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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

PJ McGann

Purpose – To explore the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry and encourage the sociology of diagnosis to retain key insights of…

Abstract

Purpose – To explore the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry and encourage the sociology of diagnosis to retain key insights of early medicalization scholarship.

Methodology – As the sociology of diagnosis emerges from medicalization, it is imperative that the new sub-specialty retains the critical edge of the early scholarship. With this in mind the paper reviews key aspects of the medicalization thesis, emphasizing the links between medical definitions and social control processes (e.g. Conrad, 1992; Conrad & Schneider, 1992; Zola, 1972). Based on this review scholars are urged to be mindful of the “diagnostic imaginary” -- a way of thinking that conceals the presence of the social in diagnoses, and which closes off critical analysis of the existential-connectedness and political nature of diagnoses.

Findings – The paradigm shift from dynamic to diagnostic psychiatry in DSM-III opened the door to a new biomedical model that has enhanced American psychiatry's scientific aura and prestige. With the increased presence and ordinariness of diagnoses in everyday life, an illusory view of diagnoses as scientific entities free of cultural ties has emerged, intensifying the dangers of medical social control.

Social implications – By illustrating that diagnoses are cultural objects imbued with political meaning, the ideological effects and social control potential of diagnostic biopsychiatry may be mitigated.

Abstract

Details

The Cryopolitics of Reproduction on Ice: A New Scandinavian Ice Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-043-6

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

A. George Assaf and Mike G. Tsionas

This paper aims to present several Bayesian specification tests for both in- and out-of-sample situations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present several Bayesian specification tests for both in- and out-of-sample situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on the Bayesian equivalents of the frequentist approach for testing heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation and functional form specification. For out-of-sample diagnostics, the authors consider several tests to evaluate the predictive ability of the model.

Findings

The authors demonstrate the performance of these tests using an application on the relationship between price and occupancy rate from the hotel industry. For purposes of comparison, the authors also provide evidence from traditional frequentist tests.

Research limitations/implications

There certainly exist other issues and diagnostic tests that are not covered in this paper. The issues that are addressed, however, are critically important and can be applied to most modeling situations.

Originality/value

With the increased use of the Bayesian approach in various modeling contexts, this paper serves as an important guide for diagnostic testing in Bayesian analysis. Diagnostic analysis is essential and should always accompany the estimation of regression models.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2014

Tamara Steger and Milos Milicevic

In this chapter, we “occupy the earth” with an overview of the anti-fracking discourse(s) of diverse local initiatives converging as a global movement opposed to fracking…

Abstract

In this chapter, we “occupy the earth” with an overview of the anti-fracking discourse(s) of diverse local initiatives converging as a global movement opposed to fracking. By mapping the discourse(s) of the anti-fracking movement, the articulation of the problems and solutions associated with fracking raise questions not only about the environment but draw attention to a crisis of democracy and the critical need for social and environmental justice. With the help of a multiple theoretical framework we draw on insights about environmental movements and their democratizing potential; conceptualizations about power and (counter) discourse; and depictions of the environmental justice movements in the United States. Toward this end, we analyze the framing of the anti-fracking movement: the many local voices engaging in political struggles to sustain their communities, places and ways of life, and the global movements’ forum for collective solidarity, recognition, and civic action. Shedding light on the multiple frames employed by movement members, we discuss the implications and potential embodied in this widening debate.

Details

Occupy the Earth: Global Environmental Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-697-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Elspeth Bradley, Yona Lunsky, Anna Palucka and Soula Homitidis

The purpose of this paper is to determine: the extent to which an intellectual disability diagnosis meets current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine: the extent to which an intellectual disability diagnosis meets current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria; the prevalence of reported autism spectrum disorders (ASD); and the extent to which assessment of developmental issues is central to the diagnosis of psychotic disorder, in patients discharged with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and intellectual disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Of all patients discharged with psychotic disorder during a four‐year period (n=3339), chart reviews were completed on those also diagnosed with intellectual disability or borderline IQ.

Findings

The findings if this paper are threefold: only 39 percent of the 41 individuals discharged with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and intellectual disability met documented DSM criteria for intellectual disability; the prevalence of reported ASD was much lower than expected; and the average number of different discharge diagnoses per individual over time was 4.8. Schizophrenia diagnoses were made early in the diagnostic process and tended to persist even when ASD concerns were documented.

Originality/value

The results support the need to systematically assess the developmental issues of patients with intellectual disability as part of the psychiatric diagnostic formulation. Differential diagnoses of psychotic‐like behaviours seen in people with intellectual disability, and alternative frameworks for understanding these behaviours, which in turn should guide more effective interventions and treatment, are discussed.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Raili Moilanen

To explore and analyse various learning organizations and to attempt to outline the form of a holistic learning organization.

Abstract

Purpose

To explore and analyse various learning organizations and to attempt to outline the form of a holistic learning organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The tool described in this article is a continuation of the work published in a Licentiate thesis in 1996 and developed further in a doctoral dissertation in 2001. The Learning Organization Diamond Tool is based on a holistic concept of a learning organization being regarded as a structure of related elements: driving forces, finding purpose, questioning, empowering and evaluation at two interconnected levels of individuals and the whole. Data from 686 respondents were gathered from 25 Finnish organizations in 1998.

Findings

The outcomes of the study are mainly presented in the form of imaginary diamonds complying with the basic framework. In 24 organizations the individuals placed more trust in themselves and their own learning than in their organization as a learning environment. When comparing different business sectors the variation on the organizational side was clearly greater than on the individual side.

Originality/value

Developing a measurement instrument for learning organizations, administering it in practice, and analysing the “learning organization portrayals” created by this tool.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Marianna Fotaki

This paper aims to employ the concept of subjectivity taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis and Slavoj Žižek's idea of the law, enabled via its “inherent transgression”, to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to employ the concept of subjectivity taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis and Slavoj Žižek's idea of the law, enabled via its “inherent transgression”, to critique the premises of neolibertarian theory about the market's superior ways of organizing society.

Design/methodology/approach

An alternative conceptual framework is being developed and applied to the analysis of the transition from a planned to a market economy in former socialist countries using the example of informal payments in the health system in Russia. The proposed schema builds on the idea of the subject eternally divided between the imaginary conceptions of the self/the other, and the socio‐symbolic order, which is offered to theorize on the role of phantasy in this transformation.

Findings

The applied (psycho)‐analytic schema reveals why the totalizing discourse of the market is no less tyrannical and no less totalitarian in its intent than the socialist ideology it opposes. The central argument is how dominant ideologies are made of, and stand for, an unattainable phantasy, as it was demonstrated in both socialism and the market.

Originality/value

By re‐engaging psychoanalysis to understand social and political projects and by unearthing the imaginary underpinnings of the symbolic order, the study argues for considering the phantasmatic dimensions of political and organizational transformations in management studies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Cryopolitics of Reproduction on Ice: A New Scandinavian Ice Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-043-6

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Julie A. Deisinger

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and

Abstract

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/CDC, 2007; Desmon, 2007). In the past such disorders usually were not identified until a child was school-aged, but these disorders are now more likely to be diagnosed in affected individuals during the preschool years (McConachie, Le Couteur, & Honey, 2005; Rutter, 2006). For example, Mandell, Novak, and Zubritsky (2005) surveyed over 900 caregivers of children with ASDs and learned that on an average, children with autistic disorder were diagnosed at 3.1 years of age. These researchers also reported that children who exhibited such characteristics as severe language impairment, toe walking, hand flapping, and sustained unusual play behaviors were diagnosed earlier than children without these features.

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2016

Asami Matsunaga and Toshinori Kitamura

This questionnaire survey was conducted to study the determinants of stigmatization toward schizophrenia in Japan. A total of 1003 persons living in Kumamoto Prefecture…

Abstract

This questionnaire survey was conducted to study the determinants of stigmatization toward schizophrenia in Japan. A total of 1003 persons living in Kumamoto Prefecture (mean age 25.5; SD=14.1) participated in this study through convenience sampling. They read one of four case vignettes about a person with mental illness and answered questions about their attitudes toward the case. Vignettes varied in terms of descriptions of symptoms (schizophrenia vs. depression) and presentation of the diagnostic label of schizophrenia (yes or no). A path analysis was performed to examine the effects of symptoms, diagnostic label, experience of education in psychiatry, and demographic features on stigmatizing attitudes. Results showed that schizophrenic symptoms, diagnostic label of schizophrenia, and experience of education in psychiatry were significantly associated with stigmatization toward the case. Interaction terms of these variables did not show significant association with stigmatization. These results highlight the importance of optimizing education techniques about mental illness so as to avoid cultivating stigmatizing attitudes toward schizophrenia.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

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