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Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
Among the prominent economic trends in recent decades is the exponential increase in flows of goods and capital driven by technological progress and falling of…
Among the prominent economic trends in recent decades is the exponential increase in flows of goods and capital driven by technological progress and falling of restrictions. A key driver of this phenomenon has been the cross-border production, foreign investment, and trade both final and intermediate goods by multinational corporations. Research has sought to understand how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects host economies. This paper reviews the main theories and empirical evidence of two streams of literature: the mechanisms by which multinational activity might create positive effects and externalities to countries and the role of complementary local conditions, also known as “absorptive capacities,” that allow a country to reap the benefits of FDI paying particular attention to the role of factor markets, reallocation effects, and the linkages generated between foreign and domestic firms. The survey focuses mainly on work related to developing countries.
This paper aims to investigate the causal nexus between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth in SAARC countries.
Johansen's cointegration test was employed to examine the long‐run relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth in SAARC countries. Besides, the vector error correction model (VECM) was employed to examine the causal nexus between foreign direct investment and economic growth in SAARC countries for the years 1970‐2007. Finally, the impulse response function (IRF) has been employed to investigate the time paths of log of foreign direct investment (LFDI) in response to one‐unit shock to the log of gross domestic product (LGDP) and vice versa.
The Johansen cointegration result establishes a long‐run relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic product (GDP) for the sample of SAARC nations, namely, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The empirical results of the vector error correction model exhibit a long‐run bidirectional causal link between GDP and FDI for the selected SAARC nations except India. The test results show that there is a one‐way long‐run causal link from GDP to FDI for India.
This paper employed annual data to examine the causal nexus between FDI and economic growth. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the FDI‐growth relationship further by using quarterly data.
The SAARC nations should adopt effective policy measures that would substantially enlarge and diversify their economic base, improve local skills and build up a stock of human capital recourses capabilities, enhance economic stability and liberalise their market in order to attract as well as benefit from long‐term FDI inflows.
This paper would be immensely helpful to the policy makers of SAARC countries to plan their FDI policies in a way that would enhance growth and development of their respective economies.
The end of World War II brought about many economic changes, among them the tremendous increase of US manufacturing activities in Western Europe. This astronomical…
The end of World War II brought about many economic changes, among them the tremendous increase of US manufacturing activities in Western Europe. This astronomical increase of foreign direct investment (FDI) required a new theory ‐ an economic theory of foreign direct investment. International economic theory, which traditionally had ignored the FDI decision, was not able to explain the FDI decision, nor could it explain the phenomena of multinational corporation (MNC). In a world of perfect competition, foreign direct investment would be absent. And when all markets operate efficiently, when there are no external economies of production and marketing, when information is costless and there are no barriers to trade or competition, international trade is the only possible form of international involvement. Logically, it follows that it is the departures from the models of perfect competition that must provide the rationale for foreign direct investment. Since, according to the Heckscher‐ Ohlin‐Samuelson (neoclassical) model, trade of goods will equalize factor prices in a world of factor immobility. In fact, the FDI decision is even ignored by new international economics which, since the late 1970's, has utilized new developments in the field of industrial organization. Proponents of these new theories have developed models that emphasize increasing returns and imperfect competition and see the possibility that government involvements in trade (trade restrictions, export subsidies, etc.) may under some circumstances be useful. All of this is done while foreign direct investment is ignored.
This paper attempts to fill the knowledge gap in the area of foreign direct investment (FDI) research in the regions of Caucasus and Central Asia. Various dimensions of FDI…
This paper attempts to fill the knowledge gap in the area of foreign direct investment (FDI) research in the regions of Caucasus and Central Asia. Various dimensions of FDI were analyzed from a comparative perspective drawing on a number of selected case studies of inward investors in Georgia and Kyrgyz Republic. The results indicated that the FDI activity in Georgia and Kyrgyz Republic was a market‐seeking type focusing heavily on location‐specific attractions of the two countries. Although the issue of corruption affects foreign investors, it does not act as a major deterrent of FDI infl ows. The most serious problem influencing the performance of FDI firms was found to be inefficiency of local labor force, excessive bureaucracy and red tape, and differences inherent in the business practices of host countries. In general, however, it was found that foreign investors have been satisfied with their performance largely due to the relatively smooth competition and the availability of several market niches in both host country markets.
This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investments and financial reporting changes via financial development in 12 Latin American countries during the…
This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investments and financial reporting changes via financial development in 12 Latin American countries during the period from 1997 to 2010.
In order to control the possible endogeneity problem, the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation technique has been conducted using country-level panel data obtained from the World Development Indicators website.
The empirical analyses provide evidence that international accounting standards have a significant effect on foreign direct investments. However, financial development associated with such standards reduces this positive effect. This is an important finding, suggesting that investors are likely to prefer portfolio to direct investments in Latin American financial markets that require or permit the use of international accounting standards.
The conclusions that have been drawn from this study are important for investors, creditors, and regulators. Although international accounting standards appear to affect foreign investments, there could be a lack of adaptation of these standards to specific economic environments due to cultural, educational, and economic factors. Therefore, firms, regulators, professional organizations, and accounting firms should make necessary arrangements so that the benefits of using these standards increase their costs.
The study contributes to the international accounting literature by examining the effects of international accounting standards and financial development on foreign direct investments in Latin America.
This paper examines in some detail the magnitude, structure and patterns of foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe between 1988 and 1993. The authors…
This paper examines in some detail the magnitude, structure and patterns of foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe between 1988 and 1993. The authors identify and describe three major forms of investment structuring and three operative investment strategies. Data show the actual flows of capital from their source countries to their countries of investment. These data are used to explain the differences in patterns of investment across the CEE. The number and types of foreign direct investments within individual countries are presented and discussed. The paper concludes by assessing the success to date of FDI.
Previous research demonstrates that non-public policy variables (wage rate, raw material, GDP, GDP/capita, inverse of tax rate, and population) have significant influence…
Previous research demonstrates that non-public policy variables (wage rate, raw material, GDP, GDP/capita, inverse of tax rate, and population) have significant influence in determining the flow of U.S. investment. Research has not, however, demonstrated that government accounting variables significantly affect Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) flow into either Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) or non-OPEC countries. In light of this omission, the focus of this inquiry is on the examination of the potential influence of both government accounting and non-public variables in influencing the flow of the stock of U.S. foreign direct investment in the OPEC nations. To accomplish the objective, government accounting and non-public policy variables are employed to investigate whether they matter in determining investment flows into these countries. The results of the study suggest a direct linkage between the flow of FDI and accounting variables.
This study examines the effect of host government interference with foreign investors’ assets on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. The author hypothesizes that the…
This study examines the effect of host government interference with foreign investors’ assets on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. The author hypothesizes that the relationship between host government interference and FDI inflow takes the form of an inverted U shape. The author tests this hypothesis using data from the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes between 1996 and 2017. The results support the above hypothesis. While host government interference with the assets of a few foreign investors may not deter FDI inflow, frequent interferences, which result in an increasing number of host state–foreign investor disputes, reduces FDI inflow in a host country. The analysis also shows that when faced with an increasing host country uncertainty, investors adopt a wait and see strategy. However, how long investors wait depends on the economic situation of the host country. For high-income countries, investors wait until approximately 10 disputes before reducing investments level in a host country, while for low-income countries, this waiting period is a mere two disputes. The findings of this study suggest that countries seeking to attract more FDI should not interfere with the activities of foreign investors, however, if they do, disputes should be settled at home, not in international arbitration courts, because doing so frequently may poison the host environment and deter other foreign investors from investing in the host country.
The Japanese currency has appreciated substantially against most other currencies over the last two decades. During the same time Japan has become one of the world's…
The Japanese currency has appreciated substantially against most other currencies over the last two decades. During the same time Japan has become one of the world's largest providers of FDI. Japan's share of total FDI outflows increased from about 6 percent during the late 70's to 21 percent in 1990 while its share of the total stock of FDI in the world increased from less than 1 percent in 1960 to more than 13 percent in 1993. Not surprisingly, Japan's role in international business in general and its FDI activities, in particular, have attracted considerable attention from researchers world wide. However, much of this attention has been directed towards the patterns and determinants of Japanese foreign direct investment, in particular to the United States. The impact of changes in the value of the Yen on Japanese FDI has been largely overlooked. Thus, this paper fills an important gap in the literature by focusing on the influence of changes of the exchange rate on Japanese foreign direct investment. A comprehensive simultaneous equa‐tion model of Japanese FDI is developed on a regional level to gauge the extent to which currency fluctuations affect Japanese FDI activities. The results suggest that the exchange rate is an effective mechanism through which to influence FDI. Thus, the exchange rate should not be overlooked by the World Trade Organisation in its efforts to further liberalise investment through the Multilateral Agreement on Investment.