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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Shuhua Xiong, Zhiping Zhu and Lingling Jing

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Cl‐ions on the pitting corrosion of water‐wall tube of a boiler and the principle behind it.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Cl‐ions on the pitting corrosion of water‐wall tube of a boiler and the principle behind it.

Design/methodology/approach

The specimens were immersed for seven hours at 300°C in deaerated water subjected to simulation‐modified equilibrium phosphate treatment, containing Cl‐ions at various concentrations. The effects of Cl‐ions on pitting corrosion were assessed by the rate mass loss, transmission reflection metallurgical microscopy, SEM, EDS, and XRD.

Findings

The results indicated that Cl‐ions cause the breakdown of passive films. The corrosion mechanism of Cl‐is proposed to involve an intermediate dissolution stage. The Cl‐ions act as a catalyst of corrosion, by inducing the hydrolysis of Fe2+. The critical susceptive Cl‐concentrations are 0.2 and 0.6 mg·L‐1 for the passivated specimens and for the unpassivated specimens, respectively.

Originality/value

The paper provides information regarding the relationship between Cl‐concentrations and pitting corrosion, useful for understanding the mechanism of Cl‐induced pitting corrosion, and the research results can provide theoretical guidelines for preventing water‐wall of power plants from corroding.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

Cao Shun'an, Zhu Qing and Zhang Zhixin

This paper sets out to study the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel without film and with films of different qualities in high‐temperature boiler water with different Cl

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to study the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel without film and with films of different qualities in high‐temperature boiler water with different Cl concentrations.

Design/methodology/approach

The static simulated experiment in high‐pressure autoclave and the surface analysis methods of EPMA and XRD were carried out to study the corrosion effect.

Findings

Under the following conditions: T=360±3°C, pH = 9.40±0.10, cO2<0.020 mg/l, the density of pitting corrosion on specimens without a protective film increased with the increase of CCl content, while CCl was > 0.2 mg/l. The film on specimens with integral films would not dissolve observably even until the CCl concentration was as high as 0.8 mg/l. Films with corrosion pits would begin dissolving when the Cl concentration reached 0.4 mg/l. The main constituents of the oxidative films in the gas and liquid phases both were Fe3O4.

Practical implications

In order to prevent carbon steel from corroding in boiler water containing Cl under conditions of low‐phosphate and low‐sodium hydroxide treatment, the concentration of Cl should be strictly controlled.

Originality/value

It was found that the presence of excessive Cl in boiler water accelerated the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel and the maximum permissible concentration of Cl under the conditions (temperature and pressure) of sub‐critical drum boilers was 0.2 mg/l. The research results can provide theoretical guidelines for preventing the facilities of power plants from corroding.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2022

Norman Rudhumbu

Creating suitable learning conditions in university classrooms continues to be a topical issue in higher education. The above means that a continued search for innovative…

Abstract

Purpose

Creating suitable learning conditions in university classrooms continues to be a topical issue in higher education. The above means that a continued search for innovative teaching and learning strategies in universities remains a priority issue. The study therefore investigated conditions that facilitate the effective implementation of cooperative learning (CL) as well as how CL influences the academic performance of students in universities in Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted a quantitative research approach located in the descriptive research design. A sample of 341 undergraduate students selected using a simple random sampling strategy from a sample frame of 701 undergraduate students participated in the study. The study first used a pre-test and later, a post-test to determine the initial and end of semester (EOS) academic performance levels of students, respectively, on a Calculus 1 course. A self-constructed structured questionnaire was also used for data collection on the views of students towards the use of CL with particular reference to the 5 dimensions of positive interdependence (PDI), promotive interaction (PI), individual and group accountability (IGA), social and interpersonal skills (SS) and group processing (GP). The questionnaire was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modelling was used to test proposed relationships. A total of 341 questionnaires were administered through an email survey. Of the total, 149 completed questionnaires were received from the students, giving a return rate of 43.7%.

Findings

The results showed that positive interdependence, promotive interaction, social and interpersonal skills, individual and group accountability as well as group processing were important antecedents to the effective implementation of CL in universities. The results further showed that CL plays a significant role in improving the academic performance of university students; hence, academic performance was viewed as a significant consequence of CL.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first study on the application of CL to enhance the academic performance of university students in the context of Zimbabwe. As a result, caution should be exercised when generalising the results as more studies to either confirm or disconfirm these results in the context of Zimbabwe may still be required.

Practical implications

These results have implications on policy and practice with regards to active teaching strategies in universities. With regards to practice, the results demonstrated that the use of group activities that allow students to share knowledge and support each other while the teacher plays a facilitating role is important for enhancing students' academic performance. With regards to policy, the results showed that universities can enhance the academic performance of students if policies that promote student-centered teaching and learning approaches to ensure that teaching in universities is more student-led than lecturer-led are developed.

Originality/value

While many studies have been conducted in other contexts, to establish the influence of CL on the academic performance of university students, there is no known study on the influence of CL that has been conducted in the context of Zimbabwean universities. The results of this study therefore are an eye opener on the role of CL in enhancing the academic performance of students in Zimbabwean universities.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2022

Shahina Batool, Babrak Ali Panezai, Ghulam Jan Baloch and Shamaila Sohail

The purpose of this paper is to determine empirically the effect of customer perceived ethicality (CPE) on customer loyalty (CL) and further the authors ascertained if…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine empirically the effect of customer perceived ethicality (CPE) on customer loyalty (CL) and further the authors ascertained if customer trust (CT), customer affective commitment (CAC) and customer perceived quality (CPQ) acted as mediating mechanisms linking CPE and CL. This study also tested the influence of CL on customer word of mouth (CWOM).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, data were collected from 390 customers of banks in Pakistan through a self-administered questionnaire and tested through partial least squares (PLS) with smart PLS 3.2.7 version.

Findings

Research findings provided evidence for the positive relationship between CPE and CL and mediating effects of CT, CAC and CPQ for the CPE–CL linkage. Furthermore, a positive and significant relationship between CL and CWOM was experienced.

Practical implications

This study can help banks to determine the importance of CT, CAC and CPQ, as they can facilitate translating CPE into CL. Furthermore, managers need to effectively communicate about their ethical activities and encourage their customers to share their experiences.

Originality/value

First, this paper has considered the effect of CPE on customer loyalty under research area of corporate service brands. Second, it examines the mediating role of three factors (CT, CAC and CPQ) between CPE and customer loyalty in the banking industry.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Impacts of Monetary Policy in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-319-8

Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

David R. Schaefer and Olga Kornienko

The comparison processes introduced by Thibaut and Kelly (1959) are fundamental to social exchange theories of power. However, research has focused almost exclusively on…

Abstract

The comparison processes introduced by Thibaut and Kelly (1959) are fundamental to social exchange theories of power. However, research has focused almost exclusively on only one type of comparison – the comparison between alternative sources of valued rewards (CLalt) – which affects relationship commitment. Thibaut and Kelley also articulated a more general comparison level (CL) that determines relationship satisfaction. We propose that in exchange settings where relationships are not interdependent, the network structure can affect an actor's CL, with subsequent effects on power use. Results of a laboratory experiment offer initial support for this hypothesis and call for greater research on comparison processes within exchange networks.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-329-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Zhisong Cui, Hongyu Wang and Chilombo Namwinga Nanyangwe

Adopting an affective events perspective, this paper proposes and tests a moderated-mediation model linking coaching leadership (CL), positive emotion at work (PEW)…

Abstract

Purpose

Adopting an affective events perspective, this paper proposes and tests a moderated-mediation model linking coaching leadership (CL), positive emotion at work (PEW), proactive personality (PP) and constructive deviance (CD).

Design/methodology/approach

Altogether, 225 supervisor-subordinate pairs from 45 teams within a large Chinese manufacturing enterprise took part in our study. To keep common method bias to a minimal, two sources of data were used (subordinates and their direct supervisors).

Findings

(1) CL and employee CD have a positive association; (2) employee PEW mediates the connection between CL and employee CD; (3) the positive association between CL and follower PEW is moderated by employee PP such that PP strengthens the CL-PEW relationship (4) employee PP accentuates the indirect impact of CL on employee CD via employee PEW. Specifically, the indirect link is insignificant when PP is low.

Originality/value

(1) The results of this study enrich the CD literature; (2) the work puts forward a simple but foundational framework for understanding the CL process; (3) the third contribution arises from examining the influence of employee PP on the relationship between CL and employee CD.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Thanh Tiep Le

The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the essential role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on SMEs' performance by exploring the mediating role of corporate image…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the essential role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on SMEs' performance by exploring the mediating role of corporate image (CI), corporate reputation (CR) and customer loyalty (CL) between CSR and firm performance (FP) in the context of an emerging country.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an extended literature review on CSR, CI, CR and CL studies, the authors evaluate the impact of these four constructs on SMEs' performance in an emerging market. The paper follows a quantitative approach. The study sample was composed of 482 responses covering top executives, managers and experts. The Smart PLS SEM version 3.3.2 was used to analyse the data of the small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Vietnam in the year 2020–2021.

Findings

The authors' findings reveal significant and positive relationships amongst CSR, FP, CSR and CI, CSR and CR, CSR and CL, and most importantly, the findings add value to the current knowledge by exploring the mediating effect of CI, CR and CL between CSR and FP.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in Vietnam. As a result, the findings of the study might not be applicable for other countries, if the economic and environmental settings are different from that of Vietnam. Therefore, future research should consider for other countries, other regions. Second, due to the purpose and priority of the study, CI, CR, and CL was employed as mediators amongst the relationship between CSR and FP. Thus, future research should consider other mediators or moderators in such a relationship to see how CSR generates outcomes in the new associations.

Practical implications

The study regarding the role of CSR in enhancing the performance of SMEs can motivate firm's chief executive officers (CEOs) to be proactive in getting involved and practising CSR in a consistent manner. Second, the above discussion draws a very important implication for the executive level, the management level of the enterprise, which enterprises should balance the interests of business, customers, other stakeholders, the environment and society in order to optimise CSR outcomes for improving competitiveness and developing sustainably. This implication is particularly important to the survival and development of SMEs in a challenging emerging economy.

Social implications

The study widens the literature regarding relationship between CSR and SMEs' performance. Besides, the study supports stakeholder theory that explains why CSR positively affects firm's performance. The significant mediating roles of CI, CR and CL were positively confirmed in the study. Although previous studies determined that such roles are strategic source of competitive advantages of enterprises, however, how CSR involved in enhancing the roles has not been deeply explored and integrated. Third, the findings of the study support the resource-based view (RBV) and resource-based perspective that explains why firm should engage in CSR activities, and CI, CR and CL can enhance firm's performance by providing strategic source of competitive advantages that facilitate business to improve its performance in sustainable direction.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, the current literature on CSR and FP shows that, to date, there has been little empirical research on the mediating mechanism of CI, CR and CL in the link between CSR and FP for SMEs. The findings of the study may have great implications for entrepreneurs and top management with respect to the strategic perspectives to drive the businesses and to improve firm's performance in a sustainable direction in the context of emerging markets. In addition, the finding might be of great interest to – and motivate – SMEs' managers to engage with CSR actions where such businesses were or are situated during and after the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By that understanding, the Government might allow for innovative and groundbreaking policies or the reformation of old policies to leverage businesses to promote their strengths towards sustainable development in the new economic settings. The findings of the study may be a significant contribution to SMEs in Vietnam and in other emerging economies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Song-yi Youn and Eunjoo Cho

The purpose of this study is to examine the interaction effect of perceived psychological distance toward the luxury brand and construal level of the CSR ad content on…

1447

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the interaction effect of perceived psychological distance toward the luxury brand and construal level of the CSR ad content on young consumers' perceptions toward the CSR ad (i.e. ad-brand congruency and perceived trust on CSR ad). This study also investigates the mediation effects of ad-brand congruency and trust on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) intention on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

A two (low vs great psychological distance) by two (low vs high construal level) between-subjects experimental study is conducted with samples of social media users (n = 570) in the United States. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of the four CSR ads and instructed to respond to questions in the survey. The proposed hypotheses are tested using moderated serial mediation.

Findings

The interaction between psychological distance and construal level significantly influences ad-brand congruency. When participants view detailed information content (i.e. low construal level) with an accessible luxury brand (i.e. low psychological distance) in the CSR ad, they are more likely to perceive the ad is congruent with the brand compared to the CSR ad with abstract information content. There is no difference in ad-brand congruency for the aspiration luxury brand according to different content (i.e. low vs great construal level). Importantly, however, for both brands, the results reveal dual roles of the ad-brand congruency which increases eWOM intention directly and indirectly through trust. Findings confirm serial mediation effects of ad-brand congruency and CSR trust on the eWOM intention on social media.

Originality/value

By uncovering the interaction effect of psychological distance and construal level on ad-brand congruency, this study implicates how luxury fashion brands need to differently create CSR ad content. Our findings confirm dual ways of information processing that lead to positive engagement (i.e. eWOM) on social media, particularly among young consumers.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Mohammadbagher Gorji, Sahar Siami, Louise Grimmer and Martin Grimmer

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the relationship between storescape (retail's physical and social environment factors) and customer loyalty (CL) and how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the relationship between storescape (retail's physical and social environment factors) and customer loyalty (CL) and how employee citizenship behaviour towards customer (ECB-C) facilitates this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a descriptive quantitative, non-experimental research method using a cross-sectional design with a self-administered questionnaire. In total, 415 department store customers in Australia responded to the survey through an online panel provider.

Findings

Results confirmed the significance of all relationships between physical and social storescape factors, customer satisfaction (CS) and loyalty, except the direct effect of physical factors on CL. The findings also highlighted the interaction effect of ECB-C in the relationship between storescape factors, satisfaction and CL, indicating that these effects are stronger at higher levels of ECB-C than lower levels.

Practical implications

The study provides insights for department store retailers, practitioners and marketing managers into the role of ECB-C in forming and shaping CS and loyalty, especially when there is a lack of storescape effect on CS and loyalty.

Originality/value

This study extends the consecutive relationship of the stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model by adding ECB-C as a moderator. The study employed resource exchange (RE) theory to investigate the direct effect of storescape on CL beyond its indirect effect through organism suggested by the SOR model.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000