Search results

1 – 10 of 94
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Sophie Rutter, Paul David Clough and Elaine G. Toms

The information use environment (IUE) – the context within which the search activity takes place – is critical to understanding the search process as this will affect how the…

1220

Abstract

Purpose

The information use environment (IUE) – the context within which the search activity takes place – is critical to understanding the search process as this will affect how the value of information is determined. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what factors influence search in English primary schools (children aged 4–11) and how information found is subsequently used.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten teachers, selected using maximal variation sampling, describe search-related activities within the classroom. The resulting interview data were analysed thematically for the influence of the environment on search and different information uses. The findings were then validated against three classroom observations.

Findings

12 categories of information use were identified, and 5 aspects of the environment (the national curriculum, best practice, different skills of children and teachers, keeping children safe, and limited time and resource) combine to influence and shape search in this setting.

Research limitations/implications

Findings support the argument that it is the IUE that is the key influence of search activity. What makes children a distinct user group is linked to the environment within which they use information rather than age, as advocated in previous studies.

Practical implications

The features of search systems and practical guidance for teachers and children should be designed to support information use within the IUE.

Originality/value

As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study to consider the influence of the IUE on how search is enacted within primary schools.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 75 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Sophie Rutter, Elaine G. Toms and Paul David Clough

To design effective task-responsive search systems, sufficient understanding of users’ tasks must be gained and their characteristics described. Although existing…

Abstract

Purpose

To design effective task-responsive search systems, sufficient understanding of users’ tasks must be gained and their characteristics described. Although existing multi-dimensional task schemes can be used to describe users’ search and work tasks, they do not take into account the information use environment (IUE) that contextualises the task. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

With a focus on English primary schools, in four stages a multi-dimensional task scheme was developed that distinguishes between task characteristics generic to all environments, and those that are specific to schools. In Stage 1, a provisional scheme was developed based upon the existing literature. In the next two stages, through interviews with teachers and observations of school children, the provisional scheme was populated and revised. In Stage 4, whether search tasks with the same information use can be distinguished by their characteristics was examined.

Findings

Ten generic characteristics were identified (nature of work task, search task originator, search task flexibility, search task doer, search task necessity, task output, search goal, stage in work task, resources and information use) and four characteristics specific to primary schools (curricular area, use in curricular area, planning and location). For the different information uses, some characteristics are more typical than others.

Practical implications

The resulting scheme, based on children’s real-life information seeking, should be used in the design and evaluation of search systems and digital libraries that support school children. More generally, the scheme can also be used in other environments.

Originality/value

This is the first study to develop a multi-dimensional task scheme that considers encompasses the IUE.

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Elaine G. Toms and Heather L. O'Brien

The purpose of this paper is to understand the needs of humanists with respect to information and communication technology (ICT) in order to prescribe the design of an…

3388

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the needs of humanists with respect to information and communication technology (ICT) in order to prescribe the design of an e‐humanist's workbench.

Design/methodology/approach

A web‐based survey comprising over 60 questions gathered the following data from 169 humanists: profile of the humanist, use of ICT in teaching, e‐texts, text analysis tools, access to and use of primary and secondary sources, and use of collaboration and communication tools.

Findings

Humanists conduct varied forms of research and use multiple techniques. They rely on the availability of inexpensive, quality‐controlled e‐texts for their research. The existence of primary sources in digital form influences the type of research conducted. They are unaware of existing tools for conducting text analyses, but expressed a need for better tools. Search engines have replaced the library catalogue as the key access tool for sources. Research continues to be solitary with little collaboration among scholars.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on a self‐selected sample of humanists who responded to a web‐based survey. Future research needs to examine the work of the scholar at a more detailed level, preferably through observation and/or interviewing.

Practical implications

The findings support a five‐part framework that could serve as the basis for the design of an e‐humanist's workbench.

Originality/value

The paper examines the needs of the humanist, founded on an integration of information science research and humanities computing for a more comprehensive understanding of the humanist at work.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Shelley Gullikson, Ruth Blades, Marc Bragdon, Shelley McKibbon, Marnie Sparling and Elaine G. Toms

Recent studies of web‐site use indicate that people do not come to the web for an “experience”, they come for information. Yet, to date, web‐site design has been synonymous with…

3590

Abstract

Recent studies of web‐site use indicate that people do not come to the web for an “experience”, they come for information. Yet, to date, web‐site design has been synonymous with the “look and feel” of a site overlooking the significance of a site’s information architecture. In this study, we assessed the effect of the information architecture of an academic web site: how information is categorised, labelled and presented, and how navigation and access are facilitated. Twenty‐four participants from six faculties attempted to answer typical questions often asked within an academic milieu. They were able to find the answers to just over half the questions successfully and, in subjective assessments, gave the site a failing grade. We address how the information architecture affected their ability to negotiate the site and, additionally, make recommendations for the key ingredients: information design, access tools, and navigational aids.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Barbara Wildemuth, Luanne Freund and Elaine G. Toms

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of current…

2200

Abstract

Purpose

One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of current practice in developing those search tasks to test, observe or control task complexity and difficulty.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 100 prior studies of IIR were examined in terms of how each defined task complexity and/or difficulty (or related concepts) and subsequently interpreted those concepts in the development of the assigned search tasks.

Findings

Search task complexity is found to include three dimensions: multiplicity of subtasks or steps, multiplicity of facets, and indeterminability. Search task difficulty is based on an interaction between the search task and the attributes of the searcher or the attributes of the search situation. The paper highlights the anomalies in our use of these two concepts, concluding with suggestions for future methodological research related to search task complexity and difficulty.

Originality/value

By analyzing and synthesizing current practices, this paper provides guidance for future experiments in IIR that involve these two constructs.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2012

Maja Žumer

298

Abstract

Details

Program, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Tze Guek Quek

186

Abstract

Details

Library Management, vol. 34 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Tze Guek QUEK

330

Abstract

Details

Library Management, vol. 34 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Julia Gelfand

211

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2023

Ivan Sebalo, Lisa Maria Beethoven Steene, Lisa Lee Elaine Gaylor and Jane Louise Ireland

This preliminary study aims to investigate and describe aggression-supportive normative beliefs among patients of a high-secure hospital.

Abstract

Purpose

This preliminary study aims to investigate and describe aggression-supportive normative beliefs among patients of a high-secure hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

Therapy data from a sample of high-secure forensic hospital patients (N = 11) who had participated in Life Minus Violence-Enhanced, a long-term violence therapy, was examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). During therapy, cognitions linked to past incidences of aggression were explored using aggression choice chains.

Findings

IPA was applied to data generated through this process to examine the presence and nature of normative beliefs reported, identifying seven themes: rules for aggressive behaviour; use of violence to obtain revenge; processing emotions with violence; surviving in a threatening world; do not become a victim; using violence to maintain status; and prosocial beliefs.

Originality/value

Findings demonstrate that forensic patients have specific aggression-supportive normative beliefs, which may be malleable. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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