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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Elizabeth A. Gregg, David A. Pierce, Kristi M. Sweeney and Jason W. Lee

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting participant awareness, attraction, and attachment to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s (NMSS) MS 150 PGA Tour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore factors affecting participant awareness, attraction, and attachment to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s (NMSS) MS 150 PGA Tour Cycle to the Shore charitable bike ride utilizing the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) developed by Funk and James. In addition, the authors sought to outline variables sport organizations can use to predict donor behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this project were derived from an electronic survey distributed to race participants and was analyzed in SPSS® software. Regression analysis was employed.

Findings

The findings support previous research employing the PCM; wherein social situational variables have the greatest influence on the relational significance of hedonic and dispositional needs in attraction and attachment to sporting events. The work supports the inclusion of communities as an additional attachment outcome.

Practical implications

In all, 92 percent of riders were informed about the event through word of mouth (WOM) marketing, highlighting the importance this promotional technique in the awareness stage of the PCM. NMSS would be well served by capitalizing on the power of WOM.

Originality/value

The research provides insight into predictors of fundraising efficacy. In terms of fundraising effectiveness, participants with four or more years of participation were six times more likely than first-year riders to raise $1,000 or more.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Jennifer L. VanSickle, David A. Pierce and Michael Diacin

The purpose of this paper is to examine mega-event volunteers’ motivations and their impact on volunteer satisfaction. Additionally, this study investigated motivational…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine mega-event volunteers’ motivations and their impact on volunteer satisfaction. Additionally, this study investigated motivational differences between volunteers based upon four demographic variables: age, gender, educational level, and income.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified version of the Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (Bang and Chelladurai, 2009) was administered to 8,000 Super Bowl volunteers via Survey Monkey with the permission of the Indiana Sports Corporation. In all, 24 percent (n=1,928) of the volunteers completed the survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the survey questions into a smaller number factors. Multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to compare differences in the four demographic variables on the factors. Multiple regression was used to predict satisfaction on the basis of the four factors.

Findings

Volunteers were motivated by four factors: Community Support, Love of Sports, Personal Growth, and Career Development. These four factors all significantly predicted satisfaction with the volunteer experience. The overall MANOVA was significant and revealed that ten of 16 group comparisons possessed significant differences. Females rated Community higher than males, while males rated Love of Sports higher than females. Older volunteers and those with higher household incomes were motivated more by Community Support, while younger volunteers and those with lower incomes were motivated by Career Development. Likewise, less educated volunteers placed a higher value on Career motivations than more educated volunteers who placed a high value on Personal Growth.

Research limitations/implications

Dissatisfied volunteers may have chosen to not participate in the study. Follow-up interviews with dissatisfied volunteers might provide insight for event organizers that would shed light on factors that influence retention and recidivism.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that mega sport volunteer managers should recognize that motivational differences among volunteers do exist and utilize this information for creating recruitment materials targeted to specific groups. Then volunteers can be assigned to tasks that tap into their desire, thus enhancing potential volunteer satisfaction and their return as a volunteer at future events.

Originality/value

This study was conducted in the context of America’s largest mega event in a city that hosted the event for the first time. In addition to collecting one of the largest number of responses for volunteers at mega-sporting events, the development of the Community Support factor was unique within the context of this study. The Community Support factor was rated as the most important by volunteers and tied to other questions such as wanting to help make the event a success, helping others, and creating a better society. This indicates that volunteers had pride in their community and wanted to help the event be successful by helping the city’s visitors.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Charles B. Osburn

Corporate culture is a spirit formed by the shared values of the individuals in the organization that has potential to make the library more than the sum of its parts, both…

Abstract

Corporate culture is a spirit formed by the shared values of the individuals in the organization that has potential to make the library more than the sum of its parts, both positively and negatively. It is the vehicle by which the organization defines itself, for both itself and the clientele, with the purpose of providing the best service possible by sharing a vision of the organization as an organic whole. It operates through the power of peer influence rather than direct vertical authority. This paper takes a holistic approach to a concept that is more complex than it first appears; it addresses the molding of corporate culture, not as a management function, but as a complex and deep system, being in effect the soul of the organization, which resides in the motivation of each individual and which, therefore, requires a special kind of leadership.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1488-1

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Toyin Ajibade Adisa, Olatunji David Adekoya and Kareem Folohunso Sani

This study draws on social stigma and prejudice to examine the perceptions and beliefs of managers and employees regarding visible tattoos and body piercings, as well as the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study draws on social stigma and prejudice to examine the perceptions and beliefs of managers and employees regarding visible tattoos and body piercings, as well as the impact they have on potential employment and human resource management in the global South, using Nigeria as the research context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative research approach, drawing on data from 43 semi-structured interviews with employees and managers in Nigeria.

Findings

Contrary to the popular opinion that tattoos and body piercings are becoming more accepted and mainstream in society, this study finds that some Nigerian employers and employees may stigmatise and discriminate against people with visible tattoos and body piercings. The findings of this study suggest that beliefs about tattoos are predicated on ideologies as well as religious and sociocultural values, which then influence corporate values.

Research limitations/implications

The extent to which the findings of this research can be generalised is constrained by the limited sample and scope of the research.

Practical implications

Religious and sociocultural preconceptions about people with visible tattoos and body piercings have negative implications for the recruitment and employment of such people and could prevent organisations from hiring and keeping talented employees. This implies that talented employees might experience prejudice at job interviews, preventing them from gaining employment. Furthermore, stigmatising and discriminating against people with visible tattoos and body piercings may lead to the termination of employment of talented employees, which could negatively affect organisational productivity and growth.

Originality/value

This study provides an insight into the employment relations regarding tattoos and body piercing in Nigeria. The study highlights the need for mild beliefs and positive perceptions about people with visible tattoos and unconventional body piercings. There should be a general tolerance of the individual preference for body art and physical appearance, and this tolerance should be incorporated in organisational policies, which are enactments of corporate culture.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Xiao-Fu Pan, Qiwen Qin and Fei Gao

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of organizational psychological ownership (OPO) and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on positive organizational behaviors…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of organizational psychological ownership (OPO) and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on positive organizational behaviors (POBs).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on empirical survey, 2,566 employees from 45 production enterprises in China were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire on OPO, OBSE and POB. Then, the methods of correlation analysis, multiple regressions, impact effect and path analysis were used to verify the research hypothesis.

Findings

The results showed that POB is positively related to OPO and OBSE, and that OPO and OBSE are positive predictors of POBs. The results also demonstrated that OBSE has partial mediating effects on OPO and POB. In particular, psychological ownership has a significant impact on each sub-factor of POB, while OBSE has a remarkable effect on the behavior of devotion and interpersonal harmony.

Research limitations/implications

This is a non-experimental field study and as such inferences about causality are limited, and there is a possibility that the results may be influenced by common method variance.

Practical implications

The findings of the present study reveal that to strengthen employees’ POBs, manager should enhance employees’ OPO and OBSE, and therefore the organizational performance and the individual efficacy will be improved.

Originality/value

This is the first research which studies the relationship among OPO, POB and OBSE under the background of China.

Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

William A. Smith, Rodalyn David and Glory S. Stanton

African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial…

Abstract

African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in racial battle fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for people of color, while many whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.

What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered racism, and racial battle fatigue is a premier challenge of the twenty-first century. The term “racial microaggressions” was introduced in the 1970s to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by African Americans. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative experiences of African American boys and men in schools, at work, and in society. This chapter will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in anti-black misandric environments.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2022

David Allen Pierce, Elizabeth Wanless, Nels Popp, Liz Sattler and Megan Shreffler

Sport ticket sales is often positioned as a “foot in the door” to the sport industry due to ample job opportunities, but anecdotal reports of high turnover raise questions of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport ticket sales is often positioned as a “foot in the door” to the sport industry due to ample job opportunities, but anecdotal reports of high turnover raise questions of the efficacy of recruitment, training and retention efforts in sport sales. The purpose of this study was to determine attrition levels among entry-level ticket sales personnel, observe whether entry-level sales positions lead to other non-selling positions within sport organizations and determine if education and market related variables are related to job tenure.

Design/methodology/approach

LinkedIn profiles were analyzed for 1,122 entry-level ticket salespeople listed in media guides between 2015 and 2019 in the “Big Four” North American professional sports leagues. Names were obtained from 26 NBA, 21 MLB, 20 NHL and 12 NFL teams. Survival analysis provided defection rates and demonstrated the relationship between those rates and key variables.

Findings

One in every four entry-level ticket salespeople defected within the first year and one in every two defected within 26 months. Only 8% moved on from ticket sales to a non-sales role within the sport industry. Increases in cost of living, working for an NFL team and having sport industry experience prior to taking a sales position decreased the likelihood of defecting, while increased distance between the salesperson's university and the team's location increased the likelihood of defecting.

Originality/value

This study applies survival analysis to a sport human relations context to understand turnover in a specific occupational discipline and establishes the turnover rate for sport sales positions.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way…

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Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Lauren Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ noncompliance with secondary-level standardised literacy testing in Tasmania, Australia, particularly their motivations…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore teachers’ noncompliance with secondary-level standardised literacy testing in Tasmania, Australia, particularly their motivations, behaviours and justifications. This paper challenges pervasive views regarding test noncompliance, suggesting a reframing as “advocacy cheating”: noncompliance for purposes of advocating for and supporting students.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a single case study design, with a simple thematic analysis of the qualitative data. The design enabled data to be collected during one iteration of the examined test regime, with depth of exploration into participants’ experiences and perspectives.

Findings

Findings indicate that small number of participants were engaged in test rule noncompliance at all stages of the testing regime: before, during and following the tests. This paper presents the concept of “advocacy cheating”, illustrated in these data through the motivations presented by participants for their noncompliant actions and the forms of noncompliance used.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size and single site problematise drawing much broader comparisons. The age of the data means that current test processes and requirements have developed. Larger-scale studies might enable identification of ways in which this current regime has and might be improved.

Practical implications

This study’s findings and its focus on the classroom and teacher experience of testing provide insights into a widely debated and publicly important phenomenon.

Originality/value

The concept of “advocacy cheating” provides a newer way of considering and interpreting the range of ways in which teachers implement standardised tests.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2023

Liz Sattler, Megan Shreffler, Nels Popp and David Pierce

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the workplace experiences of current and former underrepresented ticket sales employees.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the workplace experiences of current and former underrepresented ticket sales employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized survey methodology to answer the research questions. Purposive sampling was used to identify potential respondents: individuals who were either currently employed as sport ticket sales employees or had been previously. The researchers examined online media guides from North American major league sports teams and identified ticket sales representatives who were compiled into a database and then cross-referenced through social media platform LinkedIn. Individuals were located via LinkedIn profiles and sent an anonymous, electronic survey which included a combination of Likert scale and open-ended questions regarding respondent experiences working in ticket sales departments.

Findings

Survey responses from 511 ticket salespeople revealed negative experiences related to management and career advancement opportunities, as well as significant differences in negative experiences for underrepresented populations regarding mentorship and culture.

Originality/value

Sport sales managers desire to expand employee diversity (Wells et al., 2019) and improve overall retention rates, but if a clear understanding of organizational vision toward diversification is not established within sports teams, managers are less likely to embrace diversity initiatives. Thus, it is imperative to understand the lived experiences of underrepresented ticket salespeople in order to improve workplace culture and effectiveness.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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