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Describes the development of a plan to facilitate library resourcesharing in Illinois by means of a decentralized network architecturebased on TCP/IP communications and…
Describes the development of a plan to facilitate library resource sharing in Illinois by means of a decentralized network architecture based on TCP/IP communications and the Z39.50 and Interlibrary Loan (ILL) protocol standards.
The developing ISO edi conceptual model and its relationship to OSI are described. The term “edi” (lowercase) contrasts with the familiar EDI (Electronic Data Interchange…
The developing ISO edi conceptual model and its relationship to OSI are described. The term “edi” (lowercase) contrasts with the familiar EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and its connotation to syntax‐specific standards, such as X12 and EDIFACT. The edi model will define common structures, services, and processes that X12 and EDIFACT could adopt. OSI is of interest to edi because of its potential services to help enable “open edi”—global interoperability, across EDI functional groups. A sidebar describes the CCITT standard X.edi and its use of OSI services.
This special “theme” issue of Library Hi Tech is devoted to Open Systems Interconnection. The editor is Ray Denenberg, of the Library of Congress. Eleven articles cover…
This special “theme” issue of Library Hi Tech is devoted to Open Systems Interconnection. The editor is Ray Denenberg, of the Library of Congress. Eleven articles cover the basic OSI platform, applications, support areas, and implementation. The basic OSI platform consists of protocols for the seven layers, including support for file transfer and message handling. Three articles describe network applications and the corresponding OSI services and protocols. “Information Retrieval as a Network Application” describes the ANSI Z39.50 protocol. Another article describes the interlibrary loan protocol, which incorporates the sequences of messages that occur in distributed interlibrary loan transactions. An article about electronic data interchange describes the edi conceptual model being developed by ISO, and its relationship to OSI. Network management and directory services are two of the most important OSI support areas; individual articles cover these two topics. Implementation topics include profiles, testing, and products.
Describes the Irish interlending system and the functions of the (Irish) Library Council. Looks at the future of interlending and the findings of the Working Group of the Committee on Library Co‐operation in Ireland. Details the recommendations for future development accepted by this Committee.
The objective of OSI conformance testing is to provide a standardized and rigorous means of determining the extent to which a specific implementation conforms to an OSI…
The objective of OSI conformance testing is to provide a standardized and rigorous means of determining the extent to which a specific implementation conforms to an OSI protocol specification. As part of its ILL Implementation Program, the National Library of Canada has developed a test system and service for the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol using the ISO standard methodology for conformance testing (ISO 9656). Development of test suites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services are presented. The article also discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing.
Examines some of the issues arising as the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol reaches Draft International Standards status within ISO and is soon to become an international standard. Addresses many practical concerns for successful implementation of the protocol. Summarizes some of the issues and raises questions which will need to be answered before libraries can begin to reap the benefits of applying the new electronic data communications standards to their resource‐sharing and service delivery services.
The upper three OSI layers support communication requirements of applications. To communicate meaningfully, applications must share a common understanding of various aspects. This is achieved through the use of several OSI‐related concepts described in this article, including application association, application context, and abstract syntax. The Application layer is concerned with semantics and not encoding. The presentation protocol is concerned with the coupling of semantics with a particular encoding. The session protocol provides for organized and synchronized data exchange. Several application protocols are described in this article, and a sidebar about the File Transfer, Access, and Management protocol is included.
– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of institutional investors’ ownership and type on information asymmetry and stock market liquidity in France.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of institutional investors’ ownership and type on information asymmetry and stock market liquidity in France.
The sample includes 162 French-listed firms from 2007 to 2009. The methodology relies on linear regressions using the method of ordinary least square. Before examining the interaction between liquidity and institutional investors, the authors check for the existence of the endogeneity problem by applying the Durbin-Wu-Hausman test of Davidson and MacKinnon (1993). The results of the endogeneity test show that institutional investors’ ownership and stock liquidity are endogenous. A simultaneous equation model using the double least square method is then tested to address this problem.
The findings show that the proportion of institutional investors has a positive and significant effect on stock-market liquidity, which confirms the signal theory and trading hypothesis. These investors perform high trading activity which favorably affects market liquidity. The results also show that pension funds improve stock liquidity. This result suggests that pension funds manage huge assets decreasing transaction costs and improving liquidity. They display a positive signal to the market about more transparency and a low level of informational asymmetry.
These results highlight the institutional investors’ role in defining the level of liquidity on the French market. The findings also stress the relevance of developing institutional investors’ demand for the Paris market in order to better assess firm value, protect minority ownership and improve market liquidity.
In the French institutional setting, institutional investors act as a control device since minority shareholder interests are less protected than in Anglo-American counterparts. This result highlights the significant role of institutional investors in corporate governance structures and on financial markets. Their presence is a guarantee for minority interest protection and for more liquid stocks.
Considers the extension of a new class of higher‐order compact methods to nonuniform grids and examines the effect of pollution that arises with differencing the…
Considers the extension of a new class of higher‐order compact methods to nonuniform grids and examines the effect of pollution that arises with differencing the associated metric coefficients. Numerical studies for the standard model convection diffusion equation in 1D and 2D are carried out to validate the convergence behaviour and demonstrate the high‐order accuracy.