The upper three OSI layers support communication requirements of applications. To communicate meaningfully, applications must share a common understanding of various aspects. This is achieved through the use of several OSI‐related concepts described in this article, including application association, application context, and abstract syntax. The Application layer is concerned with semantics and not encoding. The presentation protocol is concerned with the coupling of semantics with a particular encoding. The session protocol provides for organized and synchronized data exchange. Several application protocols are described in this article, and a sidebar about the File Transfer, Access, and Management protocol is included.
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