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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Uduak Michael Ekong and Christopher Nyong Ekong

This study aims to empirically investigate the effect of digital currency development (digital finance) on financial inclusion in Nigeria for the period. Nigeria undertook…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically investigate the effect of digital currency development (digital finance) on financial inclusion in Nigeria for the period. Nigeria undertook her digital currency development to rip the benefits of financial inclusion, safer remittances and exchange rate regularization among others.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers developed high-frequency quarterly data for the analysis from 2006:1 to 2020:4 in a weighted stepwise forward regression. A model similar to the one used by Demir et al. (2020) and Altunbas and Thornton (2019) with some modifications was developed.

Findings

Findings suggest that (1) a unit rise in the usage of automated teller machines by citizens spontaneously raised financial inclusion in a quarter in Nigeria by 0.012 units and were statistically significant; (2) a percentage rise in the use of point of sales transaction by citizens in the country also raised financial inclusion in Nigeria by approximately 1%; (3) a percentage increase by mobile payment users in Nigeria will spontaneously increase financial inclusion by at least 0.4%; (4) a percentage rise in web payment services reduces financial inclusion by 22% in Nigeria; (5) Cumulative positive effect of digital finances on financial inclusion in Nigeria was approximately 7%.

Practical implications

The researches show, using in-sample forecast, that while financial inclusion will grow in Nigeria, it will not be without systemic fluctuations. Based on the outcome, it is proposed that if the present digital currency penetration for the country is sustained at the present growth rate, the country may be more financially inclusive by 2% additionally by 2025 and 4% more by 2030.

Originality/value

Originally, it is found that digital currency development are positive derivatives for financial inclusion in Nigeria. Cumulatively, the effect of digital finances on financial inclusion in Nigeria is approximately 7% positive.

Details

Journal of Internet and Digital Economics, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6356

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Hifzur Rab and Syeda Anjum

The purpose of this paper is to study the process of price determination by the market in the existing variable fiat money regime and its consequences.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the process of price determination by the market in the existing variable fiat money regime and its consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

Scientific knowledge pertaining to units and measurement has been applied to study the issue of wealth measurement and to arrive at the consequences of monetary manipulation. As regards Shariah perspective it may be described as guided application of science to the issue of currency and wealth measurement to analyze and solve economic problems.

Findings

Manipulation of currency that is manipulation of quantity of what determines purchasing power of money does not allow market to determine just prices implying lack of justice in exchange. Profitability of economic activities no longer relates to their utility for the economy implying gross inefficiency in profit driven investment. Market fails to maintain economic balances. These amount to extreme losses. It has led to massive economic uncertainty, instability, disparity, corruption and conflicts. Economic growth, justice and peace become unattainable. It is a serious crime as currency being unit of wealth is the most important unit and it is strictly prohibited in Shariah. Unless corrected for monetary manipulation financial modes recommended by Shariah seem to be unjust and impractical.

Research limitations/implications

Application of scientific approach and scientific knowledge to economic issues especially the issue of wealth measurement needs higher emphasis, efforts and resources.

Practical implications

Governments ought to be persuaded not to manipulate money. Right solution is to link currency with a standard basket of national products with sufficient weight for gold and silver having most stable purchasing power. Unless accounting is corrected for monetary manipulation preferred Islamic modes of finance seem to be unjust and impractical. Where currency is manipulated Shariah/justice requires accounting for dues, capital, profit and loss to be corrected for this manipulation and in present scenario relative change in Consumer Price Index and Whole Sale Price Index may be used as a measure of currency manipulation.

Originality/value

Monetary manipulation has been clearly defined and extreme severity of the problems it creates has been established. It is most important for researchers, academics, government functionaries, social workers and all those who are concerned with economic growth, justice and welfare.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Subhankar Parbat, CS Trupti Upadhyay and Adwitiraj Banerjee

“Digital India” was launched by the Government of India in July 2015, with a vision of transforming India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. India's…

Abstract

“Digital India” was launched by the Government of India in July 2015, with a vision of transforming India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. India's momentum toward digitalization took a swift pace after the demonetization of currency notes of 500 and 1,000 rupees. The government stressed the use of digitalized payments through apps that use UPI (Unified Payment Interface) and Core Banking System to move the banking sector toward a more digitalized system. The Nordic countries, on the other hand, had a developed digitalized system from the late 1990s and in the present context, they are in paramount positions in terms of global digitalized economies. In recent times Nordic countries like Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland have performed overwhelmingly in terms of Digital Economy and Social Index (DESI). The Internet penetration in India and the use of mobile phones in the country is compared with the Nordic countries, trying to present the comparative advantage in those countries.

Details

Comparative Advantage in the Knowledge Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-040-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2005

Harvey Arbeláez

Propensity to dollarize in Latin America in the demand-side of some economies of the region has a strong political risk component which, in the past, was mainly carried…

Abstract

Propensity to dollarize in Latin America in the demand-side of some economies of the region has a strong political risk component which, in the past, was mainly carried out by inflationary pressures. Coping with risk meant holding FCDs. A recursive multilevel model is developed and empirically tested with Colombia’s data to stress a country-specific tendency to dollarize due to political risk. The chapter’s conclusions suggest that consideration of issues, policies and implications inherent to the decision to dollarize cannot ignore that, the solution to any government-enforced dilemma in the supply-side of these economies, is also politically motivated. Results of a survey are also provided.

Details

Latin American Financial Markets: Developments in Financial Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-315-0

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Praveen Bhagawan M. and Jijo Lukose P.J.

Theoretical studies suggest that hedging helps firms to reduce their financial distress costs and underinvestment problem especially if the markets are imperfect. Hence…

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Abstract

Purpose

Theoretical studies suggest that hedging helps firms to reduce their financial distress costs and underinvestment problem especially if the markets are imperfect. Hence hedging, through the use of currency derivatives, is one of the important financial policies for firms. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the determinants of derivatives usage by Indian firms using financial disclosures on currency derivatives by non-financial constituents of S&P CNX 500 for 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

We manually collect the data on foreign currency derivatives from firms’ annual reports for 2009 and then follow Haushalter’s (2000) approach to examine the determinants of firms’ decision to hedge. A firm can make its hedging decision at once, deciding whether to hedge and how much to hedge. Given the nature of dependent variable that is censored, it is appropriate to use Tobit regression. A firm can also decide its hedging decision in two steps by deciding first on whether to hedge and later how much to hedge. The former is modelled by probit regression and later by conditional regression.

Findings

Our empirical evidence suggests that forwards are the main instruments for managing currency risk followed by options and swaps. The objectives, in the order of priority, are reduction in exposure associated with foreign currency receivables, foreign currency long-term loans and foreign currency payables. Firm’s decision to hedge is positively related to size, foreign exchange exposure and leverage, while negatively related to liquidity and investment opportunities. We find evidence of higher derivative usage by firms with both higher currency risk and higher financial distress costs.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper will help corporates, researchers and regulators to understand firms’ motives behind hedging.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study that examines the determinants of firm’s decision to hedge and the extent of hedging in the context of emerging economies like India.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2013

Sujeet Kumar Sharma, Hafedh Al-Shihi and Srikrishna Madhumohan Govindaluri

The purpose of this paper is to understand the customer perception of service quality with respect to the e-Government services in Oman and conduct an investigation in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the customer perception of service quality with respect to the e-Government services in Oman and conduct an investigation in order to determine the key factors that affect the quality of e-Government services in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data relating to the variables affecting quality of e-Government services and demographic profile data are collected using a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was designed based on literature review and focus groups. Factor analysis method is employed to identify and rank the important factors affecting service quality.

Findings

The study found that the four factors listed in the descending order of importance, reliability, responsiveness, efficiency, and security are primary determinants of the quality of e-Government services in Oman.

Practical implications

This research enables government organizations to enhance their understanding of customer perception of e-Government services. The customer preference information can provide useful direction to the design, implementation, and management of e-Government services.

Social implications

Improved service quality of e-Government systems can enhance public participation in these systems that have been established with huge investments. The improved participation can result in increased levels of efficiency, convenience, public awareness, transparency, engagement, and information for decision-making.

Originality/value

The paper addresses quality of e-Government services for the first time in Oman and in the gulf region using a carefully designed research study. The paper is of value to researchers in the area of service quality of e-Government, Government of Oman, and governments in the gulf region and other developing countries that are involved in designing and managing e-Government service systems.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 29 April 2022

One of these is SWIFT, the global interbank messaging system from which Russian banks have been largely excluded since the invasion. This issue has drawn attention to…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB268899

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Expert briefing
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Nigeria will be the 15th country to launch a pilot of central bank digital currency (CBDC); China was the first major economy to do so. A further 68 central banks are in…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB263446

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Gordon McCrae, Julian Hardinge and David Scrimgeour

Describes the development and use of the Book Trade Electronic DataInterchange Standard (BEDIS) at Paisley College Library in collaborationwith the booksellers, John Smith…

Abstract

Describes the development and use of the Book Trade Electronic Data Interchange Standard (BEDIS) at Paisley College Library in collaboration with the booksellers, John Smith & Sons (Glasgow). BEDIS is an automated book supply system which has advantages over systems presently used by many large libraries which rely on downloaded systems and which therefore have the disadvantage of locking a library into one supplier. Describes the development and installation of the BEDIS system from the viewpoint of the librarian, the bookseller and the computer analyst. Stuart James gives an overview and considers favourably the system′s future application in other libraries.

Details

New Library World, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 21 February 2019

From fiat to digital currencies.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB241964

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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