This paper looks at a common type of price adjustment, price indexing, which provides contractors with compensation for increases in price volatile commodities. We address…
This paper looks at a common type of price adjustment, price indexing, which provides contractors with compensation for increases in price volatile commodities. We address the effect of Firm Fixed Price (FFP) versus indexed price systems for a price volatile commodity. The impact of these two types of bid systems is analyzed through a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results indicate that an indexed price system does not provide a reduction in costs compared to a Firm Fixed Price system. This study is important to state financial managers as they address the efficient use of resources invested in state infrastructure.
Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of…
Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.
The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).
Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.
The KOSPI 200 options at its initial stage generated a significant number of violations in no-arbitrage conditions which involve both options and the underlying index…
The KOSPI 200 options at its initial stage generated a significant number of violations in no-arbitrage conditions which involve both options and the underlying index. However, when the arbitrage conditions are formed independent of the underlying index, the average size of violation is not large and few arbitrage opportunities exist. There are more frequent violations on near-maturity days, with in-the-money options and larger violation sizes during opening and closing hours. The arbitrage opportunities remain intact even after realistic transaction costs are taken into account and index futures prices are used instead of the stock index in an alternative specification.
We construct a new consumer price index for Canada covering the period from 1870 to 1900. Unlike previous indexes, it includes prices of clothing and household furnishings. This is important because these previously neglected components accounted for roughly 20% of consumers' expenditures. Moreover, the price of cotton goods, the most important textile product used for clothing and household furnishings, fell by half between 1870 and 1900 (much faster than other components of the price level). This has ramifications for both the level and trend of Canadian GDP. Because the largest changes in estimation concern the 1870s, we show that the country grew substantially faster than generally believed. It outpaced the United States so much that it entered the twentieth century with an improved economic standing relative to its southern neighbor.
Real estate is the last major asset class without liquid derivatives markets. The reasons for that are not fully known or understood. Therefore, the purpose of this paper…
Real estate is the last major asset class without liquid derivatives markets. The reasons for that are not fully known or understood. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to better understand the main factors that influence the propensity of commercial real estate investors in the UK to employ property derivatives.
The research methodology that was chosen for this research is grounded theory which, in its original form, goes back to Glaser and Strauss (1967). A total of 43 interviews were conducted with 46 real estate professionals in the UK from property investment management firms (investing directly or indirectly in real estate), multi-asset management firms, real estate investment trusts, banks, and brokerage and advisory firms, among others.
The research results show 29 factors that influence the propensity of direct and indirect real estate investors in the UK to employ property derivatives. Out of the 29 factors, the current research identified 12 factors with high-explanatory power, 6 with a contributing role and 11 with low explanatory power. Moreover, factors previously discussed in the literature are tested and assessed as to their explanatory power. The focus of this paper is on those factors with high-explanatory power. From the research data, three main reasons have been identified as the sources of investor reluctance to trade in property derivatives. The first and main reason is related to a mismatch between motivations of property investment managers and what can be achieved with the instruments. The second reason, which ties in with the first one, is a general misunderstanding as to the right pricing technique of property derivatives. Finally, the third reason is a general lack of hedging demand from the investor base owing to the long investment horizons through market cycles.
The research contributes to the literature on property derivatives in various ways. First, it extends the literature on market hurdles in property derivatives markets by testing and extending the hurdles that were proposed previously. Second, the research shows that the existing pricing models need to be extended in order to account for the risk perception of practitioners and their concerns with regard to liquidity levels.
For both theory and practice, the research has shown some limitations in using property derivatives for purposes such as creating index exposure or hedging. Another contribution, in this case to practice, is that this study provides a clearer picture as to the reasons that keep property investment managers away from using property derivatives.
The research results indicate that liquidity per se is not a universal remedy for the problems in the market. In addition to the need for improving the understanding of the pricing mechanism, practitioners should give more thought to the notion of real estate market risk and the commensurate returns that can reasonably be expected when they take or reduce it. This implies that property index futures currently do not price like those on any other investable asset class.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the price discovery role of the Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200 (KOSPI 200) stock index options market in contrast to other…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the price discovery role of the Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200 (KOSPI 200) stock index options market in contrast to other developed options markets.
The price discovery roles of the stock and options markets using the error‐correction model derived from the co‐integration relationship are examined. Various analyses are conducted. First, Heston's stochastic volatility option pricing model is employed to confirm its usefulness, and compare the results with the Black and Scholes (BS) model. Second, whether the out of the money (OTM) options purchased by individual investors have a stronger price discovery role than options with other moneyness is examined. Finally, whether options have a stronger price discovery role in bullish or bearish markets than in normal markets is tested.
It is found that stock index prices lead implied index prices estimated from option prices using both BS and Heston models. In regards to the OTM options, the lead‐effect of real stock index to implied index prices holds. Also it is shown that there is a weak rise in the lead effect of the options to the stock index, but the lead effect of stock index market rules over that of the options market.
The paper examines the price discovery role of the KOSPI 200 stock index options market in contrast to other developed options markets and the results indicate that the consensus on the Korean financial markets may be incorrect.
A useful instrument to understand and examine the inner workings of the property trade is devising index numbers of property prices based on historical sequences of market prices. The present work aims at the definition of index numbers of property prices, proposing an innovative methodology compared with what usually recurs in literature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these issues.
The analysis proposed, based on the mechanisms of formation of stock indices, investigates the analogies between stock and property information, according to the peculiarities of the property trade, leading to a methodology approach, derived from Simple Price Index Method, able to consider possible anomalies in the collected sample of purchase prices, using weighting coefficients based on reliability coefficients of sale prices of properties.
The novel approach proposed has led to the definition of a original methodology useful to appraise property price index numbers and other derived indicators, effective for interpreting and identifying real estate market dynamics in a given area of study, regarded as a standard estimating methodology applicable to any geographical context and kind of property.
Methodology proposed in this work is useful to revalue real estate sales price and to consider presence of anomalous sales price in property samples.
The calculation of index numbers of prices is usually based on Simple Price Index Methods. Literature shows large use of different methods, such as Repeat Sales Method, Hedonic Price Method, Repeat Value Model. The present work propose an innovative methodology able to detect the presence of possible anomalous market prices in the representative sample, using an appropriate vector of weights in order to take into account the level of reliability of market data.
An economic indicator faces two requirements. It should be reported in a timely manner and should not be significantly altered afterward to avoid erroneous messages. At…
An economic indicator faces two requirements. It should be reported in a timely manner and should not be significantly altered afterward to avoid erroneous messages. At the same time, it should reflect changing market conditions constantly and appropriately. These requirements are particularly challenging for housing price indices, since housing markets are subject to large temporal/seasonal changes and occasional structural changes. The purpose of this paper is to estimate a hedonic price index of condominiums of Tokyo, taking account of seasonal sample selection biases and structural changes in a way it enables us to report the index in a manner which is timely and not subject to change after reporting.
The paper proposes an overlapping‐period hedonic model (OPHM), in which a hedonic price index is calculated every month based on data in the “window” of a year ending this month (this month and previous 11 months). It also estimates standard hedonic housing price indexes under alternative assumptions: no structural change (“structurally restricted”: restricted hedonic model) and different structure for every month (“structurally unrestricted”: unrestricted hedonic model).
Results suggest that the structure of the housing market, including seasonality, changes over time, and these changes occur continuously over time. It is also demonstrated that structurally restricted indices that do not account for structural changes involve a large time lag compared with indices that do account for structural changes during periods with significant price fluctuations.
Following the financial crisis triggered by the US housing market, housing price index guidelines are currently being developed, with the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, and Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development leading the way. These guidelines recommend that indices be estimated based on the hedonic method. We believe that the hedonic method proposed here will serve as a reference for countries that develop hedonic method‐based housing price indices in future.
In the many studies involving conventional housing price indices, whether those using the repeat‐sales method or hedonic method, there are few that have analyzed the problem of market structural changes. This paper is the first to construct a large database and systematically estimate the effect that changes in market structure have on housing price indices.
Focusing on the spillover effects between the CSI 500 stock index futures market and its underlying spot market during April to September 2015, the purpose of this paper…
Focusing on the spillover effects between the CSI 500 stock index futures market and its underlying spot market during April to September 2015, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether Chinese stock index futures should be responsible for the 2015 stock market crash.
Using both linear and non-linear econometric models, this paper empirically examines the mean spillover and the volatility spillover between the CSI 500 stock index futures market and the underlying spot market.
The results showed the following: the CSI 500 stock index futures market has significant one-way mean spillover effect on its spot market. The volatility in CSI 500 stock index futures market also has a significant positive spillover effect on its spot stock market, and the mean value of dynamic correlation coefficient between the two market volatility is 0.4848. The spillover effect of the CSI 500 stock index futures market on the underlying spot market is significantly asymmetric, characterized by relatively moderate and slow during the period of the markets rising, yet violent and rapid during the period of the markets falling. The findings suggest that although the stock index futures itself was not the “culprit” of Chinese stock market crash in 2015, its existence indeed accelerated and exacerbated the stock market’s decline under the imperfect trading system.
Different from the existing literature mainly focusing on CSI 300 stock index futures, this paper empirically examines the impact of the introduction of CSI 500 stock index futures on 2015 Chinese stock market crash for the first time.
The chapter reviews and extends the theory of exact and superlative index numbers. Exact index numbers are empirical index number formula that are equal to an underlying…
The chapter reviews and extends the theory of exact and superlative index numbers. Exact index numbers are empirical index number formula that are equal to an underlying theoretical index, provided that the consumer has preferences that can be represented by certain functional forms. These exact indexes can be used to measure changes in a consumer's cost of living or welfare. Two cases are considered: the case of homothetic preferences and the case of nonhomothetic preferences. In the homothetic case, exact index numbers are obtained for square root quadratic preferences, quadratic mean of order r preferences, and normalized quadratic preferences. In the nonhomothetic case, exact indexes are obtained for various translog preferences.
- exact index numbers
- superlative index numbers
- flexible functional forms
- Fisher ideal index
- normalized quadratic preferences
- mean of order r indexes
- homothetic preferences
- nonhomothetic preferences
- cost of living indexes
- the measurement of welfare change
- translog functional form
- duality theory
- Allen quantity index