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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Mahesh Chandra and James P. Neelankavil

Between the lack of incentives for larger international companies and the lack of resources of the local companies the majority of the people in less developed countries…

Abstract

Purpose

Between the lack of incentives for larger international companies and the lack of resources of the local companies the majority of the people in less developed countries never benefit from new products. International companies generally offer modified product offerings to consumers in developing countries. To date, their attempts to penetrate the developing country markets have not been successful. The reasons for this failure in their attempts to succeed in these markets include the prohibitive cost of developing entirely new products for this market and the low‐income levels of the families in these countries. To succeed in developing countries, international companies have to observe and study their customers' needs and uncover the problem areas. There are many approaches available to accomplish this process including systematic innovation and the seven R's. Each approach focuses on the consumer and suggests a radical approach to developing new products. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction and overview of new product development in emerging countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Challenges, process, and success strategies are explored.

Findings

To succeed in developing countries, international companies have to observe and study their customers' needs and uncover the problem areas. The authors suggest an approach that focuses on the consumer and suggests a radical approach to developing new products – the limitations/constraints point of view. The single biggest constraint in developing products for less developed countries is affordability (price). Unlike the new product development process that is practiced in industrialized countries, international companies wanting to be successful in less developed countries should start with the customers' affordability and value‐added point of view and then work backwards to develop products/services for these countries.

Practical implications

International companies are provided with an approach to new product development in emerging countries.

Originality/value

New product development in emerging countries is likely to become increasingly important, and there is very little research on the topic. The value of this paper is in its overview of the challenges of new product development in emerging countries, and suggested solutions.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Gabriela Barrère, Andrés Jung and Diego Karsaclian

The purpose of this paper is to identify different outcomes in the relation innovation–exports for a firm located in a developing country, depending upon the destination…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify different outcomes in the relation innovation–exports for a firm located in a developing country, depending upon the destination market of its exports (i.e. a developed or a developing economy).

Design/methodology/approach

The specification strategy is a bivariate probit regression model applied to 640 Uruguayan manufacturing firms. Two simultaneous equations are used to estimate the probability of being an exporting or innovating firm. For both equations, the firm’s innovative activity and export status in the past are introduced as explanatory variables to solve endogeneity issues.

Findings

When firms located in a developing economy export to another developing country, the authors find that innovation precedes exports, in line with what they would expect according to theory. When the export market is a developed economy, firms are not able to cope with both innovation and export strategies simultaneously, whether innovating to access export markets or transforming knowledge from exports into innovation.

Research limitations/implications

Causality could not be found and endogeneity problems were not solved. The data are limited to a sample of Uruguayan manufacturing firms during six years between 2010 and 2015, and authors do not know when did the firms began to export either to a developed or a developing economy. Furthermore, the database indicates if a developed economy is between the three main export markets of the firm or not, but authors do not know what kind of products (i.e. their technological level) are exported by the firm to that destination.

Originality/value

Although the link between innovation and exports is an important topic for firms and policymakers, the main bulk of empirical studies has ignored the role of destination markets. This study attempts to fill this gap contributing to a better understanding of the differences in the relation between innovation and exports (i.e. its sequence), when the destination market is a developed or a developing economy.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Tom Farrell and Ross Gordon

The World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern regarding alcohol consumption and related harms in developing nations. Concomitantly a growing evidence base…

Abstract

Purpose

The World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern regarding alcohol consumption and related harms in developing nations. Concomitantly a growing evidence base suggests that alcohol marketing influences drinking behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to explore how critical social marketing can help assess the nature of alcohol marketing, and the effectiveness of its regulation, in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 14 alcohol marketing campaigns from India, Malawi, Malaysia, Nigeria, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand are assessed against the regulatory codes governing alcohol marketing in the UK.

Findings

The study found that alcohol marketing often contravened the UK regulatory codes. Critical social marketing offers a framework for research and analysis to assess the nature and impact of alcohol marketing, and to address alcohol related harms in developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study is limited to a small convenience sample. Future research to systematically audit alcohol marketing, and consumer studies to assess its impact on drinking behaviours in developing nations would be welcomed.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that initiatives to monitor and effectively regulate alcohol marketing in developing nations should be explored by policymakers. The competitive analysis and insight generated by studies of this nature can aid development agencies in the design and implementation of alcohol social marketing interventions. The global alcohol industry and marketers should also be encouraged to act more socially responsible.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into how the critical social marketing framework can be applied in practice, to inform social marketing activity in the upstream and downstream environment.

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Suraksha Gupta

This paper aims to reflect on different issues and perspectives on returns on investments made by MNEs towards social development. Need for an inclusive society drives…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reflect on different issues and perspectives on returns on investments made by MNEs towards social development. Need for an inclusive society drives accountable and effective cooperation between different actors in a market. Although multinational enterprises (MNEs) that operate in developing markets invest in social development, their managers find it very challenging to incorporate social development agenda into their business practices. Therefore, academics should develop business models which can guide thoughts and actions of managers of MNEs towards social development while allowing them to hold on to the business objectives and targets.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of current literature with available anecdotes about business practices helped the author to form a viewpoint and make recommendations.

Findings

The objective of the eighth millennium development goal is to promote global partnership between MNEs and domestic firms with or without intervention of a subsidiary. Addressing the particular needs of developing countries, such as capability enhancement or poverty reduction by managers of MNEs in a global setting, becomes a very complex issue. Investments by MNEs in developing countries towards these objectives are driven by different factors such as operational transparency, technological efficiency, investment types, innovation capability, branding strategy, quality assurance, public–private partnership, market-based pricing, reciprocity, distribution for penetration, etc., apart from linkages they create for developing resource-based competencies required for survival in a competitive market.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical investigation of the viewpoint presented here will be required to convert recommendations into models applicable by managers of MNEs.

Practical implications

This study will help to enable managers of MNEs to perform need-based socially responsible actions.

Social implications

This study will facilitate participation of MNEs in social development through their contributions towards poverty reduction and capability enhancement.

Originality/value

This paper pushes managers and academic scholars to think about the strategies required to incorporate social agenda into business models of MNEs benefiting from developing markets.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Tao (Tony) Gao and Talin E. Sarraf

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in…

Abstract

This paper explores the major factors influencing multinational companies’ (MNCs) propensity to change the level of resource commitments during financial crises in emerging markets. Favorable changes in the host government policies, market demand, firm strategy, and infrastructural conditions are hypothesized to influence the MNCs’ decision to increase resource commitments during a crisis. The hypotheses are tested with data collected in a survey of 82 MNCs during the recent Argentine financial crisis (late 2002). While all the above variables are considered by the respondents as generally important reasons for increasing resource commitments during a crisis, only favorable changes in government policies significantly influence MNCs’ decisions to change the level of resource commitments during the Argentine financial crisis. The research, managerial implications, and policy‐making implications are discussed.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Goitom Tesfom and Clemens Lutz

The objective of the study is to derive a classification of export problems of SMEs from developing countries on the basis of a comprehensive literature study.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the study is to derive a classification of export problems of SMEs from developing countries on the basis of a comprehensive literature study.

Design/methodology/approach

The study performed a comprehensive and systematic literature review of 40 articles published over a period of 25 years (1980‐2004). The export problems are classified into company barriers, product barriers, industry barriers, export market barriers and macro environment barriers.

Findings

The study provides a modified qualitative model that can be used by future researchers to further their research endeavour in export problems of firms from developing countries. It also identifies the similarities and differences of export problems in developed and developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of extensive research on export problems limited the number of articles reviewed in this study. Thus, the results of this paper should be considered as a stepping stone for future research.

Practical implications

The export problems identified in this study can be used to develop a questionnaire for a regional or global survey of SME's exporters from developing countries.

Originality/value

The paper provides an important reference for researchers who intend to study export problems in developing countries. Moreover, policy makers in developing countries can use it to identify export problems that firms face and provide timely and effective assistance to SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

James Love

The issue of export instability exerts an enduring fascination for economists with an interest in the area of economic development. Over several decades a voluminous…

Abstract

The issue of export instability exerts an enduring fascination for economists with an interest in the area of economic development. Over several decades a voluminous literature has emerged embracing debates on the domestic consequences and on the causes of export instability. The purpose here is to examine these debates and an attempt is made to set out different theoretical stances, to classify and examine empirical findings, and to indicate the directions in which the debates have moved. Such a statement of a review article's purpose is, of course, incomplete without more specific delineation of the boundaries within which the general objectives are pursued. Here that delineation has three facets.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2019

Jae-Eun Chung, Byoungho Jin, So Won Jeong and Heesoon Yang

The purpose of this study is to examine the branding strategies of SMEs from NIEs, juxtaposing the different strategies used to specifically target developed and developing

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the branding strategies of SMEs from NIEs, juxtaposing the different strategies used to specifically target developed and developing countries with regard to brand-building approach, type and number of brands and degree of standardization.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-study approach is used. In-depth interviews are conducted with 10 Korean consumer-goods SMEs exporting their own in-house brands.

Findings

Clear differences emerge between the strategies of SMEs entering developed countries and those entering developing countries, particularly regarding brand identity development, use of foreign sales subsidiaries and number and types of brands used. The authors find an interaction effect between product characteristics and host market levels of economic development, both of which influenced the degree of product standardization.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to uncover the branding strategies of NIE consumer-goods SMEs. The findings contribute to the field by extending our understanding of branding strategies used by consumer-goods SMEs from NIEs, thereby providing useful insight for other NIE enterprises when establishing branding strategies aimed at foreign markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Sumner La Croix and Ming Liu

The World Health Organization estimated that in 1999 roughly one-third of the world's population lacked access to essential medicines that would have saved or improved…

Abstract

The World Health Organization estimated that in 1999 roughly one-third of the world's population lacked access to essential medicines that would have saved or improved their lives. Our analysis focuses on how pharmaceutical product patents restrict access to essential medicines in developing countries. It is well established that pharmaceutical product patents provide little incentive for pharmaceutical companies to develop new medicines designed to treat diseases prevalent in developing countries or to market in developing countries those patented medicines developed to treat diseases prevalent in developed countries. Economists have developed theoretical models showing that these incentives could be changed if (1) developing countries provided intellectual property protection for new pharmaceutical innovations and (2) an international regulatory framework were established to facilitate pharmaceutical companies setting lower prices in developing countries and higher prices in developed countries for patented medicines. We develop an index of property rights in pharmaceutical innovations covering 129 countries from 1960 to 2005. It shows that in 1960 only a handful of countries provided significant protection for pharmaceutical innovations, but by 2005 over 95 percent of countries in our sample provided significant statutory protections. However, an international framework to allow pharmaceutical companies to price discriminate has not been put in place. We conclude that international price discrimination mechanisms, compulsory patent licenses, and regional patent buyouts are not viable mechanisms for providing access to essential medicines to patients in developing countries. Global patent buyouts are more likely to achieve this goal, as they are not founded on an impractical separation of pharmaceutical markets in developing and developed countries and they provide critical incentives to develop new essential medicines.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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