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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Bo Yang, Pingping Fu, ‘Alim J. Beveridge and Qing Qu

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice…

Abstract

Purpose

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use case studies of three exemplary humanistic leaders and the companies they lead to describe their leadership practices and influence on others and their companies.

Findings

The authors identify three common elements that connect their observations to an emerging scholarly conceptualization of humanistic leadership and develop a framework of Confucian humanistic leadership consisting of five attributes. The cases the authors studied suggest that the five attributes should be understood as being mutually reinforcing and acting in concert, rather than each acting independently of the others. The authors found that there is inherent consistency and connection between the core values of Confucianism and humanistic leadership.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the leadership literature, specifically the emerging literature on humanistic leadership, by introducing a framework for Confucian humanistic leadership. While much of the extant literature on humanistic leadership has been conceptual, the study shows how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context by drawing on the foundation provided by Confucian humanistic philosophy. The findings also contribute to humanistic leadership research by providing important insights into specific capabilities that can help put the principles of humanistic leadership into practice, but that have not been considered to date.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Kaori Ono and Jusuke J.J. Ikegami

This study contributes to the construction of a theory on humanistic leadership in the context of Japanese culture. Although the Japanese management system has been…

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the construction of a theory on humanistic leadership in the context of Japanese culture. Although the Japanese management system has been described as human-oriented, there has been limited research on this subject, especially regarding top leaders. This case study focuses on Konosuke Matsushita, the founder of Matsushita Electric (now Panasonic), who devoted his life as a businessperson to investigating human nature. The authors examined how the humanistic approach influenced his beliefs and behaviors, as well as his company's performance. The authors then show how current employees at Panasonic have implemented and interpreted his philosophy.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a qualitative case study. Data were gathered from transcriptions of archived recordings, interviews and Internet documents. They were then coded for analyses.

Findings

The findings show how humanistic leadership can succeed via seven behaviors: building a company philosophy aimed at the prosperity of society and the well-being of people, being aware of one's own weaknesses, listening to others, improving oneself, developing people, respecting people and making a profit for society.

Originality/value

The study identifies the behavioral aspects of humanistic leadership for building a leadership theory and provides insight into how Matsushita's leadership characteristics and behaviors are connected to Japanese cultural values.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Robert Parent, Joanne M. Roch and Julie Béliveau

The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of a new action research methodology, the learning history, to study knowledge transfer initiatives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of a new action research methodology, the learning history, to study knowledge transfer initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of the literature on learning histories is followed by the results of a case study, where a learning history is used to transfer humanistic practices from an American health care model to a Quebec setting.

Findings

This study demonstrates how the learning history method can act as a catalyst to accelerate the knowledge transfer process. It has helped researchers and practitioners recognize and address the challenges involved in implementing change and transferring new knowledge in an organization.

Research limitations/implications

Although the learning history provides a fresh and effective way to study learning and knowledge concepts, the potential of this new methodology in studying knowledge transfer activities has not been fully explored. The limitations are primarily those associated with the amount of work involved in a developing a learning history as well as the courage and honesty it requires.

Practical implications

Approaches to improving learning from experience and descriptions about how to capture and disseminate knowledge within organizations are somewhat limited. The findings of this study offer practitioners and researchers guidance on how to accelerate the implementation of future initiatives knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

By linking learning histories to knowledge transfer, this article provides a fresh new approach to studying how knowledge can be transferred from researchers to practitioners and bridging what some have called “the great divide” between these two communities.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2008

Ed Sevilla

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2015

David Thacher

The vast majority of contemporary social scientists have distanced themselves from moral reflection and the academic disciplines that engage in it. Throughout his long…

Abstract

The vast majority of contemporary social scientists have distanced themselves from moral reflection and the academic disciplines that engage in it. Throughout his long career Philip Selznick took a different path, engaging deeply with the moral content of the concepts he employed. This paper argues that he had good reasons to do so. Value neutrality in social research can fatally sever inquiry’s connection to the practical concerns that originally motivated it, and it can distort our understanding of those concerns by recasting them in a scientific mold. To make this case I draw from a long tradition of philosophical thought about the relationship between facts and values, and I illustrate it by examining the limitations of recent social science research about procedural justice in organizations and the order maintenance function of the police.

Details

Institutions and Ideals: Philip Selznick’s Legacy for Organizational Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-726-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

William L. Waugh

The philosophical roots of existentialism can be found in the writings of Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Sartre, and Camus. Sartre used existentialism to frame the social and…

Abstract

The philosophical roots of existentialism can be found in the writings of Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Sartre, and Camus. Sartre used existentialism to frame the social and political issues of the day after World War II and Camus helped popularize the philosophyʼns focus on individualism and personal freedom. Existentialism provided justification for challenging public officials and regimes and was embraced again by public administrators and citizens frustrated by the failures of foreign and domestic policies in the 1960s and 1970s. Today existentialism and transcendentalist phenomenology remain strong alternatives to empiricism as a methodology in the study of human behavior. They provide a philosophical basis for determining and applying ethical standards, as well as a basis for encouraging public administrators to address major societal problems rather than being overly focused on management technique and administrative process.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Emma O’Brien, Thomas M. Cooney and Per Blenker

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach;…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education has moved from an elitist view focussing on a start-up and picking-the-winners philosophy towards a broader enterprising behaviour approach; recognising entrepreneurship as an activity of relevance for everybody. The purpose of this paper is to extend this development and identify how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support communities that are under-represented in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an integrative literature review (Torraco, 2005), this paper draws together and synthesises literature from the field of entrepreneurship, higher education studies and under-represented communities in an integrated fashion, leading to the development of a new conceptual model.

Findings

This paper challenges the traditional role of universities in supporting entrepreneurship as focussing mainly on economic growth and new venture creation, and identifies how universities are also positioned to provide greater civic support to entrepreneurial learning amongst under-represented communities. Through a critical analysis of the literature, the conceptual model proposed identifies six key considerations in the expansion of university entrepreneurial ecosystems for under-represented communities.

Practical implications

There are currently 96.6m people at risk of poverty and social exclusion in the EU (OECD, 2017) and an estimated 43.1m Americans (US Census Bureau, 2017). This paper explores how university entrepreneurial ecosystems can be expanded to support minority and disadvantaged communities who are under-represented in terms of entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value

Given that there is little research regarding how universities might activate inclusive entrepreneurship initiatives amongst under-represented communities, this paper expands existing knowledge as it identifies the key considerations encompassing university-led community collaborative enterprise support.

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Wan-Ju Chou and Bor-Shiuan Cheng

While current management theory is largely based on economic assumptions, there is evidence to suggest capitalism is at a crossroads. Humanistic management is accordingly…

Abstract

Purpose

While current management theory is largely based on economic assumptions, there is evidence to suggest capitalism is at a crossroads. Humanistic management is accordingly proposed as an alternative new paradigm. The present study follows this approach in considering Confucianism as a humanistic practice. The purpose of this study is to explore humanistic leadership displayed by a Confucian leader and how he/she presents humanistic concern in corporate management to pursue the common good.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a structured–pragmatic–situational approach to conduct a case study and collected data from three sources: semi-structured interviews, consultant observations and archival data.

Findings

The findings reveal that a Confucian leader takes all stakeholders' interests into account while engaging in corporate management and displays humanistic behaviors toward the stakeholders that are in line with five Confucian virtues. The leader cultivates the employees as Confucian humanistic agents. These employees accordingly act as bridges to transmit the humanistic spirit to their customers and other industries in the same market. To initiate an industry change to achieve collective welfare, a Confucian leader must first influence his/her primary stakeholders. The primary stakeholders next collectively influence the secondary stakeholders (i.e. the industry). Consequently, the overall goal of the common good is ultimately sustained.

Originality/value

This study identifies valuable practical implications for humanistic practices in corporate management from a Confucian perspective. In addition, this study takes a significant academic step forward by illuminating the humanistic paradigm.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen and Saiful Azhar Rosly

This paper aims to present a synthesized conceptual model for ethical decision-making in marketing that accommodates both humanistic and religious aspects.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a synthesized conceptual model for ethical decision-making in marketing that accommodates both humanistic and religious aspects.

Design/methodology/approach

A religious–humanistic approach is adopted on synthesizing. “Ferrell and Gresham’s (1985) contingency framework for ethical decision-making in marketing” and “Al-Ghazali’s ethical philosophy” are considered to be the theoretical base for the synthesized model.

Findings

Al-Ghazali’s ethical philosophy that stands for the religious dimension in this study was found appropriate for incorporating into the Ferrell and Gresham contingency framework for ethical decision-making in marketing. The approach (religious-humanistic) adopted for synthesizing the two aspects into one model was justified accordingly.

Research limitations/implications

A newly synthesized model is only conceptually validated. Statistical validity is required based on the variables included in the conceptual model. Future studies are recommended to attain the model fit.

Practical implications

The scale and model developed in the study should help the marketing-department authorities to assess and evaluate ethical aspects of existing individuals in the organization and potential candidates under the selection stage for employment. The research output derived by way of using the newly synthesized conceptual model should be able to pave the way for more in-depth research on actual ethical practices of “marketing practitioners” in the organization. To some extent, understanding of ethical standing of employees should help in improving efficiency and reduce costs from unethical behaviour. This should be able to improve governance from the top- to the lower-level management.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no literature has conceptualized a model that accommodates both materialistic and religious aspects into a single model to explain ethical decision-making of individuals in organizations. This is an initial and a humble attempt to conceptualize a model that incorporates ethical philosophy in Islam, with special reference to Al-Ghazali’s ethical philosophy.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Ritu Tripathi and Abhishek Kumar

To identify the characteristic features of humanistic leadership in the Tata group in India, and to explicate the key facilitating factors.

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the characteristic features of humanistic leadership in the Tata group in India, and to explicate the key facilitating factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Narrative case-study inquiry via semi-structured interviews with top management leaders and middle managers, and secondary sources of information.

Findings

The top leaders of the Tata companies emphasised the following values and leadership experience: (1) Adherence to the founder's philosophy and the basic core values, (2) Leadership with Trust, (3) Community as the key purpose of the enterprise, (4) Senior leaders as mentors and role-models, (5) Abiding by the ethical code of conduct, (6) Employee-focus and (7) Tacit alignment with Indian cultural values. These resonated with the humanistic leadership tenets. Based on the literature the authors also identified that in Tata leadership, there is an amalgamation of personal values (humata, hukhta, hvarshta: good thought, word and deed) and national cultural ethos (dharma, karma and jnana: emphasis on duty-bound action and knowledge). These leadership values are conveyed and institutionalised in the organisation via strategic initiatives such as the Tata Trusts, Tata Business Excellence Model, Tata Code of Conduct. This synergy of personal values, national cultural ethos and organisational strategy makes Tata group realise the humanistic leadership objectives, while achieving business targets.

Research limitations/implications

The thematic analysis of interview data provides a contextualised understanding of how humanistic leadership gets realised at both the individual behavioural level, as well as at the broader organisational strategic level. This provides inputs to building the theory of humanistic leadership.

Practical implications

By unravelling the factors that facilitate the realisation of humanistic leadership in the Tata group, the authors provide an exemplar for other organisations and business leaders to draw insights from.

Social implications

Humanistic leadership, oriented towards upliftment of community and society, and not just profit maximisation, is critical to creating a more sustainable and peaceful world.

Originality/value

This is one of first studies that conceptualises the Tata leadership from the humanistic perspective. The theoretical insights are of basic and applied use.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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