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1 – 10 of 157
Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2014

Hemantha S. B. Herath, Wayne G. Bremser and Jacob G. Birnberg

Empirical evidence indicates that effective management of resources to implement strategy in a balanced scorecard (BSC) system is essential. We present a mathematical…

Abstract

Purpose

Empirical evidence indicates that effective management of resources to implement strategy in a balanced scorecard (BSC) system is essential. We present a mathematical model for allocating limited resources in the BSC strategy implementation process.

Methodology/approach

The proposed facilitated negotiation model provides a systematic approach to prioritizing strategic initiatives in the design and implementation of a BSC.

Findings

Our joint decision model prioritizes strategic initiatives and concurrently calculates the optimal (or approximately optimal) set of BSC targets and weights, given multiyear resource restrictions.

Practical Implications

The model assumes full, open, and truthful exchange of information between the parties; an assumption that may exclude many organizations.

Social Implications

We address an important gap in the BSC literature on how organizations can effectively link strategy to the potential constraint of resource budgets.

Originality/value

Quantitative models are being used in practice for allocating resources, but we are not aware of their use by organizations for allocating resources in a BSC application.

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Evelyne Hahang, Secil Bayraktar and Alfredo Jiménez

Given the critical consequences of the current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis worldwide, displaying good leadership has been of utmost importance. Hospitality has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the critical consequences of the current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis worldwide, displaying good leadership has been of utmost importance. Hospitality has been among the industries that have been hit the hardest by the pandemic, and it requires exceptional leadership skills unique to this crisis and sector. This multi-country study aims to contribute to the understanding of some of the most important skills and strategies that leaders in the hospitality industry may use to navigate the COVID-19 crisis effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with managers of international hospitality groups or local hotel chains in seven different countries.

Findings

The results show that positive thinking, decision-making, flexibility, divergent thinking, trust-building and communication skills have a positive impact on leadership effectiveness in the hospitality sector during the pandemic. Besides, saving payroll costs, elaborating contingency plans and leveraging from partners' strengths are highlighted as crucial strategies.

Practical implications

This paper provides hospitality professionals across borders preliminary insights and recommendations to manage the COVID-19 crisis.

Originality/value

Especially being one of the sectors that have been hit the hardest by the COVID-19 crisis worldwide, the dynamics and leadership requirements of the hospitality sector need further attention. The findings contribute to the literature by illustrating how managers have navigated the initial stages of the crisis in the under-researched hotel sector, and also by gathering evidence about the sector dynamics related to the early stages of this crisis.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Ibrahim Oluwole Raji, Eduard Shevtshenko, Tommaso Rossi and Fernanda Strozzi

Lean and agile are essential supply chain management (SCM) strategies that enhance companies' performance. Previous studies have reported the capabilities of different SCM…

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Abstract

Purpose

Lean and agile are essential supply chain management (SCM) strategies that enhance companies' performance. Previous studies have reported the capabilities of different SCM strategies to enhance performance; however, the emergence of Industry 4.0 technologies has bred focus on the possibility of attaining more levels of operational performance. Despite being demonstrated helpful at enabling supply chain (SC) strategies, the literature linking Industry 4.0 with SCM strategies is still in its infancy. Thus, this work investigates the degree to which “Industry 4.0 technologies” enable the implementation of lean and agile practices and subsequently assesses the potential performance implications of integrating Industry 4.0 technologies with the SC operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The work employs an exploratory case study approach using empirical data from selected organisations drawn from an Estonian manufacturing cluster and digital solution providing companies. The data collected via interviews were used to assign numerical scores and subsequently aggregated across the five cases for the research variables of interest. The work is crowned with a model grounded on the cross-case analysis to depict which technologies impact each of the lean and agile practices.

Findings

The analysis enabled comprehension of the potential impact and level of importance of the main Industry 4.0 technologies on lean and agile practices and ultimately the potential implication on performance. The findings revealed that the technologies have a high impact on the practices. Although the impacts are of varying degrees, the analysis provides means to identify the technologies with the most significant impact on lean and agile SCM and the sets of practices with the greatest likelihood of being enabled by various digital technologies.

Practical implications

The work presents various lean and agile practices that practitioners can deploy to operations, alongside the technologies that could support the implementation of the practices towards achieving the various performance measures. Also, it provides some guides for the digital solution providing companies towards understanding the SCM practices that can be improved upon by various digital technologies. This enables them to have more saleable proposals for intending companies who might be sceptical about transiting into the digital operation phase.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to empirically address the connection between Industry 4.0 technologies and the integrated lean and agile strategies despite literature backing of the complementary nature of the two SCM strategies.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Mitsuhiro Imaizumi, Kazumi Yasui and Toshio Nakagawa

A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased…

Abstract

A large number of microprocessors (μPs) have been widely used in many practical fields and the demand for improvement of their reliabilities have recently increased. Watchdog processors (WDPs) are small and simple coprocessors that can detect errors by monitoring the behavior of μPs. This paper formulates three reliability models of μP systems with WDPs: model 1 considers the system where a main processor (MPu) has n WDPs with self checking. Next, model 2 considers the system with upper limit number of resets. Further, model 3 discusses the system with limit processing time. The expected costs of each model are derived and the optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically. Finally, the numerical examples are given.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Andrea Gallant and Virginnia Gilham

The purpose of this paper is to focus on teacher coachees’ perceptions of why some coaching goals (selected by coaches or coachees) were more achievable than others and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on teacher coachees’ perceptions of why some coaching goals (selected by coaches or coachees) were more achievable than others and how this knowledge might advance a coaching culture that has the potential for sustainable improvements to teaching and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

As educators, the authors took a constructivist approach to grounded theory because the authors believe learning is socially constructed. The relationship between coach and coachees is underpinned by their constructed meanings and co-constructed learning. constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 1996) requires researchers not to start with a theory or hypothesis but to engage with data in a manner (coding, categorising, theorising) that allows for a theoretical understanding to emerge. In total, 22 teacher coachees from one school participated in this research. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire about their coaching experiences, speculating about why some goals (related to improving student reading, writing, speaking and listening, and math) were more achievable than others. One of the researchers had been a coach in the school, but not at the time of the research. Nonetheless online questionnaires were used as they offered teacher coachees anonymity to share their lived experiences (Charmaz, 2006). This data collection method also assisted in limiting accidental leading by an interviewer (Charmaz, 2006).

Findings

The investigation into longitudinal coaching (one to six years) indicated how coachees positioned themselves or peers, when reflecting on and seeking to establish why some coaching goals were more achievable than others. Coachees clustered around one of the following themes: Pragmatic I, Pragmatic We, Student Driven, Team Driven, Data Driven, Research Driven. Theorising within and across themes highlighted that while coachees shared the same concerns, they differed in terms of how much they each focused on them. This allowed the authors to gauge the intensity of the concern (dominate, moderate or slight) for each participant. Notwithstanding the overlap, the seventh theme (temporality) serendipitously aligned with their exposure to coaching. Differentiated models of coaching appears to be a way to establish a coaching culture as multiple models could be responsive to divergent coachees’ learning needs. In doing so it is more likely to support sustainable improvements in teaching and learning.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size (n=22) was appropriate for an in-depth analysis which allowed an understanding of coaching from the coachees’ first-hand experiences although it does limit generalisability. Another limitation is that coachees were not asked about teaching experience, hence the relationship between years of teaching and coaching exposure was not analysed. This is something that the authors feel now needs to be included in further research. Implications of the findings are that instructional coaches within schools may need to be more cognisant of the developmental stages and therefore differentiated needs of teacher coachees. This is particularly so if the aim is to promote sustainable pedagogical improvement.

Originality/value

This is a case study of the effects of longitudinal coaching (one to six years) in a school where all teachers are involved in being coached.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Eli Noy

The article describes a new approach to the cost/benefit aspect of management control systems which will help managers decide which control system is worthwhile improving…

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Abstract

The article describes a new approach to the cost/benefit aspect of management control systems which will help managers decide which control system is worthwhile improving and how. The new concept is based on two ideas: defining the purpose of a control system as: “Triggering corrective action that will prevent losses which came out of deviation from planned path”; and breaking up the control cycle into five steps and relating separately to each step for improving the present system and its cost/benefit performance.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2023

Grace Guevara-Rosero, Cristian Carrión-Cauja, Lizbeth Simbaña-Landeta and Segundo Camino-Mogro

The service industry has become an important sector for the economic growth, particularly in developing countries. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare…

Abstract

Purpose

The service industry has become an important sector for the economic growth, particularly in developing countries. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare the productivity determinants across firms operating in low and high knowledge intensity service sectors (low knowledge intensive sectors (LKIS) and high knowledge intensive sectors (HKIS)) in Ecuador.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a two-step estimation method. The firm productivity is estimated in the first step and the productivity determinants in the second step. To achieve the objective, the authors use an unbalanced panel database on the financial statements from formal Ecuadorian firms for the period 2007–2018.

Findings

The authors’ results show that LKIS firms are slightly more labor-intensive compared to HKIS firms. Productivity determinants are similar across HKIS and LKIS firms, except for exports and market concentration. HKIS firms are more productive when the competition level is low, indicating that higher market power is associated with higher productivity. The influence of taxes on productivity depends on firm size. Small and medium-sized firms are more negatively affected than large firms.

Practical implications

Taxes should be designed considering the size of the companies, since these could affect their productivity. Thus, lower taxes to small and medium firms may reduce firm size inequality. In addition, the acquired knowledge of HKIS should be spread to other firms becoming a positive externality instead of an entry barrier.

Originality/value

Despite the productivity determinants of the service sector has been recently explored, in contrast to the manufacturing sector, individual and contextual determinants are less identified. In this paper the authors use a large set of firm characteristics that might affect productivity in service firms.

Propósito

La industria de servicios se ha convertido en un sector importante para el crecimiento económico, particularmente en los países en desarrollo. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es comparar los determinantes de la productividad entre empresas que operan en sectores de servicios de baja y alta intensidad de conocimiento (LKIS y HKIS) en Ecuador.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Utilizamos un método de estimación de dos pasos. En primer lugar, estimamos la productividad de las empresas y, en segundo lugar, los determinantes de la productividad. Para esto, utilizamos una base de datos de panel no balanceado sobre los estados financieros de las empresas formales ecuatorianas de los años 2007 a 2018.

Hallazgos

Nuestros resultados muestran que las empresas LKIS son ligeramente más intensivas en mano de obra en comparación con las empresas HKIS. Los determinantes de la productividad son similares entre las empresas HKIS y LKIS, excepto por las exportaciones y la concentración del mercado. Las empresas HKIS son más productivas cuando el nivel de competencia es bajo, lo que indica que un mayor poder de mercado está asociado con una mayor productividad. La influencia de los impuestos sobre la productividad depende del tamaño de la empresa. Las pequeñas y medianas empresas se ven más negativamente afectadas que las grandes empresas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los impuestos deben diseñarse considerando el tamaño de las empresas, ya que podrían afectar su productividad. Por lo tanto, impuestos más bajos para las pequeñas y medianas empresas pueden reducir la desigualdad entre el tamaño de las empresas. Además, el conocimiento que tienen las HKIS debe extenderse a otras empresas convirtiéndose en una externalidad positiva en lugar de una barrera de entrada.

Originalidad/valor

A pesar de que los determinantes de la productividad del sector servicios se han explorado recientemente, en contraste con el sector manufacturero, los determinantes individuales y contextuales están menos identificados. En este artículo utilizamos un amplio conjunto de características de las empresas que podrían afectar la productividad en las empresas de servicios.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1965

ON May 17 the Secretary of State for Defence, Mr Healey, informed the House of Commons that the Government had that day signed a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ with the…

Abstract

ON May 17 the Secretary of State for Defence, Mr Healey, informed the House of Commons that the Government had that day signed a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ with the French Government on the joint development of two military aircraft. The first is a supersonic fixed‐wing aircraft which will be adopted by both the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy as an advanced trainer to replace the Hunter and Gnat, while the French will use the aircraft in both the trainer and light strike roles. Both governments will commit enough funds to enable the prototype stage of aircraft and engine to be completed and both countries intend to proceed to full production.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2010

Hemantha S.B. Herath, Wayne G. Bremser and Jacob G. Birnberg

The balanced scorecard (BSC) allows firms to place importance on both financial and nonfinancial performance measures in four perspectives for developing and implementing…

Abstract

The balanced scorecard (BSC) allows firms to place importance on both financial and nonfinancial performance measures in four perspectives for developing and implementing corporate strategy and performance evaluation. The BSC literature however provides minimal insight on how to set targets, how to weigh measures when evaluating managers and the firm, and how to resolve conflicts that arise in the BSC process. Researchers have attempted to fill these gaps using two contending approaches. In particular, Datar et al. (2001) uses an agency model to select the optimal set of weights and more recently Herath et al. (2009) develop a mathematical programming–based collaborative decision model to find the optimal (or approximately optimal) set of target and weights considering inputs from two parties. In this article, we apply the Herath et al. (2009) model to a detailed BSC example. We demonstrate how the collaborative BSC model can be implemented in Microsoft Excel by practitioners to minimize BSC conflicts. Finally, we discuss how the model facilitates alignment and a culture of open reporting (information sharing) around the BSC that is necessary for its effective implementation.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-755-4

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Lan Luo, Limao Zhang, Xian Zheng and Guangdong Wu

This paper proposes a novel hybrid simulation approach that incorporates the structural equation model (SEM) and system dynamics (SD) to investigate the impacts of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes a novel hybrid simulation approach that incorporates the structural equation model (SEM) and system dynamics (SD) to investigate the impacts of leadership dynamics on project performance under different scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

SEM is used to identify and validate a correlation between leadership variables and project performance statically. On this basis, the SD model is constructed to depict a system model connecting the leadership and project performance. Different scenarios are simulated to dynamically model the variation in leadership on the evolution of project performance.

Findings

Results indicate that (1) leadership can be divided into personal ability, relationship atmosphere and organizational strategy in complex construction projects; (2) personal ability, relationship atmosphere and organizational strategy positively correlate with project performance over time; and (3) L1 (stress management ability), L7 (team building) and L17 (institution support) are the leading factors influencing project performance and should be paid more attention under limited resources.

Originality/value

This research contributes to (1) the state of the knowledge by proposing a hybrid methodology that can systematically model the impacts of leadership dynamics on project performance over time and (2) the state of the practice by gaining a better understanding of the strategy of resource distribution for enhancing project performance in complex construction projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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