Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Jie Liang, En Xie and K.S. Redding

Nested within the industrial organization and corporate finance literature, this paper aims to analyze the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Nested within the industrial organization and corporate finance literature, this paper aims to analyze the market for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the world economy, developed economies, developing economies and transition economies. As multinational companies hold a large proportion of cash reserves and expand into diverse geographic markets, the paper aims to examine market patterns of high-valuation cross-border acquisition transactions. Specifically, it proposes a framework explaining the influential factors, motives and effects of high-valuation transactions by discussing some case evidences.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon inductive and deductive logic, the paper discusses market trends and market patterns of cross-border M&A transactions by triangulating archival data analyses and accessible M&A literature. Some case examples are derived from news archive and official source sites. Regarding sample period, it considers the past two decades 1994-2013 to show market trends in various institutional settings and the past decade 2004-2013 to present market patterns of 62 high-valuation cross-border deals.

Findings

The transaction analysis indicates four cycles in the market trend, namely, growing period (1994-2000); declining, but promising period (2001-2006); financial crisis period (2007-2008); and recovering, but reversing period (2009-2013). A number of acquisitions undertaken by firms from emerging economies around the 2007-2008 global financial crisis have exemplified geographic (product) diversification as a primary motive of firm’s global strategy. In particular, a large proportion of sample high-valuation deals are spotted in developed economies such as the USA and the UK. In case of industry pattern, a good number of high-valuation deals are noticed in banking and finance, telecommunications and oil and gas sector.

Originality/value

Although several scholars have examined cross-border acquisitions in economics, corporate finance, strategy and international business literature, there is hardly any study that analyzes high-profile cross-border M&A deals. An exclusive market analysis of high-valuation international deals is important for several reasons. This paper fills this knowledge gap by showing both market trends and market patterns of cross-border M&A transactions. Importantly, to date, this paper is the first to propose a framework explaining the influential factors, motives and effects of high-valuation M&A transactions.

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Robert F. Bruner and Mario Wanderley

This case serves as a foundation for student discussion of the estimation of required rates of return (ROR) on investments in emerging markets. An associate in J.P…

Abstract

This case serves as a foundation for student discussion of the estimation of required rates of return (ROR) on investments in emerging markets. An associate in J.P. Morgan's Latin America M&A department (mergers and acquisitions) is assigned the task of valuing the telephone directory operations (“paginas amarelas” means “yellow pages”) of a large Brazilian conglomerate. All cash flows have been converted to U.S. dollars, and present values computed for various discount rates. The remaining step is to determine the appropriate target rate of returns for dollar flows originating in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is used along with a political risk premium and country beta. The necessary figure work is comparatively light, leaving the student time to reflect on the need for various adjustments in estimating crossborder rates of return.

Details

Darden Business Publishing Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-7890
Published by: University of Virginia Darden School Foundation

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Robert F. Bruner and Katarina Paddack

In February 1994, the senior management team at Continental Cablevision received the final joint-venture agreement from Fintelco, a potential partner in Argentina. The…

Abstract

In February 1994, the senior management team at Continental Cablevision received the final joint-venture agreement from Fintelco, a potential partner in Argentina. The tasks for the student are to review the terms of the agreement, the outlook for the Argentine economy, and the corporate cultures at both companies to decide whether Continental should sign the agreement.

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Aart Hordijk, Paul Nelisse and Leonie Koerhuis‐Gritter

Real estate investors invest more and more cross‐border, but the valuation practices in the different countries are not similar. For investors it is good to know the…

1236

Abstract

Purpose

Real estate investors invest more and more cross‐border, but the valuation practices in the different countries are not similar. For investors it is good to know the difference in valuations between the countries, therefore this paper aims to investigate the valuation practices in eight different countries (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain and the UK).

Design/methodology/approach

To gather the information a questionnaire was sent out. The questionnaire included questions not only about facts, but also about the respondents' opinion about the reliability of the information.

Findings

It was found that in the different countries market value is not always the basis and that a wide variation of surface measurements is currently applied. Regular lease periods and the responsibility for operating cost vary from country to country. Also the sources for market evidence and their reliability differ per country. So it can be seen that, although market values can be compared across countries, valuation methodologies are country‐specific.

Research limitations/implications

The authors are still in the process of retrieving information and quality control, and the intention is to expand the research to all European Union countries, and finally all European countries. Therefore this paper only shows initial findings.

Originality/value

The existing research about international valuation practices is not very recent, and, because the authors not only assembled facts and processes, but also collected the respondents' opinions about the reliability of the information, the research is very valuable.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

G.K. Babawale and C.A. Ajayi

Quantitative commentaries in the UK, Australia and other developed economies have generally suggested a high level of valuation accuracy. These important findings need to…

1362

Abstract

Purpose

Quantitative commentaries in the UK, Australia and other developed economies have generally suggested a high level of valuation accuracy. These important findings need to be developed in other parts of the world to facilitate cross‐border property business transactions which globalization promotes. In countries like Nigeria where the property market and valuation practice are just evolving, the one‐to‐one relationship between valuations and transaction prices observed in more developed economies may not necessarily hold. This paper aims to focus on these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews major empirical studies on valuation accuracy with particular reference to the methodology and statistical analyses employed, the results obtained and their limitations. The paper also includes the results of an empirical study on valuation accuracy involving 250 residential properties in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. The paper employs error metric and econometric statistical techniques.

Findings

The study reveals, among others, that residential property valuation in Lagos metropolis exhibits inaccuracy below industry's acceptable minimum standards.

Practical implications

The credibility problem engendered by inaccurate valuation has far reaching consequences on the relevance and future of the valuation profession in the study area. Greater collaboration between professionals and academia in research, information procurement and analysis, improvement in valuers' task environment, a well articulated and encompassing mandatory national valuation standards incorporating effective enforcement machinery are some of the suggested remedial measures.

Originality/value

The study draws attention to the potentially grave implications of this result on bank solvency and the attendant negative impact on various aspects of the economy.

Details

Property Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Bin Yu, Huimin Liu, Huifang Cheng and Peng Gao

In the process of Renminbi (RMB) internationalization, the heterogeneity and complexity in knowledge under the multicultural contexts have been considered as important…

Abstract

Purpose

In the process of Renminbi (RMB) internationalization, the heterogeneity and complexity in knowledge under the multicultural contexts have been considered as important factors that can have profound impacts on the cross-border flow of the RMB currency. Moreover, COVID-19, an exogenous shock, also triggers more in-depth reflection on the relationship between cross-border knowledge management and the financial risk governance. In addition, the needs to effectively respond to global risks and crises prompt the necessity in systematically establishing an effective cross-border knowledge management mechanism and innovatively solidifying the knowledge bases needed for the further internationalization of the RMB.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis on the current status of the RMB internationalization, this paper qualitatively explores some major challenges and difficulties encountered in the process of RMB internationalization from the perspectives of knowledge management and cross-cultural theories. To effectively mitigate these challenges and difficulties, discussions and recommendations centered on three main aspects: cross-cultural management; cognition; and innovation for the further development of the RMB internationalization are also presented in this paper.

Findings

Based on the analysis on the cross-border knowledge management and cross-cultural perspectives, this paper identifies three major challenges and difficulties that the RMB internationalization is encountering, including: cultural heterogeneity and its adverse impacts on the communication amongst economic entities; the existence of knowledge iceberg; and the difficulty it presents to cognition and financial innovation. Meanwhile, the authors also present recommendations on the development of the cross-border knowledge management mechanism for furthering the progress of internationalizing the RMB currency.

Research limitations/implications

From the perspective of cross-border knowledge management, this study not only elaborates on the recommendations aimed at further promoting the RMB internationalization but also provides reference and guidance for the state, central banks and commercial banks to play better roles in furthering the RMB internationalization.

Originality/value

This paper creatively integrates the micro knowledge management into the macro process of RMB internationalization, thoroughly discusses two main challenges and difficulties encountered in the process of RMB internationalization from the unique perspective of cross-border knowledge management under the multicultural contexts and provides relevant recommendations for RMB’s further internationalization. This study also enriches the exploration of knowledge management outcome variables and further expands the research field of knowledge management.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Sheng-Hung Chen, Feng-Jui Hsu and Ying-Chen Lai

There is little known globally on the association among the independent shareholder, board size and merger and acquisition (M&A) performance. This paper addresses the…

Abstract

Purpose

There is little known globally on the association among the independent shareholder, board size and merger and acquisition (M&A) performance. This paper addresses the global issue about cross-border M&A in banking sector, particularly exploring the role of difference in the independent shareholder and board size between acquirer and target banks on synergy gains based on the international study.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on cross-border bank M&As data on 59 deals from 1995 to 2009, we initially apply social network analysis techniques to explore the country connectedness of the acquirer-target banks in cross-border M&As. Ordinary least squares (OLS) with robust standard errors is further used to investigate synergy gains within the difference in the degree of bank independent shareholder and board sizes between the acquirer and target banks.

Findings

Our results indicate that the acquiring banks are generally interconnected with the targeted banks and that some of acquiring banks are clearly concentrated in Asian countries including China, Hong Kong, and Philippines. Moreover, we find that cross-border M&As with larger difference in independent shareholders between the bidder and target bank would result in higher synergy gains in all cases of takeover premiums on 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks. In addition, financial differences between the bidder and target banks have a significant impact on synergetic gains, a topic not explored in previous studies. There is no evidence that institutional and governance differences between bidder and target bank have significant cross-border impacts on takeover premiums with respect to 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by exploring the international issue about the role of difference in the degree of bank independent shareholder and board sizes between acquirer and target banks on synergy gains. Based on bank cross-border M&As data on 59 deals from 1995 to 2009, we initially apply social network analysis to explore the country connectedness of acquirer-target bank in cross-border M&As, while ten ordinary least squares (OLS) with robust standard errors is used to investigate synergy gains within the difference in the degree of bank independent shareholder and board sizes between acquirer and target banks.

Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Neli Kouneva-Loewenthal and Goran Vojvodic

Purpose – The paper addresses the MNCs’ sensitivity to corruption which varies across economic sectors depending on the interaction between sectoral characteristics and…

Abstract

Purpose – The paper addresses the MNCs’ sensitivity to corruption which varies across economic sectors depending on the interaction between sectoral characteristics and home-country formal institutions’ strength.

Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical framework is proposed based on the economic sector and host-country's institutional factors. The framework is empirically tested using 245 cross-border FDI valuations. Given that the energy sector is representative of high levels of industry concentration and government involvement – the sectoral characteristics considered to be moderating the relationship between corruption and FDI – the focus of the paper is on the energy sector. The study also tests the moderating effect of corruption distance.

Findings – The results indicate a lack of evidence that MNCs are deterred by corruption when investing in the energy sector of emerging and developing economies.

Research limitations/implications – The study provides a starting-point for further research of how economic sector characteristics can moderate the relationship between corruption and FDI. A key practical implication is that international anti-corruption measures are likely to be insufficient for some economic sectors.

Originality/value – The paper has proven to be of interest to the US State Department for studying the effectiveness of the international foreign bribery laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The framework can assist in identifying economic sectors likely to be resistant to comply with the foreign bribery laws when conditions of weak host-country formal institutions are present. The study challenges and complements the prevailing theory that host-country corruption has a negative effect on inward FDI.

Details

New Policy Challenges for European Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-020-8

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 27 October 2012

Joshy Jacob, Sobhesh Kumar Agarwalla and Prem Chander

The case described the issues faced by a mid-sized Indian generic pharmaceutical firm, in its attempt to acquire a small unlisted Japanese generics manufacturer. It…

Abstract

The case described the issues faced by a mid-sized Indian generic pharmaceutical firm, in its attempt to acquire a small unlisted Japanese generics manufacturer. It showcases the strong motivation of a successful emerging market pharmaceutical firm to expand into the developed market, buoyed by its cost competitiveness. The case presents an opportunity to discuss the trade-offs involved with most of the dynamic decisions in a cross-border acquisition, such as estimation of synergies and value, bidding, and financing the acquisition. The case may be used in programmes on valuation, and mergers and acquisitions.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2018

Yusnidah Ibrahim and Jimoh Olajide Raji

This paper aims to examine the influence of key macroeconomic factors on the inward and outward acquisition activities of six ASEAN (ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian…

1394

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of key macroeconomic factors on the inward and outward acquisition activities of six ASEAN (ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, over the 1996-2015 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses alternative panel data methods, including pooled mean group, mean group and dynamic fixed-effect estimators.

Findings

The results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP), interest rate, exchange rate, money supply and inflation rate are the most important macroeconomic factors explaining the trends of cross-border mergers and acquisition outflows of the ASEAN-6 countries. Specifically, GDP, money supply and inflation rate have significant positive relationships with acquisition outflows, while interest rate and exchange rate exert significant negative influence. On the other hand, the authors find four significant macroeconomic factors explaining the trends of the inward acquisitions. Essentially, GDP, money supply and inflation rate have significant positive impacts on inward acquisitions, while the impact of exchange rate is negatively significant.

Research limitations/implications

Unavailability of data limits this study to pool six sample countries from ASEAN, instead of ten representative member countries.

Practical implications

The results of this study can signal to firms or investors, involving in cross-border mergers and acquisitions, where to direct foreign resources flows. Moreover, having the knowledge about the relative levels of market size and other macroeconomic factors in both home and host countries can be of great importance for investment decision. Therefore, policymakers of ASEAN countries should make appropriate macroeconomic policies that can stimulate inward and outward acquisitions.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is that it is the first to present the analysis of macroeconomic influences on the trends of inward and outward merger and acquisition activities in six ASEAN countries.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000