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Stephanie McPhail's description above of the difficult living conditions of the judges in Mongolia in 1995 underscores their vulnerability to corrupt practices and their negative perception by the public. Judicial salaries during that year were comparable to those of civil servants but lower than those of lawyers in private practice and ranged from US$33 to US$51 per month (Quah, 2003a, p. 43). More importantly, the living conditions of judges were difficult, especially in the countryside, where one-third of the judges did not own an apartment, and were forced to live in their offices. Consequently, McPhail (1995, p. 45) concluded that the “relatively low salaries and mediocre working conditions” of the judges were “an impediment to attracting highly qualified candidates to the profession.”
Since Mongolia confirmed its new Constitution in 1992, it became a country with democratic political regime and armed forces for self-defense. In political and…
Since Mongolia confirmed its new Constitution in 1992, it became a country with democratic political regime and armed forces for self-defense. In political and geographical respects, it is a developing country in Asia, landlocked between two powers. In accordance with the Constitution, Mongolia adheres to the universally recognized norms and principles of international law and pursues a peaceful foreign and defense policy. Under the Constitution, Mongolia has adhered to its Military Doctrine, which was adopted by the State Great Hural in 1994, is still in effect, and serves as guiding principle of Mongolia's contemporary defense policy. What is more, the post-communist period offered Mongolia a renewed position in international affairs, and the opportunity to reassert its once-disregarded Asian identity. The author pays his attention to the issues of the constitutional basis of Mongolian defense policy, the external and internal environment of defense policy, and the purpose of the armed forces on the basis of legal acts and documents with some basic conception.
Despite the worldwide stagnation in FDI, interest in Mongolia on the part of foreign investors, especially those from East Asia, North America, has grown over the last few…
Despite the worldwide stagnation in FDI, interest in Mongolia on the part of foreign investors, especially those from East Asia, North America, has grown over the last few years, mainly in the mining, trade and service sectors. The increase of FDI into Mongolia can be linked with the Mongolian government’s efforts to establish a more favorable external and internal legal environment in order to provide a free and open regime for business, the shifting tendency of world market center from traditional Europe, America to Asia, namely to China, resolving the “big debt” issue between Mongolia and Russian Federation which open new favorable opportunities for intensification of foreign investment inflows, increased domestic private savings and lastly Mongolia’s GDP steady growth rate during last years. The purpose of this paper is to review FDI inflows into Mongolia, detailing the sectors benefiting from this investment and the countries where it originates, based on information gathered in the period up to 2005.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the destination image of Mongolia held by actual and potential tourists, including how such images are formed and its implications…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the destination image of Mongolia held by actual and potential tourists, including how such images are formed and its implications in destination marketing.
A quantitative research was undertaken in order to understand the image of Mongolia held by actual and potential tourists and how such images were formed. An online questionnaire survey, that utilized structured questions, was carried out in leading travel blogs.
Destination image plays an important role in determining whether a destination will be visited or not. Actual visitors' experience and perception of Mongolia was found to be highly positive and showed that generally the projected image represents an accurate picture of Mongolia. However, many potential visitors perceived Mongolia to be a long haul destination, that is remote and isolated.
Successful destination marketing campaigns will require tourism marketers to understand how those images are formed. This information will enable them to project a positive image to the right target markets. Understanding the information sources is beneficial to long haul destinations such as Mongolia, which can use such channels to promote their destination.
Most destination image studies have concentrated on mainstream tourism destination and less popular long haul destinations such as Mongolia have received little, if no, attention. This paper will appeal to destination marketers of other long haul destinations who are seeking to position their destination in the right target markets.
The political and economic outlook for Mongolia.
The outlook for Mongolia's economy.
This is the first study to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on corporate financial performance (CFP) in Mongolian banks. We hand-collect…
This is the first study to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on corporate financial performance (CFP) in Mongolian banks. We hand-collect data to construct CSR disclosure index from 65 annual reports of 12 banks in Mongolia from 2003 to 2012. The results indicate that banks with larger size or Chief Executive Officer duality exhibit higher CSR performance. Moreover, banks with higher CSR performance tend to have higher net interest margin and lower non-performing loan. Furthermore, the CSR–CFP relationship varies before and after the financial crisis. The findings provide meaningful insight to the foreign investors regarding the effect of CSR on the profitability and credit risk in Mongolian banking sector.
Conceptualizing development in terms of risk management has become a prominent feature of mainstream development discourse. This has led to a convergence between the…
Conceptualizing development in terms of risk management has become a prominent feature of mainstream development discourse. This has led to a convergence between the rubrics of financial inclusion and risk management whereby improved access for poor households to private sector credit, insurance and savings products is represented as a necessary step toward building “resilience.” This convergence, however, is notable for a shallow understanding of the production and distribution of risks. By naturalizing risk as an inevitable product of complex systems, the approach fails to interrogate how risk is produced and displaced unevenly between social groups. Ignoring the structural and relational dimensions of risk production leads to an overly technical approach to risk management that is willfully blind to the intersection of risk and social power. A case study of the promotion of index-based livestock insurance in Mongolia – held as a model for innovative risk management via financial inclusion – is used to indicate the tensions and contradictions of this projected synthesis of development and risk management.
The purpose of this paper is to draw on motivational and cultural theories in entrepreneurship to study the role of culture on the motivational behaviors of female…
The purpose of this paper is to draw on motivational and cultural theories in entrepreneurship to study the role of culture on the motivational behaviors of female entrepreneurs in Mongolia.
After several exploratory field trips to Mongolia, two women‐founded, women‐owned cases were selected and studied.
The findings of these case studies support the extant literature that the need for achievement plays a major role in motivating women to become entrepreneurs. Further, the findings suggest that the Mongolian nomadic culture of adventurism, secular culture of feminism and Asian culture of collectivism play important roles in motivating and supporting women to become successful entrepreneurs.
This study has implications for research on entrepreneurial motivations and women entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial motivations are closely related to cultural values. Thus, culture, particularly entrepreneur's cultural orientation, cannot be discarded or treated separately from entrepreneurial motivation and other entrepreneurial behavior research and studies. For further research, building on this case study, a quantitative cross‐cultural research can be conducted (i.e. collecting data from multiple countries) to draw a wider generalization on the role of culture on entrepreneurial motivation.
The findings of this research can have implications for the development of strategies and policies for fostering women entrepreneurship as a means for creating jobs and overcoming gender inequality.
This study contributes to the knowledge and understanding on the role of culture in supporting women entrepreneurship as a means of promoting gender equality.