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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Angeles Moreno, Cristina Navarro and Mariam Alkazemi

The purpose of this paper is to compare the perspectives of public relations professionals against those of the general public in Spain with respect to which communications…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the perspectives of public relations professionals against those of the general public in Spain with respect to which communications activities and organizational attributes are relevant to the leadership images of organizations, and what are the characteristics of effective leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

This study combines data from the European Communication Monitor (ECM) with the results of a representative online survey carried out by the global market research company IPSOS.

Findings

Results show that the general public sees TV interviews as well as TV advertising as communication tools with the biggest potential to shape the leadership image of organizations. When it comes to the attributes of effective leaders, communication professionals overestimate the role of an organization’s vision, while the population much more stresses basic attributes like leading by example and admitting mistakes. PR practitioners underestimate customer service and environmental responsibility and tend to favor more abstract attributes like innovation and CSR.

Research limitations/implications

This paper touches only four sections of the ECM 2014/2015. Participant fatigue may have negatively impacted the quality of the data. A large sample of professionals was approached, but a much small number initiated and completed the online survey. The size of the sample of communication professionals makes it difficult to generalize the results. In addition, future research should extend the study to different groups of stakeholders, such as employees, investors, and suppliers.

Practical implications

While organizations face intensive pressure from evaluation by their stakeholders, discrepancies between the expectations of the general public in regard to leadership negatively affects the communicator’s work to position organizations in society, as well as CEOs and top executives as leaders. On this regards, getting closer to what the population expects will help to understand and improve leadership perceptions.

Originality/value

Very little work has been done in Spain regarding to leadership in public relations or public relations professional’s perceptions about leadership. Most research published to date has focused on the leader’s position in the company, participation in management levels, types of responsibilities assumed and their relative influence and leadership style. Even fewer public relations studies have tried to identify the communication activities that are relevant to the leadership image of organizations and compare the perspectives of public relations professionals on leadership against those of the general public. This dearth of knowledge about stakeholder expectations negatively affects the communicator’s work to position organizations and executive leaders in society.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Cristina Navarro, Angeles Moreno and Ansgar Zerfass

Listening to and conversing with stakeholders has become a basic requirement for the survival of any organization in a society with insistent demands for transparency and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Listening to and conversing with stakeholders has become a basic requirement for the survival of any organization in a society with insistent demands for transparency and dialogue. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Latin American practitioners are using social media for corporate and networking purposes, and their perceptions about which social media activity is more relevant for organizational stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

A population of 803 public relations professionals from 18 Latin American countries working on different hierarchical levels, both in communication departments and agencies across the region, were surveyed as part of a larger online survey. For this research, five questions about social media usage have been included in the first edition of the Latin American Communication Monitor (LCM) project.

Findings

The study shows that despite the massive incorporation of social media into communication strategies of organizations, Latin American professionals report less intensive use of these collaborative channels than do peers in the Asia-Pacific, but they are in line with colleagues from Europe. Practitioners report a cautious optimism on the success achieved in the social media arena, as well as an insignificant use of these tools for professional networking purposes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper touches only four sections of the LCM 2014/2015. Participant fatigue may have negatively impacted the quality of the data. A large sample of professionals was approached, but a much small number initiated and completed the online survey. This resulted in the lack of representation of some countries in the subcontinent. In the future, greater participation is needed to allow for a more comprehensive comparative analysis.

Practical implications

This research provides a more in-depth look at the current state of public relations practice in Latin America and the use of social media channels to communicate with stakeholders. Even if social media continue to create unprecedented opportunities, social media platforms have not been widely adopted by professionals in the region, probably due to the lack of appropriate structures, cultures and strategies for participative modes of social media communication.

Social implications

This dearth of knowledge about how PR professionals use social media affects the engagement process, and as a result, the reputation, legitimization, satisfaction with and trust in organizations. Without listening carefully to stakeholder needs, satisfying these needs and establishing a real conversation, organizations will not be able to attain the sought-after engagement that leads to a stable and lasting relation with the public.

Originality/value

Although numerous articles on the situation of public relations in different Latin American countries have been published, this research is first attempt to investigate the use of social media channels in the subcontinent through opinions of a representative sample of professionals.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Angeles Moreno, Cristina Navarro, Juan-Carlos Molleda and M. Cristina Fuentes-Lara

It is well established that greater resilience buffers the negative effects of adverse events and conditions, allowing the affected individual to recover adequately. Resilience is…

Abstract

Purpose

It is well established that greater resilience buffers the negative effects of adverse events and conditions, allowing the affected individual to recover adequately. Resilience is a core trait for public relations practitioners, due to the challenging and pressure-laden nature of their work. However, as an individual-level trait, this phenomenon remains underexplored in the communication field. The purpose of this paper is to examine the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor and Davidson, 2003), evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among Latin American public relations practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

A population of 898 public relations professionals from 18 Latin American countries working on different hierarchical levels, both in communication departments and agencies across the region were surveyed.

Findings

CD-RISC global scorings show direct correlations with age, years of experience, type of organization, hierarchy and social media skills. However, education, salary, gender or working in an excellent, successful and influential communication department were not predictors of resilience. Additionally, results provide supporting evidence that the CD-RISC has good psychometric properties and can be used as a reliable and valid tool to assess resilience among Latin American public relations practitioners.

Research limitations/implications

As in any study using self-report measures, the results may have been influenced by participants’ acquiescence and need for social desirability. Greater participation is needed from some countries to allow for a more comprehensive comparative analysis.

Practical implications

Identifying factors that protect against negative outcomes is important for the development of strengths-based approaches that emphasize resilience. Moreover, in predicting the ability to tolerate stress and its negative effects, this study may help in the selection of personnel who will manage tougher job demands.

Originality/value

Research on the concept of resilience has gained substantial momentum over the past decades and has become a multidisciplinary field of research spanning a variety of theoretical and conceptual positions. However, practitioner resilience has not formally addressed in the public relations research, with the sole exception of the qualitative research conducted by Guo and Anderson in 2018 using a critical incident technique approach. This field provides an intriguing context to study resilience because practitioners are regularly engaged in work that may require the ability to “bounce back” from challenging work.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Florentina Halimi, Iqbal AlShammari and Cristina Navarro

This study examines the role of emotional intelligence on academic achievement among students at a private university in Kuwait.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the role of emotional intelligence on academic achievement among students at a private university in Kuwait.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained through a questionnaire which elicits information on students' sociodemographic data and their overall college grade point average (GPA). The 16-item Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, Wong and Law, 2002), was used to evaluate the level of emotional intelligence and explore the effect on academic performance in a sample of 480 Kuwaiti college students.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that academic success was strongly associated with self-emotion appraisal (SEA) and use of emotions (UOE). However, the results did not show direct correlations with age, high schooling system, gender and nationality. Additionally, results provide supporting evidence that the WLEIS scale has good psychometric properties and can be used as a reliable tool to assess the emotional intelligence skills among college students in Kuwait.

Research limitations/implications

The study has several limitations that require consideration when interpreting the findings. First, this research used a quantitative methodology, which can provide limited information about emotional intelligence, and further qualitative research is necessary to identify contributors and inhibitors of this construct. Second, as in any study using self-report measures, the results may have been influenced by participants' acquiescence and need for social desirability. Further studies should aim to include ways in which EI can be incorporated into academic curricula and qualification framework and barriers that may pertain to encourage emotional intelligence skills development in higher education and suggest solutions accordingly. In future studies it would be interesting to see educators' self-perception vs of students to include a multi-rated for the emotional intelligence. To this end, these areas of study could provide a more comprehensive understanding in the sense of integrating emotional intelligence theories and methods from multiple disciplines that constitute social, personality and psychological trait within higher education. This research has only considered samples from a private university in Kuwait. Extension of sampling scope to other universities around the country and in the Middle East may bring a better understanding of students' emotional intelligence level. In terms of EI components, the results of this study indicated that students score highest in self-emotional appraisal (SEA) and the use of emotions (UOA) and lowest on regulation of emotions (ROE). Additional studies can be conducted to see whether the same results apply on Arab students in the Middle East as a whole. The present study has provided more evidence of the need for cross-cultural comparison of an imported construct and its measurement by showing that the emotional intelligence construct, defined by the WLEIS (Wong and Law, 2002), may be understood differently in other cultures.

Practical implications

There are two key implications in this study, one concerning gender and the other relating to students' GPA. The results suggested differences between the way female and male students viewed EI skills in relation to their academic achievement. Considering that the instrument used to measure EI was the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), a self-report measure, perhaps a degree of bias was introduced. Male students' EI scores as a whole (M = 5.56) were higher than the EI mean score for female students (M = 5.39). As Novinger (2001) proposed, emotional expressiveness in the Arab world is such that women are trained to be less demonstrative of their emotions than men.

Social implications

In addition, gender and cultural values may influence communication styles among Arab students during the teaching process. An awareness of gender and cultural difference related to EI could be beneficial to all parties (students, educators and administrators) in higher educational institutions. Educators' sensitivity to students' EI skills associated with culture can be manifested in a wide variety of teaching practices, ranging from educators' expectations toward students to their interpersonal interactions with students and from teaching styles to assessment methods. For example, an understanding of the possible impact of gender on EI skills may raise educators' levels of cultural sensitivity in dealing with students in the Middle East, particularly, in Kuwait. Even though this study did not show a significant relationship between the overall EI level and students’ GPA, an effect on EI components SEA and UOA was found. University administrators and educators wishing to increase students' academic achievement would do well to incorporate the use and recognition of emotions into their curricula. For instance, emotions can be used to channel the anxiety created by exams to motivate students to prepare more thoroughly and attain more higher standards.

Originality/value

Emotional intelligence skills are important predictors of academic success, and they play a key role in students' performance, and greater the emotional intelligence, the academic achievement will be higher. The results of this study support the research studies suggesting that students' emotional intelligence (EI) should be considered by curriculum designers to enable educators assist their students reach successful academic performance.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2018

Marta Ingelmo Palomares, Cristina Navarro and José Ángel Sanz Lara

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence the success of internal communication in Spanish companies, specifically the importance of the channels used…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence the success of internal communication in Spanish companies, specifically the importance of the channels used, activities conducted through ISM and the role played by the communication professional.

Design/methodology/approach

The model employed argues that to obtain success in internal communication, three factors are considered necessary: first, communication professionals must participate in strategic decisions; second, they have to use together social media channel and classical channel to communicate with employees; and finally they must choose which activities they carry out during the use of social media. These elements are developed in the literature review. To research practices of internal digital communications and level of success of internal communication across types of organizations, a quantitative survey between professionals from Spanish companies was conducted.

Findings

The results revealed that the hierarchical level, participation in the strategic decision process and dedication of the communication practitioner, alongside with the use of face-to-face and online communication channels, and the perceived importance of communication activities conducted through social media platforms are the key factors that influence the quality of internal communication. However, no significant relationship between the level of success and the use of social media channels was found.

Research limitations/implications

The current study has several limitations that should be noted and addressed in future research. The main limitation lies in the fact that the dependent variable – success in communication – is entirely based on communication professionals’ perceptions. Replication studies can be conducted to cross-validate the results obtained from this study using business outcome metrics to measure the communication effectiveness. A further limitation is related to the sampling procedure. Obtaining a representative sample of communications professionals in Spanish companies poses a number of limitations due to the impossibility of having accurate data on the total population.

Practical implications

The findings of the current study provide important implications for public relations professionals on what (i.e. the content) and how to (i.e. the channels) communicate within an organization. In general, internal communicators should move from historical roles as information producers and distributors to advisory roles in strategic decision making. Additionally, the implementation and use of ISM should be carefully revaluated. Communication practitioners should examine and address the difficulties involved in choosing the correct channels, devoting the necessary time to their adequate management, analyzing employees’ feedback and improving the engagement.

Originality/value

The study shows that internal communication practices in Spanish companies are changing. The model used in this research can be applied in an individual organization to evaluate what factors improve the communication of its employees and carry out additional research in other countries or types of organizations to identity new challenges.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Cristina López-Cózar-Navarro, Tiziana Priede-Bergamini and Sonia Benito-Hernández

The purpose of this paper is to suggest two main objectives: to analyze if the size of the company is determined by the use of external legal and human resources (HR) advice; and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest two main objectives: to analyze if the size of the company is determined by the use of external legal and human resources (HR) advice; and to analyze if the size of the family business is determined by the use of these two same types of external advice.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment is developed (2,013 firms, the Spanish industrial sector) by using descriptive statistics to compare the features of the different types of firms in the sample: family and non-family ones. This is completed with a test of equality of means and using econometric models.

Findings

Regarding legal advice, results show that as far as legal matters are concerned, when family businesses make greater use of this type of advice, they are smaller. This is a remarkable and interesting result because it differs from non-family firms, in which the use of this type of advice is positively related with size. Regarding the use of HR advice, while it remains significant in general cases with a positive result, this is not the same for family firms.

Originality/value

The use of advising in family firms is seldom dealt with in the literature, despite its helpfulness for family firm managers. There is gap in this field and a great deal of interesting research remains to be developed, because the authors consider that factors determining the use of advice in family and non-family firms are different.

Propósito

El presente documento propone dos objetivos principales: (1) analizar si el tamaño de la empresa está relacionado con el uso de asesoramiento externo tanto jurídico como de recursos humanos. (2) examinar si para el caso de la empresa familiar su tamaño está relacionado por el uso de estos dos mismos tipos de asesoramiento externo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El análisis se desarrolló (2.013 empresas, el sector industrial español) utilizando técnicas de la estadística descriptiva para comparar las características de los diferentes tipos de empresas de la muestra: familiares y no familiares queridos. Esto se completa con una prueba de la igualdad de medios y el uso de modelos econométricos.

Hallazgos

En cuanto a asesoramiento jurídico, los resultados muestran que, en lo que se refiere a asuntos legales, las empresas familiares hacen un mayor uso de este tipo de consejos a medida que son más pequeñas. Este es un resultado notable e interesante, ya que se diferencia de las no familiares, en las que el uso de este tipo de asesoramiento se relaciona positivamente con el tamaño. Respecto al uso de asesoramiento de recursos humanos, mientras que sigue siendo significativa en los casos generales con un resultado positivo, este no es el mismo para las empresas familiares.

Originalidad/valor

El uso de asesoramiento en las empresas familiares rara vez se aborda en la literatura, a pesar de su utilidad para los directivos de este tipo de empresas. Hay un vacío en este campo y una gran cantidad de investigación interesante que queda por desarrollar, teniendo en cuenta sobre todo, que los factores que determinan el uso de asesoramiento en las empresas familiares y no familiares no son los mismos.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Gonzalo Maldonado-Guzmán, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes and Yesenia Pinzón-Castro

Circular economy is emerging as a new sustainability paradigm. Similarly, eco-innovation is being recognized as one of the most important mechanisms that allow the transition from…

2045

Abstract

Purpose

Circular economy is emerging as a new sustainability paradigm. Similarly, eco-innovation is being recognized as one of the most important mechanisms that allow the transition from a linear to a circular economy in production processes, as there is a strong relationship between eco-innovation (eco-innovation of products, processes and management) and circular economy activities. However, the relationship between eco-innovation and circular economy is an issue that has been isolated and little analyzed in the academic literature. Therefore, this research fills this gap by exploring the interdependence between eco-innovation and circular economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is conducted through an extensive literature review from where a research framework consisting of two measurement scales, 18 items and three hypotheses were developed. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and 460 responses were obtained from companies in the automotive and auto parts industry in Mexico. The data obtained were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results suggest that eco-innovation of products, process and management has a significant positive impact on the circular economy of companies in the automotive and auto parts industry.

Practical implications

The findings of this research can inform managers in the automotive sector and policymakers when formulating and deploying environmentally sustainable strategies.

Originality/value

This paper fills a research gap by expanding the limited body of knowledge that relates eco-innovation and circular economy and providing some evidence of their relationship. The research also allows the unique characteristics of eco-innovation and the circular economy to be understood within a particular context, growing in this manner the body of knowledge on this field.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2014

María Jesús Rodríguez-García, Cristina Mateos Mora and Clemente J. Navarro Yáñez

City governments know well that culture is a powerful tool they can use to promote local development. Those governors also know that there are different ways to pursue that…

Abstract

City governments know well that culture is a powerful tool they can use to promote local development. Those governors also know that there are different ways to pursue that process. Two main strategies considered here are: instructional strategies, which promote cultural services among local inhabitants, and instrumental strategies to promote economic development creating big cultural spaces and large events. This chapter shows the impact of cultural strategies on the attraction of creative residents (creative class), as well as on income differences among Spanish municipalities.

Our main hypothesis is: in comparison with instructional strategies, instrumental strategies have a positive impact on local creativity and economic development. Using secondary data from the Spanish census, cultural strategies in a local area are analyzed, and are included in multiple regression models to test this idea.

These analyses show that, first, instrumental strategies have a positive impact on creative class localization; second, these strategies have a positive impact on local income regardless of the presence of a creative class, and moreover, the impact of a creative class on local income depends on the orientation of cultural strategies. This implies that the impact of creativity on local development is contextual according to the nature of local cultural strategies.

Details

Can Tocqueville Karaoke? Global Contrasts of Citizen Participation, the Arts and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-737-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Amine Allaoui, Cristina Barranquero, Sanaa Yahia, Luis Vicente Herrera-Marcos, Souhila Benomar, Mourad Jridi, María Ángeles Navarro, Maria Jesús Rodriguez-Yoldi, Moncef Nasri, Jesús Osada and Ahmed Boualga

This paper aims to investigate the in vivo hypocholesterolemic property of fenugreek proteins (FP), Purafect-fenugreek protein hydrolysate (PFPH) and Esperase-fenugreek protein…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the in vivo hypocholesterolemic property of fenugreek proteins (FP), Purafect-fenugreek protein hydrolysate (PFPH) and Esperase-fenugreek protein hydrolysate (EFPH) on high cholesterol (HC)-fed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Rats were randomized into five groups: four were fed for four weeks a hypercholesterolemic diet and the tested products were given by gavage. The fifth group was taken as control (C) receiving the same diet without cholesterol.

Findings

Results showed that the elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in HC group plasma was significantly corrected by FP and EFPH administration (−33 per cent; p = 0.0003). HC liver lipids and total cholesterol (TC) contents were not markedly affected by FP and EFPH. However, liver triglycerides (TG) contents trended to decrease in FP rats vs HC (p = 0.07), while, the TG decrease was significant in groups fed the proteins hydrolysates (p = 0.02). On the other hand, serum TC and TG decreased by 53 per cent (p = 0.0003) and 20 per cent (p = 0.04), respectively, in FP treated rats compared to HC group. This decrease was associated with a high fecal cholesterol excretion (2.5-fold higher in FP vs HC; p = 0.0001). Likewise, EFPH-treated rats exhibited lower TC compared to HC rats (p = 0.004). The very low density lipoprotins was the main affected fraction in these two groups, while there were no significant difference in apolipoproteins (Apo) B, A-I and A-IV contents between the different groups, except in FP group, where Apo A-I and A-IV decreased by 26 and 17 per cent, respectively, compared to C rats (p = 0.02). The high density lipoproteins (HDL) of rats treated with proteins hydrolysates showed a better antioxidant property compared to those of HC rats, which was accompanied with an increase in paraoxonase activity when compared to HC group.

Originality/value

Unlike PFPH which had almost no effect, FPs and EFPH could constitute a nutraceutical ingredient in cardiovascular disease management.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

João J.M. Ferreira, Cristina Fernandes and Pedro Veiga

This study seeks to provide a broad ranging review that identifies, summarises and integrates the different multi-level approaches contributing to advances in research on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to provide a broad ranging review that identifies, summarises and integrates the different multi-level approaches contributing to advances in research on measuring IC. This furthermore sets out and highlights an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Deploying a systematic and thorough review of the literature, the authors were able to identify 60 articles and identify the main theories applied and the respective methodological orientations of these articles across three levels of analysis: micro, meso and macro.

Findings

The study's findings suggest that the literature on measuring IC has approached the theme across three different levels –micro, meso and macro. In addition, the results enable the identification of seven dimensions to IC: competitive advantage, economic value generated, resources and capacities, corporate governance, IC components, innovation management and the dissemination of IC.

Research limitations/implications

The mixed-methods approach, which combines a traditional systematic literature review with ontological thematic analysis, casts light on the core aspects that led to the identification of a new approach in the academic literature on measuring IC.

Practical implications

This study puts forward a holistic model with measurements for IC across the three levels of analysis as well as the respective criteria for choosing the variables.

Originality/value

This study represents a first attempt to analyse the emerging literature on IC measurement through a multi-level approach; integrating and extracting the potential theoretical contributions in this field of knowledge; proposing an integrated model as well as a theoretically relevant and innovative research agenda that opens up paths to future research projects.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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