Search results

1 – 10 of over 3000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Norman Mugarura

The purpose of this paper is to articulate the law relating to syndicated loan agreements and what legal experts and parties need to safeguard against inherent pitfalls in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to articulate the law relating to syndicated loan agreements and what legal experts and parties need to safeguard against inherent pitfalls in its usage and practice. The research design of this paper has two strands: an examination of generic issues relating syndicated loan agreements and the process; and the mechanisms for transferring proprietary rights and interests should parties want to do so.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper was written on the basis of evaluating primary and secondary data sources to gain insights into commercial experiences of harnessing syndicated loan facilities as an alternative form of raising finance for development projects. It has examined case law which reflects the law and practice of syndicated loan markets both in common and civil law jurisdictions. Particular attention has been paid to the credibility of source materials and its relevance to usage and practice of syndicated loan agreements. The core element of this methodology has been an evaluation of generic issues which underpin syndicated loan agreements, analysis of academic literature and evaluation of cases and policy documents. The paper has drawn examples in both common and civil jurisdictions to gain insights into the law which governs syndicated loan markets and its practical application. There has been an uptake in syndicated loan markets not only in United Kingdom but also globally. While there has been a growing body of literature on syndicated loan markets, mechanisms for transferring proprietary rights and interests of contractual parties have not been given proportionate attention. The paper addresses a gap in the law of syndicated loan markets and the varied ways in which they are harnessed in international commercial practice. It addresses existing gaps in the law and practice of syndicated loans, not only in the UK but also in other jurisdictions where examples have been drawn. The research design of this paper has two strands: an examination of generic issues relating loans and the process in which they are constituted as financial products; and the mechanisms for transferring proprietary rights and interests.

Findings

The findings underscore the fact that much as syndicated loans offer huge advantages to commercial parties, there are also intricacies which parties need to keep in mind and guard against. Like in other forms of commercial agreements, parties to a syndicated loan agreement have the power to nominate the governing law not necessarily from jurisdictions where they do business but as they may see fit. In practice, effective contractual terms in syndicated loans are to be applied slightly differently to other form of commercial agreements in English contract law. For example, representation and warranties are grouped together and constitute statements by the borrower, which the lender considers should be true at the inception of the loan agreement. As a syndicated loan involves the participation of many banks (obviously some foreign banks), there is the potential for conflict of laws. As such, arranging a syndicated loan should be governed by the relating to international commercial contracts to address the challenge posed by conflict of laws. This is essential to ensure proprietary transfer of rights in the asset are properly constituted and effective. The loan should be carefully structured to reflect important technical issues which relate to duties and obligation of contractual parties.

Research limitations/implications

This was largely a theoretical paper undertaken on the basis of evaluating primary and secondary data sources, some of which were not able to corroborate. It would have been better to corroborate some of the data sources used with financial institutions (which specialise in syndicate loans and related products) to mitigate the potential for bias the data used were generated.

Practical implications

It is important that legal practitioners and policy markers have access to requisite data on different types of loan markets not only in the UK but also other jurisdictions. One of the most important implication is that unlike bond markets (which are sought in response to an uptake in market risks), the foregoing environment tends to negatively correlate in syndicated loan markets. Lending institutions such as banks tend to be cautious when there are instabilities in the market as demonstrated in the aftermath of the recent global financial crisis (2010-2014). There is a converse relationship between loan markets and syndicated loans, which is explained by the fact that the higher the risks, the more cautious lenders (financial institutions) tend to be to safeguard against uncertainties of ending in an environment which is not conducive for business. Bonds on the other hand are sought as security by credit markets against inherent risks especially in times of economic uncertainties. This is why in the aftermath of the recent global financial crisis, banks were anxious and unwilling to lend not only to each other but also to small business for fear and to curtail potential market risks. It needs to be noted that just like in other forms of international commercial agreements, parties in syndicated loan agreements have autonomy to nominate the governing law of the agreement, not necessarily from jurisdictions where parties do business. Where parties have not nominated the governing law clause of syndicated loan contracts, rules of private international law such as characteristic performance of the contract will apply.

Social implications

There is a growing body of literature on syndicated loan markets, but one wonders why mechanisms for transferring proprietary rights and interests of contractual parties have not been written about as much. It is an important area but has somehow been overlooked by scholars on this subject. If the borrowers’ fails to keep up their repayments (default), it will have an adverse on loan markets and the economic stability which will in turn affects businesses, people and national governments.

Originality/value

The paper was written on the basis of evaluating primary and secondary data sources to gain insights into commercial experiences of harnessing syndicated loan facilities as an alternative form of raising finance for development projects. It has examined case law which reflects the law and practice of syndicated loan markets both in common and civil law jurisdictions. Particular attention has been paid to the credibility of source materials and its relevance to usage and practice of syndicated loan agreements. The core element of this methodology has been an evaluation of generic issues which underpin syndicated loan agreements, analysis of academic literature and evaluation of cases and policy documents. The paper has drawn examples in both common and civil jurisdictions to gain insights into the law which governs syndicated loan markets and its practical application.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of

Abstract

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of that contract. When such a repudiation has been accepted by the innocent party then a termination of employment takes place. Such termination does not constitute dismissal (see London v. James Laidlaw & Sons Ltd (1974) IRLR 136 and Gannon v. J. C. Firth (1976) IRLR 415 EAT).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Julie-Anne Tarr and Janet Mack

The purpose of this paper is to look at auditor obligations to their clients and potentially to third parties such as investors, with a focus on the quality of financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at auditor obligations to their clients and potentially to third parties such as investors, with a focus on the quality of financial disclosure in an evolving legal framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The article outlines and compares established and emerging trends relative to information disclosure and contractual performance in parallel contexts where information asymmetry exists. In particular, this article considers the disclosure regime that has evolved in the insurance industry to address the substantial imbalance in the level of knowledge possessed by the insured in comparison to the prospective insurer. Abductive reasoning is used to identify causal constructs that explain the data pattern from which the theorised potential for judicial revision of the interpretation oftrue and fair” in line with “good faith” in legal regulation is derived.

Findings

The authors conclude that there is little doubt that a duty of good faith in relation to auditor-company contractual dealings and potentially a broader good faith duty to third parties such as investors in companies may be on the horizon.

Originality/value

In the context of stated objectives by organisations such as the International Federation of Accountants to reconcile ethical and technical skills in the wake of the global financial crisis, there is an increased need to rebuild public and investor confidence in the underpinning integrity of financial reporting. This paper offers a perspective on one way to achieve this by recognising the similarities in the information asymmetry relationships in the insurance industry and how the notion of “good faith” in that relationship could be useful in the audit situation.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Jo Carby‐Hall

Proposes to treat social law contracts by covering the two most important aspects of the contract of employment, and also the collective agreement. Covers the contract of

Abstract

Proposes to treat social law contracts by covering the two most important aspects of the contract of employment, and also the collective agreement. Covers the contract of employment in full with all the integral laws explained as required, including its characteristics, written particulars, sources or regulations, with regard to employers, are also covered. Lengthy coverage of the collective agreement is also included, showing legal as well as moral (!) requirements, also included are cases in law that are covered in depth.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the…

Abstract

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the tribunal took great pains to interpret the intention of the parties to the different site agreements, and it came to the conclusion that the agreed procedure was not followed. One other matter, which must be particularly noted by employers, is that where a final warning is required, this final warning must be “a warning”, and not the actual dismissal. So that where, for example, three warnings are to be given, the third must be a “warning”. It is after the employee has misconducted himself thereafter that the employer may dismiss.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Peter Buberis

Abstract

Details

Australian Franchising Code of Conduct
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-168-1

1 – 10 of over 3000