it-alone posture. Data were collected using a sample of 262 manufacturing firms that developed exploitation-based innovations and 239 exploration-based innovations. Regression models were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Empirical results suggest that the best performance is reached by firms that exploit or explore collaborating with others at high levels of alliance learning capability. In contrast, firms perform better by going alone in exploitation activities at low levels of alliance learning capability.

Practical implications

Firms may complement internal efforts of exploitation or exploration by co-developing knowledge with other organizations for higher performance. However, collaborating with others is not free of drawbacks, and, under certain circumstances, the go-it-alone strategy is more convenient.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence of the role of a firm’s alliance learning capability in determining the differential performance of carrying on exploitation or exploration activities in collaboration with others vs adopting a go-it-alone stance. Thus, it offers an alternative perspective in the literature on organizational learning and innovation management, in contrast with the exploitation and exploration balanced perspective of ambidexterity, by explaining how alliance learning capability fosters firm performance combining exploitation or exploration at organizational and inter-organizational levels.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Avi Kaplan, Mirit Sinai and Hanoch Flum

Identity exploration is a central mechanism for identity formation that has been found to be associated with intense engagement, positive coping, openness to change…

Abstract

Purpose

Identity exploration is a central mechanism for identity formation that has been found to be associated with intense engagement, positive coping, openness to change, flexible cognition, and meaningful learning. Moreover, identity exploration in school has been associated with adaptive motivation for learning the academic material. Particularly in the fast-changing environment of contemporary society, confidence and skills in identity exploration and self-construction seems to be increasingly important. Therefore, promoting students’ identity exploration in school within the curriculum and in relation to the academic content should be adopted as an important educational goal. The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for interventions to promote students’ identity exploration within the curriculum. The framework involves the application of four interrelated principles: (1) promoting self-relevance; (2) triggering exploration; (3) facilitating a sense of safety; and (4) scaffolding exploratory actions.

Approach

We begin the paper with a conceptual review of identity exploration. We follow by specifying the conceptual framework for interventions. We then present a methodological-intervention approach for applying this framework and describe three such interventions in middle-school contexts, in the domains of environmental education, literature, and mathematics.

Findings

In each intervention, applying the principles contributed to students’ adaptive motivation and engagement in the academic material and also contributed to students’ identity exploration, though not among all students. The findings highlight the contextual, dynamic, and indeterminate nature of identity exploration among early adolescents in educational settings, and the utility of the conceptual framework and approach for conceptualizing and intervening to promote identity exploration among students.

Value

This paper contributes to the conceptual understanding of identity exploration in educational settings, highlights the benefits and the challenges in intervening to promote identity exploration among students, and discusses the future directions in theory, research, and practice concerned with the promotion of identity exploration in educational settings.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Guktae Kim and Moon-Goo Huh

Despite the theoretical assumption that balancing exploration and exploitation is important for long-term performance and survival, previous studies have provided few…

Abstract

Despite the theoretical assumption that balancing exploration and exploitation is important for long-term performance and survival, previous studies have provided few insights into these relationships because they have focused mainly on the short-term financial performance of organizations. In addition, balancing exploration and exploitation is a critical challenge for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that lack the resources, capabilities, and experience necessary to achieving ambidexterity. In this regards, this study empirically explores the relationship between the exploration–exploitation balance and SMEs’ longevity in order to address two important questions from the ambidexterity perspective: (1) How does the balance between exploration and exploitation influence organizational survival? (2) How is the appropriate balance between exploration and exploitation influenced by an organization’s internal and external contexts?

An analysis of 1981–2012 data from the Korean SMEs in IT industry reveals an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between the extent of exploratory innovation and organizational longevity, providing support for the ambidexterity perspective. We further examine the moderating effects of financial slack and environmental dynamism on the relationship between exploratory innovation and organizational longevity. The results indicate that financial slack moderated the exploration–longevity relationship and call for a contingency approach for a better understanding of performance implications of the exploration–exploitation balance.

Details

Exploration and Exploitation in Early Stage Ventures and SMEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-655-2

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Toni Sfirtsis and Rudy Moenaert

The dynamic capabilities perspective focuses on the ability of an organization to develop its resource base in order to meet environmental expectations. Therefore, it is…

Abstract

The dynamic capabilities perspective focuses on the ability of an organization to develop its resource base in order to meet environmental expectations. Therefore, it is closely interrelated to the issue of managing the interaction of exploration and exploitation. The competence of continuously optimizing the interaction of exploration and exploitation has been referred to as organizational ambidexterity. Managing this interaction implies resolving a firm's permanent struggle to overcome the barriers related to the right configuration between exploration and exploitation.

By incorporating the concept of combinative capabilities as balancing routines into the conceptualization of ambidexterity we distinguish structural, interaction, and socialization capabilities that are deployed in overcoming these barriers to resource (re)configuration.

Drawing on knowledge management and barriers to resource configuration we expect that the way organizations deploy combinative capabilities to manage the interaction between exploration and exploitation depends on the observed barriers to resource (re)configuration. By combining the constructs of barriers to resource reconfiguration, ambidexterity, and combinative capabilities we intend to gain more insight in the way organizations manage the actual interaction between exploration and exploitation. Our paper will introduce a set of propositions indicating the relationship between ambidexterity, barriers to resource (re)configuration, and combinative capabilities as balancing routines.

Details

A Focussed Issue on Identifying, Building, and Linking Competences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-990-9

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Blake D. Mathias

Since March (1991) presented his ideas on organizational learning, hundreds of empirical tests have been conducted on relationships among the activities of exploration

Abstract

Since March (1991) presented his ideas on organizational learning, hundreds of empirical tests have been conducted on relationships among the activities of exploration, exploitation, ambidexterity, and firm performance. Despite continued interest in his ideas, there has not been a systematic assessment of extant research to reveal whether, and to what extent, these activities relate to firm performance. This study uses meta-analysis to take a next step by aggregating results of 117 studies from more than 21,000 firms. I find strong performance effects for exploration and exploitation, but contrary to received theory, I discover ambidexterity yields weaker effects than a focus on either exploration or exploitation. Thus, I leverage these findings to offer future research opportunities.

Details

Exploration and Exploitation in Early Stage Ventures and SMEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-655-2

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Younggeun Lee and Patrick M. Kreiser

In this chapter, the authors examine the main effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – a firm’s strategic entrepreneurial posture – on balancing exploration and…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors examine the main effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – a firm’s strategic entrepreneurial posture – on balancing exploration and exploitation in the form of organizational ambidexterity. Resource-constrained firms face an imperative to conduct innovative activities, survive hostile environments, and compete with larger and more resource-rich firms. The authors contend that firms can address these potential impediments through achieving ambidexterity via dynamic capabilities, firm-specific resources, and institutional factors. Specifically, The authors review the EO and ambidexterity literatures and summarize extant arguments related to the relationship between EO, exploration, and exploitation. The authors also discuss the most prominent scales and measures of EO, exploration, and exploitation. Moreover, the authors discuss operationalizational challenges that should be considered when conducting EO–ambidexterity research and suggest future research directions by specifying an agenda outlining useful theoretical perspectives and various contingencies that may influence the EO–ambidexterity relationship.

Details

The Challenges of Corporate Entrepreneurship in the Disruptive Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-443-7

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