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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Abdullah Al-Swidi, Sheikh Mohammed Rafiul Huque, Muhammad Haroon Hafeez and Mohd Noor Mohd Shariff

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of theory of planned behavior (TPB) with special emphasis on measuring the direct and moderating effects of…

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8645

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of theory of planned behavior (TPB) with special emphasis on measuring the direct and moderating effects of subjective norms on attitude, perceived behavioral control and buying intention in context of buying organic food.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed among academic staffs and students of two universities in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed model fit.

Findings

Results of the study showed that subjective norms significantly moderate the relationship between attitudes and buying intention as well as between perceived behavior control and buying intention. Furthermore, subjective norms significantly influence attitude toward buying intention.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful insights for the academics and marketers. Academics may further explore the role of subjective norms in order to have a better understanding of their effects on TPB components. Whereas, marketers can target the opinion leaders and reference groups to increase the demand of organic food.

Originality/value

Majority of previous studies overlooked the role of subjective norms in determining the buying intentions with respect to organic food. The striking feature of this study is an in-depth emphasis on exploring the direct and moderating effects of subjective norms on the elements of TPB. Moreover, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this is a pioneer study that comprehensively examines the linkage of components of TPB with organic food purchasing in Pakistan.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Bojan Obrenovic, Jianguo Du, Danijela Godinić and Diana Tsoy

This study aims to examine psychological mechanisms underlying tacit knowledge-sharing behaviours. The personality trait of conscientiousness is tested in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine psychological mechanisms underlying tacit knowledge-sharing behaviours. The personality trait of conscientiousness is tested in relation to knowledge sharing, and the effect of eagerness and subjective norm on the intention to share is measured in the context of local and multinational knowledge-intensive enterprises in Croatia.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative study was conducted on a sample of 288 employees of small and medium-sized companies working on knowledge-intensive tasks. The purposive sampling technique and a survey strategy were used in the study. Organizational affiliation, as it was presumed that these individuals possess a higher degree of tacit knowledge. The data collection was conducted in October 2019. Respondents worked in science and technology companies in Croatia on assignments involving information technology, electronics, petrochemicals, medicine and biochemistry. Statistical product and service solutions analysis of a moment structures software was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings suggest that the personality trait of conscientiousness has a positive impact on tacit knowledge sharing behaviour. An attitude of eagerness and subjective norm were also confirmed as predictors of tacit knowledge sharing behaviour. Furthermore, conscientiousness influences the eagerness to share knowledge. A significant association between subjective norm and conscientiousness was also established. Finally, the mediating effects were identified, indicating that subjective norm and eagerness mediate the relationship between conscientiousness and tacit knowledge sharing.

Practical implications

Explaining the relationship between personality and attitude in the context of knowledge sharing will result in a better understanding of factors that should be nurtured within individuals. Accordingly, distinct management initiatives are to be developed to suit these factors. Furthermore, to intensify the knowledge exchange when working on knowledge-intensive tasks of significant economic value, organizations tailor a more particularistic application to suit the individual in the domain of leadership, staffing decisions, work organization and incentive systems.

Originality/value

This study provides an in-depth analysis and theoretical understanding of factors salient for knowledge-sharing behaviour. The authors provide an overview of how knowledge sharing evolves during social interaction through intensive problem-solving sessions and teamwork. The authors render the explanation on how the personality trait of conscientiousness, conjoint with the attitude of eagerness to share know-how in the expert surrounding, is conducive to the generation of tacit knowledge sharing. Underpinning this study are employees’ psychological motives and internal drives to communicate individual cognitive capital outweighing the potential negative consequences, such as losing the competitive advantage over the colleagues.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Matthew Tingchi Liu, Yongdan Liu and Ziying Mo

This research extends the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and aims to study the underlying factors that influence Chinese consumers' purchase intentions towards green…

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2171

Abstract

Purpose

This research extends the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and aims to study the underlying factors that influence Chinese consumers' purchase intentions towards green products. The conceptual model encompasses four elements (subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, moral norms and attitude) and one consumer response (purchase intention).

Design/methodology/approach

The current research employs a questionnaire survey and two experiments. In Study 1, the hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling with 485 consumers in China. Study 2 employed a single-factor, two-condition (morally engaged vs control), between-subject design.

Findings

The findings reveal that the morally extended TPB framework is more applicable in predicting Chinese consumers' green purchase intentions than the original TPB model. Attitude plays the most significant role in predicting purchase intentions, and moral norms prove to be a mediator of the relationship between the original construct of subjective norms and purchase intentions. The findings further revealed that moral norms comprise the underlying mechanism of the relationship between subjective norms and attitude.

Originality/value

This study therefore expands the TPB theory by including moral norms. Moreover, it contributes to the literature by clarifying the direct, indirect and total effects of each TPB element on the purchase intentions towards green products. Finally, managerial implications are given.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2019

Hendy Mustiko Aji and Basu Swastha Dharmmesta

With concern on cross-religion research, this study aims to examine Christian consumer attitude towards Islamic TV advertising in Indonesia. This study includes together…

Abstract

Purpose

With concern on cross-religion research, this study aims to examine Christian consumer attitude towards Islamic TV advertising in Indonesia. This study includes together both subjective norm and dogmatism in an analysis as moderating variables.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey for 186 sample respondents was conducted to test nine hypotheses. Multi-group moderation test was conducted to test the moderation effect of subjective norms and dogmatism on the model.

Findings

The results indicate that Christian intrinsic religiosity has a significant negative relationship with Islamic TV advertising credibility. Consumers’ attitudes towards Islamic TV advertising are proven to be the consequence of Islamic TV advertising credibility, even if the relationship is inverted. Moreover, this study concludes that subjective norms and dogmatism significantly moderate the relationship between Islamic TV advertising credibility and attitudes towards Islamic TV advertising differently. Subjective norms tend to weaken the relationship, while dogmatism strengthens it.

Research limitations/implications

During the process of this study, the authors uncovered three research limitations. First, too many measurement items for dogmatism eliminated from the analysis. Second, having balanced proportion for the high and low group has become the concern of this study, Third, a sample size of 186 is not adequate for such a complex model.

Practical implications

Managers should employ endorsers with multi-faceted images who can be accepted by all segments of society to combat the negative perception and attitudes of Christian consumers on Islamic attributes in TV advertising.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on cross-religion marketing research, especially on the topic of advertising, by comparing the internal influence (dogmatism) and external influence (subjective norm) on attitude towards Islamic TV advertising.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

HoJung Choo, Jae‐Eun Chung and Dawn Thorndike Pysarchik

Through structural equation modeling, Fishbein and Ajzen's modified theory of reasoned action model (TORA) is used to study the impact of innovation on Indian consumers…

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5456

Abstract

Through structural equation modeling, Fishbein and Ajzen's modified theory of reasoned action model (TORA) is used to study the impact of innovation on Indian consumers’ purchase behavior of new processed foods. The results indicate that subjective norms are a key factor in understanding Indian consumers’ new food purchase decisions regardless of their level of innovation. Specifically, subjective norms are found to have direct effects on attitudes, intention to buy, and purchase behavior for new processed food products. Surprisingly, attitudes have little effect on less innovative consumers’ intention to buy. Additionally, product familiarity had a significant impact on Indian consumers’ attitudes, subjective norms, intention to buy, and, ultimately, purchase behavior of the low innovator and high innovator groups. Marketing implications are discussed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Richard Lee, Jamie Murphy and Larry Neale

Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to test how customer loyalty intentions may relate to subjective and descriptive norms, this study further seeks…

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4225

Abstract

Purpose

Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to test how customer loyalty intentions may relate to subjective and descriptive norms, this study further seeks to determine whether consumption characteristics – product enjoyment and importance – moderate norms‐loyalty relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a two‐study approach focusing on youth, an Australian study (n=244) first augmented TPB with descriptive norm. A Singapore study (n=415) followed up with how consumption characteristics might moderate norms‐loyalty relationships. With both studies, linear regressions tested the relationships among the variables.

Findings

Extending TPB with descriptive norm improved TPB's predictive ability across studies. Further, product enjoyment and importance moderated the norms‐loyalty relationships differently. Subjective norm related to loyalty intentions significantly with high enjoyment, whereas descriptive norm was significant with low enjoyment. Only subjective norm was significant with low importance.

Research limitations/implications

Single‐item variables, self‐reported questionnaires on intended rather than actual behaviour, and not controlling for cultural differences between the two samples limit generalisablity.

Practical implications

The significance of both norms suggests that mobile firms should reach youth through their peers. With youth social pressure may be influential, particularly with hedonic products. However, the different moderations of product enjoyment and importance imply that a blanket marketing strategy targeting youth may not work.

Originality/value

The study extends academic knowledge on the relationships between norms and customer loyalty, particularly with consumption characteristics as moderators. The findings highlight the importance of considering different norms with consumer behaviour. The study should help mobile firms understand how social influences impact customer loyalty.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Surendra Kumar Sia and Alphonsa Jose

The purpose of this paper is to combine the theory of planned behavior variables with norm activation model to predict the behavioral intention to build eco-friendly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to combine the theory of planned behavior variables with norm activation model to predict the behavioral intention to build eco-friendly houses among adult house owners of Kerala. It was hypothesized that the moral obligation will mediate the relationship of both attitude and subjective norm toward the intention to build eco-friendly houses.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 269 adult house owners from Kerala with the help of structured questionnaires. Attitude toward eco-friendly houses was measured using semantic differential scale, subjective norm was measured using items adapted from Ajzen and Jansson and Dorrepaal, personal norm was measured using 7 items adapted from Jansson and Dorrepaal and behavioral intention to build eco-friendly house was measured using 14-item measures which probed the various characteristics of eco-friendly buildings. Data were analyzed using mediation analysis with the help of PROCESS macro plug-in of IBM SPSS.

Findings

The study revealed that the relationship between subjective norm and behavioral intention to construct eco-friendly houses was fully mediated by personal norm, and the relationship between attitude and behavioral intention was partially mediated by personal norm.

Research limitations/implications

Eco-friendly houses or sustainable architecture is the requirement of the time. Psychology can play a major role in increasing the choice to opt an eco-friendly alternative. The present study tries to develop a green marketing strategy by understanding the influential psychological variables. The study points to the importance of personal moral obligation of the people in the choice of the eco-friendly houses. The study is limited in itself because it failed to consider any situational factors that may be influential in the intention to build an eco-friendly house.

Originality/value

Considering the immediacy and potency of global climate change and the role green architecture can play to reduce the impact of the blow, eco-friendly architecture is inevitable. Many psychological studies have been instrumental in shaping and changing individual behaviors. Considering these facts the present study aims to identify the role of psychological variables in determining the intention to build eco-friendly houses. This study will help in identifying the relevant personal variables that can promote eco-friendly construction.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Susana C. Santos and Eric W. Liguori

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the…

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1047

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social career cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate outcome expectations as a mediator and subjective norms as a moderator in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 1,026 students from US public and private universities retrieved from the Entrepreneurship Education Project, this study tests a first-stage moderated mediation model in a two-step process.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is positively related to entrepreneurial intentions through the partial mediating effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations, and that this relationship is consistently significant and positive for individuals with lower, average and higher subjective norms towards entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

These findings contribute to the literature on entrepreneurial intentions by providing a comprehensive overlook on the mechanisms and boundary conditions relevant for intentions.

Practical implications

These results reinforce the need for educators and policy makers to ensure programs manage outcome expectations and recognize the role of peer, parent and mentor role models on the construction of these expectations and, consequently, on entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

Exploring the combined effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations as a mechanism and subjective norms as boundary conditions on the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions is an unexplored issue to date, and helps to understand how and why entrepreneurial intentions emerge.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Babajide Osatuyi and Ofir Turel

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of the underlying social motivation, including collective norm and subjective norm, which shapes users’ decisions to…

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1553

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of the underlying social motivation, including collective norm and subjective norm, which shapes users’ decisions to revisit a social commerce site.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the research model using data from a survey of 531 social commerce users.

Findings

Results support the importance of subjective and collective norms as measures of social norm. Both norms were combined to: develop a parsimonious higher order measure of social motivation, and examine the consequent impact on social commerce continuance behavior. In addition, the authors demonstrate that the factors that influence the social impact theory variables, specifically time spent during each visit, affective experience and gender can moderate the impact of social norm on social commerce continuance use intention.

Practical implications

Social commerce website designers can provide visibility of the number of a user’s close contacts (or contacts that the user either interacts with or follows) as well as the total number of people using the same technology as a visual cue to encourage user retention on the site.

Social implications

The results indicate that customers’ social commerce revisit intentions are strongly influenced by a combination of how they perceive the behavior as endorsed both by their friends and by the majority view in their social network.

Originality/value

This study examines and validates sources of social influence that affect continuance use intention with social technologies such as social commerce sites.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Juma Bananuka, Twaha Kigongo Kaawaase, Musa Kasera and Irene Nalukenge

This paper aims to investigate the contribution of attitude, subjective norm and religiosity on the intention to adopt Islamic banking in an emerging economy like Uganda…

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4997

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the contribution of attitude, subjective norm and religiosity on the intention to adopt Islamic banking in an emerging economy like Uganda, which is a secular state that is in the early stages of adopting Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross-sectional and correlational research design. Usable questionnaires were received from 258 managers of their own micro businesses. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that attitude and religiosity are significant determinants of the intention to adopt Islamic banking, unlike subjective norm whose predictive power is subsumed in attitude. In the absence of attitude, subjective norm is a significant determinant of intention to adopt Islamic banking. Overall, attitude, subjective norm and religiosity explain 44 per cent of the variance in the intention to adopt Islamic banking in Uganda.

Research limitations/implications

This study is cross-sectional, excluding the monitoring of changes in behavior over time. Further, the study used evidence from owner-managed micro businesses in Uganda. It is possible that these results are only applicable to Uganda’s micro businesses.

Originality/value

Islamic banking is an emerging phenomenon on the African continent, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where most countries are secular states. As such, there are largely no empirical studies exploring the combined contributions of attitude, subjective norm and religiosity on the intention to adopt Islamic banking in an emerging economy after the national adoption of an enabling legal framework. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first study that carries out this task.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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