In the second edition of Greenwood's “Public Libraries,” 1887, p. 137, there is a description of the Dent Indicator, from which it may be gathered that such an indicator was actually constructed. The inventor, however, is of opinion that his idea never got so far as realization in material form, though there can be hardly any doubt that Mr. Dent's indicator is the first to combine indicating with charging, and that it suggested several succeeding devices. His account of it is interesting, as it mentions the existence of an early form of card indicator which has since been reinvented in various styles. “A certain Mr. Christie, Librarian of the Constitution Hill Branch Library (Birmingham), about 1868, constructed a small rack with cards bearing the titles of a selection of the books in history, science, &c, open to the public, and the presence of one of these tickets in the rack indicated that the book was ‘in.’ If anyone wished to take one of the books thus shown, he lifted the ticket out of the rack (there was no glass in front) and handed it to the attendant who put it in a box till the book came back, and then replaced it almost anywhere in the rack. This gave me an idea that the cumberous system of day‐book, posting‐book, and constant piles of books to be marked off as returned might be done away with, if tickets in a rack representing every number in the library were substituted for book‐entry, &c.” Mr. Dent's improvement upon this idea consisted in the provision of a series of numbered shelves in columns, with spaces between to take the borrowers' cards when the books were out. The back of the borrower's card was to be ruled to allow of numbers and dates being pencilled thereon, and, of course, the presence of a borrower's card under a number indicated a book “ out.”
In a highly competitive market, the price of wine is a variable controlled by suppliers to suggest a level of quality. An index of relative firm position in the market…
In a highly competitive market, the price of wine is a variable controlled by suppliers to suggest a level of quality. An index of relative firm position in the market based on relative prices is calculated for a sample of wine producers. The purpose of the paper is to analyze some of the factors related to the characteristics of a firm and quality that may explain the price strategy of wine producers in a new and small wine region, i.e. Québec province in Canada.
Data on types of wines and prices are collected from a sample of 40 small wine producers in Québec, Canada for the selected years 2008, 2010 and 2015.
The authors demonstrate that a high price strategy is significantly related to the reputation of the vineyard rather than the age of the domain, the size or the number of wines produced.
The analysis has been carried out based on a data set of only 40 firms for which the price-position index could be calculated. Unfortunately, only limited information is available on producers and production volumes.
This analysis is of particular relevance for small or new wine-producing regions, which lack an established reputation. Because wine quality and taste differ by geographic origin and variety, new wine-producing regions may have opportunities to define a wine’s image (or a winery image) and the producer must inform the market on quality of the wine by reflecting it on the final selling price.
Prior works on the analysis of the price-quality relationship give rise to various and sometimes contradictory results. This analysis is of particular relevance to explain the price strategy of small wine producers in a strongly competitive market where the price remains an obvious commercial argument to signal the quality of a wine.
This paper aims to explore Living Labs (LL) as knowledge systems for urban service projects. This empirical study aims to identify and characterize knowledge in LL…
This paper aims to explore Living Labs (LL) as knowledge systems for urban service projects. This empirical study aims to identify and characterize knowledge in LL dedicated to urban service projects. It also aims to understand how through knowledge path, LL redefine the management of projects. First, the praxeologic and academic context underlining the main challenges associated to urban service projects is presented. It mainly concerns the growth of the cities (Haouès-Jouve, 2013), the problematic of social acceptability (Savard, 2013) as well as the normative approaches to manage projects (Kerzner, 2010). Second, a literature review on co-innovation and Livings Labs is presented. (Chesbrough, 2004; Gaglio, 2011). This paper also presents the concept of knowledge applied in an LL system (Sanders and Stappers, 2008). Here, knowledge refers to dynamic knowledge, as suggested by Argyris (1995).
In the third part, the goals of this study as well as the abductive and “partnership” qualitative methodology that was used are explained (Fontan and René, 2014). The constitutive and the operational definitions on knowledge that have been mobilized are detailed (Piaget, 1974; Gadille, 2012). A special focus is made, here, on distributed knowledge (Nowotny et al., 2002; Trepos, 1996), on “users” as “experts of uses” (Chen et al., 2010). Then, the sample and the four cases of LL that were explored are described.
Finally, the findings are presented. This paper exposed how knowledge lying in the loops of the LL system was characterized and how knowledge is mobilized in an LL. This paper also draws a theoretical model of project management referring to knowledge, LL and co-innovation approach.
To conclude, several implications in project management research and urban studies are presented.
Several implications concern the current practices of project management. Due to some new societal challenges, it is considered that a new professional posture is required.
Several implications concern citizens as users and stakeholders of urban projects.
The originality of the study lies in its content and its format. A specific participative approach was used to explore LL. This paper investigated knowledge in LL, which are new entities dedicated to very actual projects, where users are co-managers.