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This paper investigates to find whether it is possible to align the interests of a small and medium manufacturing enterprise (SMME) with its raw material supplier in a…
This paper investigates to find whether it is possible to align the interests of a small and medium manufacturing enterprise (SMME) with its raw material supplier in a manufacturing supply chain (MSC) to achieve a sustainable solution. To this end, current study examines the coordination of an MSC under cap and trade consisting of a raw material supplier and a carbon-emitting SMME confronting a stochastic demand.
The model is developed under both the decentralized and centralized decision-making scenarios. Under the investigated model, the SMME decides on both production quantity and sustainability level simultaneously. To achieve coordination and align the interests of both MSC members toward sustainable economic development goals, a customized revenue-sharing contract is developed.
Although the centralized model is profitable for the MSC, it makes a loss for the SMME compared to the decentralized scenario. The revenue-sharing agreement is able to create coordination among the MSC members and optimize profitability and sustainability. The established revenue-sharing guarantees a Pareto-improving situation for both members. Applying the established contract not only reduces shortage occasions but also results in more sustainability levels, which in turn means movement toward attaining sustainable economic development goals.
Unlike previous studies, carbon emission is assumed as a nonlinear decreasing function of the sustainability level which is a more realistic case. In accordance with SMMEs business environments, the market demand is also assumed uncertain. In addition, instead of assuming an investment cost for sustainability, the authors assumed unit production/purchasing costs as functions of product sustainability level.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…
Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.
A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same…
A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same issues. Every performance audit is grounded explicitly or implicitly in one or more theories of program evaluation. A deep understanding of alternative theories of program evaluation is helpful to gain clarity about sound auditing practices. We present a review of several theories of program evaluation.
This study includes a meta-evaluation of seven government audits on the efficiency and effectiveness of tourism departments and programs. The seven tourism-marketing performance audits are program evaluations for: Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, Minnesota, Australia, and two for Hawaii. The majority of these audits are negative performance assessments. Similarly, although these audits are more useful than none at all, the central conclusion of the meta-evaluation is that most of these audit reports are inadequate assessments. These audits are too limited in the issues examined; not sufficiently grounded in relevant evaluation theory and practice; and fail to include recommendations, that if implemented, would result in substantial increases in performance.
Outsourcing of services has been receiving increasing attention in management literature and praxis. It is considered that greatest attention has been given to the…
Outsourcing of services has been receiving increasing attention in management literature and praxis. It is considered that greatest attention has been given to the enhanced efficiency of transaction costs through outsourcing. In contrast, this paper explores what is being outsourced, the drivers for outsourcing and the IT commodification influence on outsourcing. Particular attention is given to examining supplier‐client relationships and the consequently new emerging outsourcing arrangements and organisational forms. The benefits and costs of outsourcing and client satisfaction are discussed as well as outsourcing in the public sector. The paper highlights that a fundamental paradigm shift is underway from strictly provider/supplier relationships to an emerging array of partner based relationships comparable with the Japanese kieretsu relationship model. The paper concludes by identifying areas for further research for increasing understanding of the paradigm shift that is highlighted.
This article examines how reinsurance coupled with new financial instruments can expand coverage to areas exposed to catastrophe losses from natural disasters, and…
This article examines how reinsurance coupled with new financial instruments can expand coverage to areas exposed to catastrophe losses from natural disasters, and demonstrates how reinsurance and the catastrophe‐linked financial instruments can be combined to lower the price of protection from its current level. A simple example illustrates the relative advantages and disadvantages of pure catastrophic bonds and pure indemnity reinsurance in supporting a structure of payments contingent on certain extreme events occurring. The authors suggest ways to combine these two instruments using customized catastrophe indices to expand coverage and reduce the cost of protection. This article states six principles for designing catastrophic risk transfer systems and discusses practical issues for implementation, and then concludes with suggestions for future research.