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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Muhammad Aljukhadar and Sylvain Senecal

Since their inception, which took place more than two decades ago, product recommendation agents (RAs) still attract very few consumers. Notably, most of academic work in…

Abstract

Purpose

Since their inception, which took place more than two decades ago, product recommendation agents (RAs) still attract very few consumers. Notably, most of academic work in the field had an empirical quantitative structure. In addition, no research has developed a comprehensive model to explain the adoption and usage of commercial RAs. The purpose of this paper is to follow a qualitative approach to investigate the factors behind the adoption and usage of commercial RAs, explore the effect of user age, and deduce the success factors of these RAs.

Design/methodology/approach

This research followed a qualitative approach. Qualitative research aims to form an in‐depth understanding of human behavior. It is essential for building grounded theory and for proposing comprehensive models for future examination. As such, in four discussion groups, participants provided their input following the shopping trial for a product using a factual RA (MyProductAdvisor.com). Discussion groups were used because they outline an important aspect of qualitative research and because they are ideal for both the inception and development of products and services.

Findings

Underlying the major themes, the analysis first provides insight in consumers' RA use and the products consumers regard as adequate to be offered using a commercial RA. The analysis then delineates some important factors that can be considered by developers to enhance the usability and trustworthiness of commercial RAs. Further, the analysis suggested four higher‐order factors that can be considered the success factors of a commercial RA: users appear to require a commercial RA that is friendly, smart, trusted, and informational. The themes that emerged from participants in the youth and the older discussion groups were rather invariant.

Originality/value

This is one of the few qualitative studies that focused on commercial RAs. The commercial RA success factors and their determinants are summarized in the form of a general framework to guide future work. This qualitative work provides a cornerstone that is of importance to theory development in the field of intelligent RAs and assistive technology. The results have important implications for RAs' developers and researchers.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Diane Georgiades and Brian H. Kleiner

As a result of the end of the cold war, the US Government’s defence spending has decreased significantly since 1989. Consequently, many aerospace companies in the defence…

Abstract

As a result of the end of the cold war, the US Government’s defence spending has decreased significantly since 1989. Consequently, many aerospace companies in the defence industry have begun the transition to commercial products. Reviews the commercial success strategies of Lockheed Martin, Hughes Electronics and Rockwell. Commercial success strategies discussed include: mergers, derived products, partnerships, consolidation, fresh blood in management, subsidiaries and acquisitions. Examines the negative side‐effects ‐ which include downsizing and less investment in technology research ‐ of the commercial transition.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

George K. Chako

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…

Abstract

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Madeline Berma

The Iban are the largest ethnic group in Sarawak. This paper analyses their participation in one of the most common forms of rural non‐agricultural activities in Sarawak…

Abstract

The Iban are the largest ethnic group in Sarawak. This paper analyses their participation in one of the most common forms of rural non‐agricultural activities in Sarawak, namely commercial handicraft production (CHP). Traditionally, the Iban produce handicrafts for personal use. With the introduction of the Iban to the cash economy, the presence of demand for their handicrafts, and the growing insecurities in the rural economy one would expect Iban craftspersons to participate actively in RNAE and produce handicrafts for commercial purposes. Some Iban craftspersons have taken up CHP, while others have not. Some have achieved economic “success” while others have failed. This suggests that there are different responses to, and impact of non‐agricultural activities (particularly CHP) on the Iban in rural Sarawak. This paper addresses the following key questions: What are the factors preventing rural communities from taking up and/or succeeding in RNAE, particularly commercial handicraft production? Is it due to the lack of willingness among Iban craftspersons to participate in commercial activities? Is it due to limited access to market and institutional support? This paper is based on a survey conducted on 200 Iban craftspersons from eleven longhouses in Kapit Division, Sarawak between 1993 until 1996

Details

Humanomics, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Daniel Robey, Karl Hellman, Isabelle Monlouis, Kenneth Nations and Wesley J. Johnston

The purpose of this paper is to study two aspects of new product development (NPD) success – the impact of learning and the impact of structure – are studied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study two aspects of new product development (NPD) success – the impact of learning and the impact of structure – are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study method within a single setting consisting of in-depth interviews of two teams that developed successful, award-winning products and two teams that developed unsuccessful products.

Findings

Case 1: flexibility and expertise permitted learning and radical redefinition of the product mid-project and commercial success. Case 2: flexibility enabled adding expertise which was instrumental in success, iterating permitted optimizing pricing. Case 3: flexibility led to focusing on technical issues to the exclusion of commercial viability. Case 4: flexibility led to skipping market definition and partnering with a particular customer whose situation was idiosyncratic. Cross-case analysis: flexibility in teams with both technical and commercial expertise yielded success. Flexibility permitted teams consisting of narrow experts to invest development resources in products with insufficient market.

Research limitations/implications

This paper argues that the right balance between structure and flexibility is dependent on the level of expertise of the members of the NPD project teams. However, getting this balance right is not a sufficient condition for NPD success. The cases were theoretically blocked to develop theoretical insight, but additional cases are needed for a strong test of theory.

Practical implications

The more experienced team members are, the more the project benefits from flexibility. Conversely, an inexperienced team will benefit from a more structured process. Projects require iteration. The dichotomy between structure and flexibility is false: the most expert teams benefit from some structure. The most inexperienced teams must employ flexibility to learn.

Originality/value

The analysis combines the virtues of the stage-gate school and the flexibility school previously thought mutually exclusive.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Ilkka Jokioinen and Petri Suomala

The purpose of this paper is to discuss successful industrial product development (PD) projects. The study seeks to identify both the features that are common to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss successful industrial product development (PD) projects. The study seeks to identify both the features that are common to successful projects and the features that seem to distinguish one success project from another.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an ex‐post analysis of real‐world projects that can be considered successful. The empirical data were collected on a case study basis. The approach is built on the analysis of four cases that represent different businesses within one industrial company.

Findings

The study produced several insights. First, one major pattern conjoins all the studied projects: they were intended and able to produce valuable solutions for productivity problems in customers' industry. Importantly, it was possible to prove this value (explicitly) at an early stage of the development.

Originality/value

Regarding the successful practices, the observed ways to develop a new and an innovative industrial product and to bring it to the market differed from case to case. A textbook approach for a good R&D process was not found in the cases. Contrary to an “ideal” process, the phases of development overlapped each other and some phases were completely absent. In these settings, the innovative and entrepreneurial development team had been able to overcome the problems that originated from missing upfront “home work” or from a less rigorous process.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2007

James A. Evans

Sociological studies of entrepreneurship focus on social and technical innovations in business. Using an illustration from molecular plant biology and the historical…

Abstract

Sociological studies of entrepreneurship focus on social and technical innovations in business. Using an illustration from molecular plant biology and the historical evolution of the term “entrepreneur,” I make a case for the theoretical and methodological importance of studying entrepreneurs and their ventures outside the scope of traditional business. Then, considering the scientific lab as a self-consciously entrepreneurial venture, I use the population of molecular biology labs studying the plant Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate a relationship less directly measurable among start-ups in business: diverse sources of funding accompany original activities and ideas within a venture. This is not, however, what predicts lab success. Lab size drives success, but hinders originality. Moreover, I show that established institutions in science are usually the ones that become innovations in business.

Details

The Sociology of Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-498-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Richard J. George

This article provides an in‐depth chronology of the development of in‐home electronics shopping, beginning with optimistic predictions of revolutionary growth and possible…

Abstract

This article provides an in‐depth chronology of the development of in‐home electronics shopping, beginning with optimistic predictions of revolutionary growth and possible displacement of traditional retailers, through the acknowledged marketplace failures of two U.S. pioneers of videotex. Included are findings of various research studies and controlled market test results that highlight practical problems associated with this technological innovation in consumer marketing. In addressing the reasons contributing to its disappointing past, the article focuses on the impact of system, organization, product, and demand variables on in‐home electronic shopping. Prestel, the British videotex system, and Minitel, the French videotex system, are described and compared with the commercial efforts of major U.S. corporations. In addition, the article high‐lights the advantages and disadvantages of two leading technologies (television shopping shows and laser videodisc retailing) that currently compete with in‐home electronic shopping for the nonstore retailing market. The article concludes with some cautionary comments and pragmatic suggestions for increasing the probability of commercial success of in‐home electronic shopping.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Mariann Jelinek

U.S. industry–university (I–U) relations around intellectual property (IP) have become increasingly contentious since the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, while especially lucrative…

Abstract

U.S. industry–university (I–U) relations around intellectual property (IP) have become increasingly contentious since the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, while especially lucrative patents and licenses resulting from biomedical and pharmaceutical discoveries capture the headlines. Some assert that I–U relations around IP are in crisis, others suggest that no such problem exists, and still others bemoan the “increasing commercialization” of U.S. education. This chapter develops a multi-level model of I–U IP dynamics, drawing on pluralistic, multi-theory perspectives, field interviews, and secondary data. The model includes three levels: the institutional (economy) level, I–U (sector) level, and the organizational level. These levels jointly affect the immediate context of any deal. The chapter closes with a discussion of this model's implications for further research and some theoretical speculations.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

Peter T. Gianiodis and Jill A. Brown

We extend the literature on scientific discovery and commercialization by examining entrepreneurial action by university-based scientists. Specifically, we investigate the…

Abstract

We extend the literature on scientific discovery and commercialization by examining entrepreneurial action by university-based scientists. Specifically, we investigate the decision process and the paths to commercialize academic technologies. University-based technology transfer involves multiple stakeholders with competing interests; hence, we believe researchers should apply a multilevel theoretical lens, which starts with the disclosure of discoveries made by scientists in their labs. We build a multilevel framework that views the scientists’ choice to first disclose viable discoveries to pursue entrepreneurial action as a function of three factors: (i) a scientist's rent orientation, (ii) a university's rent doctrine, and (iii) the rent doctrine of the scientific field in which the scientist conducts research. We suggest that commercial disclosure most often occurs when there is alignment between these three factors. Lastly, we advance an agenda for future empirical research by developing specific propositions about the key constructs and relationships concerning university-based entrepreneurial action.

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