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Article

Shuhua Xiong, Zhiping Zhu and Lingling Jing

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Cl‐ions on the pitting corrosion of water‐wall tube of a boiler and the principle behind it.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Cl‐ions on the pitting corrosion of water‐wall tube of a boiler and the principle behind it.

Design/methodology/approach

The specimens were immersed for seven hours at 300°C in deaerated water subjected to simulation‐modified equilibrium phosphate treatment, containing Cl‐ions at various concentrations. The effects of Cl‐ions on pitting corrosion were assessed by the rate mass loss, transmission reflection metallurgical microscopy, SEM, EDS, and XRD.

Findings

The results indicated that Cl‐ions cause the breakdown of passive films. The corrosion mechanism of Cl‐is proposed to involve an intermediate dissolution stage. The Cl‐ions act as a catalyst of corrosion, by inducing the hydrolysis of Fe2+. The critical susceptive Cl‐concentrations are 0.2 and 0.6 mg·L‐1 for the passivated specimens and for the unpassivated specimens, respectively.

Originality/value

The paper provides information regarding the relationship between Cl‐concentrations and pitting corrosion, useful for understanding the mechanism of Cl‐induced pitting corrosion, and the research results can provide theoretical guidelines for preventing water‐wall of power plants from corroding.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Cao Shun'an, Zhu Qing and Zhang Zhixin

This paper sets out to study the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel without film and with films of different qualities in high‐temperature boiler water with different Cl

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to study the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel without film and with films of different qualities in high‐temperature boiler water with different Cl concentrations.

Design/methodology/approach

The static simulated experiment in high‐pressure autoclave and the surface analysis methods of EPMA and XRD were carried out to study the corrosion effect.

Findings

Under the following conditions: T=360±3°C, pH = 9.40±0.10, cO2<0.020 mg/l, the density of pitting corrosion on specimens without a protective film increased with the increase of CCl content, while CCl was > 0.2 mg/l. The film on specimens with integral films would not dissolve observably even until the CCl concentration was as high as 0.8 mg/l. Films with corrosion pits would begin dissolving when the Cl concentration reached 0.4 mg/l. The main constituents of the oxidative films in the gas and liquid phases both were Fe3O4.

Practical implications

In order to prevent carbon steel from corroding in boiler water containing Cl under conditions of low‐phosphate and low‐sodium hydroxide treatment, the concentration of Cl should be strictly controlled.

Originality/value

It was found that the presence of excessive Cl in boiler water accelerated the corrosion of No. 20 carbon steel and the maximum permissible concentration of Cl under the conditions (temperature and pressure) of sub‐critical drum boilers was 0.2 mg/l. The research results can provide theoretical guidelines for preventing the facilities of power plants from corroding.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Mohammad Reza Keramati and Robyn Margaret Gillies

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of embedding cooperative learning (CL) into the Primary and Secondary Education Course (PSEC) on the academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of embedding cooperative learning (CL) into the Primary and Secondary Education Course (PSEC) on the academic achievement of undergraduate university students. The study also sought to gauge the perceptions of these students application of CL.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a mixed methods sequential explanatory design involving 136 undergraduate university students who participated in a 16 week semester intervention involving the implementation of CL into their PSEC. Achievement data were collected from all students pre- and post-intervention to determine if there were significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. Forty-four participants from the experimental condition were also interviewed post-intervention on their experiences of CL.

Findings

The results showed that there was a significant difference between the academic achievement of students in the experimental and control groups in favor of students in the experimental group (p < 0.001). The perceptions of participants in the experimental condition indicated that CL not only created an empathetic, safe and pleasant learning environment and strengthened students' individual and communicative skills, but it also helped to develop an understanding of quality learning.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study have the potential to influence university instructors by demonstrating how CL provides opportunities to not only improve student learning but also their attitude to learning.

Originality/value

This study, while demonstrating the positive effect of CL on students' academic achievement also revealed the potential this approach to teaching and learning has for embedding it in other university courses.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article

Mohammadbagher Gorji, Sahar Siami, Louise Grimmer and Martin Grimmer

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the relationship between storescape (retail's physical and social environment factors) and customer loyalty (CL) and how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current paper is to examine the relationship between storescape (retail's physical and social environment factors) and customer loyalty (CL) and how employee citizenship behaviour towards customer (ECB-C) facilitates this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a descriptive quantitative, non-experimental research method using a cross-sectional design with a self-administered questionnaire. In total, 415 department store customers in Australia responded to the survey through an online panel provider.

Findings

Results confirmed the significance of all relationships between physical and social storescape factors, customer satisfaction (CS) and loyalty, except the direct effect of physical factors on CL. The findings also highlighted the interaction effect of ECB-C in the relationship between storescape factors, satisfaction and CL, indicating that these effects are stronger at higher levels of ECB-C than lower levels.

Practical implications

The study provides insights for department store retailers, practitioners and marketing managers into the role of ECB-C in forming and shaping CS and loyalty, especially when there is a lack of storescape effect on CS and loyalty.

Originality/value

This study extends the consecutive relationship of the stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model by adding ECB-C as a moderator. The study employed resource exchange (RE) theory to investigate the direct effect of storescape on CL beyond its indirect effect through organism suggested by the SOR model.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Impacts of Monetary Policy in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-319-8

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Book part

David R. Schaefer and Olga Kornienko

The comparison processes introduced by Thibaut and Kelly (1959) are fundamental to social exchange theories of power. However, research has focused almost exclusively on…

Abstract

The comparison processes introduced by Thibaut and Kelly (1959) are fundamental to social exchange theories of power. However, research has focused almost exclusively on only one type of comparison – the comparison between alternative sources of valued rewards (CLalt) – which affects relationship commitment. Thibaut and Kelley also articulated a more general comparison level (CL) that determines relationship satisfaction. We propose that in exchange settings where relationships are not interdependent, the network structure can affect an actor's CL, with subsequent effects on power use. Results of a laboratory experiment offer initial support for this hypothesis and call for greater research on comparison processes within exchange networks.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-329-4

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Article

Zhiping Zhu, Chun Shi, Yu Zhang and Zhifeng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of Cl and direct stray current on the soil corrosion of three grounding grid materials.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of Cl and direct stray current on the soil corrosion of three grounding grid materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The electrochemical corrosion properties of three grounding grid materials, which include the Q235 steel, Q235 galvanized flat steel and copper, were measured by means of the weak polarization curve method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion rate of specimens was calculated using the weight loss method; and the specimen surfaces were characterized using the scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Findings

Results showed that both factors, Cl and direct stray current, can accelerate the corrosion rate of grounding grid materials. The magnitude of DC stray current density affected the mass transfer type and response frequency of the anode and cathode reaction of grounding materials, while the Cl contents of the soil only affect the mass transfer rate of the electrode material from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy diagrams. The electric field generated by the DC stray current caused Cl directed migration. The larger the DC stray current density, the greater the diffusion process and the greater the weight loss rate of the grounding grid materials that would have a logarithmic relationship with the Cl content at the same DC stray current density. The corrosion resistance of the three materials is copper > Q235 galvanized flat steel > Q235 flat steel.

Originality/value

The paper provides information regarding the relationship among Cl, direct stray current and corrosion of three grounding grid materials by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Meanwhile the weight loss rate is the logarithmic relationship with the Cl content, which is useful for understanding the corrosion mechanism of Q235 steel, Q235 galvanized flat steel and copper under the condition of Cl and direct stray current in soil.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Subhankar Das, Anand Nayyar and Inderpal Singh

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the relationship between the precursors and consequences of customer loyalty (CL) in the Indian financial sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the relationship between the precursors and consequences of customer loyalty (CL) in the Indian financial sector, specially banking and insurance context, taking a sample of individual customers as respondents from the Indian State of Punjab.

Design/methodology/approach

The collected data have been analyzed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Specifically, descriptive statistics have been assessed to examine the basic characteristics of the sample data. Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood criteria has been adopted for the measurement and validation of various constructs. Independent samples t-test has been used to compare the CL of public and private firms, banks and insurance firms, and for some of the demographic variables like gender, marital status, etc. One-way ANOVA has been used to compare the CL for variables having more than two groups. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been used to measure the impact of CL on the BP of financial services firms.

Findings

The result shows that BP is a higher-order construct measured in terms of word-of-mouth, repurchase intention, price premium and share of wallet. Though each of the four measures of CL is special and unique in nature, yet a high level of positive correlation has been seen among these dimensions. The study reveals that CL is not significantly different for the banking firms and insurance firms in Punjab.

Research limitations/implications

The authors consider this work as one of the foundational elements that will enable further advances toward the governance of multi-layer business impact modeling systems. Extensive usability tests would enable to further confirm the findings of the paper. This study contributes to the customer relationship management and services marketing literature by providing empirical support for CL and BP relationship in the Indian context.

Practical implications

The approach described here should improve the maintainability, reuse and clarity of business process models and in extension improve data for CL in large banking and insurance organizations. The approaches described here should improve the maintainability, reuse and clarity of loyalty and relationship of the customer with that of organizations. This can improve data for customer relationship and loyalty in banking and insurance sector.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified gap to enabling SEM enabled models for data regarding customer relationship and loyalty. Loyalty revolves around the concept of relationship. CL is not a new concept, but recent years have demonstrated a developing interest to fabricate CL because of customer-oriented techniques or strategies. Over the previous era, CL has been broadly inspected inside marketing, trades and transactions. It can be concluded that the CL significantly influences BP.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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Article

Hui Wu, Xiaoxiao Lv, Muhittin Cavusoglu and Cihan Cobanoglu

The purpose of this study is to further explore the effects of customer participation (CP) and service personal values (SPVs) on cruise customer satisfaction (CS) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to further explore the effects of customer participation (CP) and service personal values (SPVs) on cruise customer satisfaction (CS) and customer loyalty (CL) by applying the empirical research approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that CP positively influences SPVs, CS and CL. SPVs have a significant and positive impact on CS as well. Moreover, the study also finds that collectivism has a strong positive effect on CP. Price sensitivity negatively moderates the relationship among CP, CPV, CS and CL.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the current study findings should be considered or scrutinized in light of the fact that limited samples and cross-sectional data were used. This limitation positions the findings as a continuation of the developing path toward a better understanding of customer behavior rather than a definitive conclusion.

Practical implications

The study results show that CP has a positive direct effect on SPVs, CS and CL. Even though many researchers have verified the importance and function of CP, there is a lack of literature, which assesses the influence of CP in a cruise industry context. By focusing on this gap, this research makes it feasible to empirically analyze the different effects of CP in relation to SPVs, CS and CL in Chinese cruise preferences.

Social implications

The study results suggest that CP is a new predictor of CS and CL in the cruise industry. Thus, creating a positive experience through participation is crucial. As customers are co-producers, it is beneficial for the cruise companies to raise labor productivity and reduce cost by guiding and stimulating them to take part in the service-producing process.

Originality/value

Based on the perspective of service-dominant logic, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the formation process of loyalty behavior of Chinese cruise tourists. The empirical results indicate that CP positively influences SPVs, CS and CL. SPVs have a significant and positive impact on CS as well. Moreover, the study also finds that collectivism has a strong positive effect on CP. Price sensitivity negatively moderates the relationship among CP, CPV, CS and CL.

标题:中国邮轮游客的忠诚度:顾客参与和服务个人价值观的影响

Purpose

本研究通过实证研究方法, 旨在深入探讨顾客参与(CP)与服务个人价值观(SPVs)对邮轮游客满意度(CS)与顾客忠诚度(CL)的影响。

Design/methodology/approach

本文编制了一份自填问卷用于收集数据。采用探索性因子分析(EFA)和结构方程模型(SEM)分析进行模型和假设检验。

Findings

结果表明, CP对SPVs、CS、CL均有正向影响。SPVs对CS也有显著的正向影响。此外, 本研究还发现, 集体主义对CP有很强的正向影响, 价格敏感性对CP、CPV、CS和CL之间的关系起负向调节作用。

Research limitations/implications

鉴于样本有限和横断面数据的采用, 应仔细考虑和检查本文研究结果的普遍性。这一局限意味着本研究结果是顾客行为研究道路上的延续, 而不是一个确定的结论。

Practical implications

研究结果表明, CP对SPVs、CS、CL有直接的正向影响。尽管许多研究者已经证实了CP的重要性和作用, 但是对于CP在邮轮业中的影响的评价文献还很缺乏。基于对这一研究空白的关注, 本文通过实证研究, 分析在中国人的邮轮偏好中, CP对SPVs、CS、CL的不同影响。

Social Implications

研究结果表明, CP是邮轮行业CS和CL的一个新的预测因子。因此, 通过参与来创造积极体验是至关重要的。由于顾客是共同生产者, 通过引导和激励他们参与服务生产过程, 有利于提高邮轮公司的劳动生产率, 降低成本。

Originality/value

基于服务主导逻辑的视角, 本研究旨在揭示中国邮轮游客忠诚行为的形成过程。实证结果表明, 顾客参与(CP)对顾客个人价值(SPVs)、顾客满意度(CS)和顾客忠诚度(CL)具有正向影响。SPVs对CS也有显著的正向影响。此外, 本研究还发现, 集体主义对CP有很强的正向影响, 价格敏感性负向调节CP、CPV、CS和CL之间的关系。

关键词

关键词 顾客参与, 服务个人价值, 顾客忠诚度, 价格敏感度,中国邮轮游客

论文类型

研究论文

La lealtad de los clientes chinos de cruceros: el impacto de la participación de los clientes y los valores personales del servicio

Objetivo

El propósito de este estudio es explorar, en profundidad, los efectos de la participación del cliente (CP) y los valores personales del servicio (SPV) en la satisfacción del cliente de cruceros (CS) y la lealtad del cliente (CL) aplicando el enfoque de la investigación empírica.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La obtención de datos se realizó a través de un cuestionario autoadministrado. El modelo y las hipótesis propuestas fueron contrastados a través del análisis factorial exploratorio (EFA) y el análisis de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM).

Resultados

Los resultados empíricos indican que la CP influye positivamente en los SPV, CS y CL. Los SPVs también tienen un impacto significativo y positivo en la CS. Además, el estudio también encuentra que el colectivismo tiene un fuerte efecto positivo en el CP. La sensibilidad al precio modera negativamente la relación entre CP, CPV, CS y CL.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

La posibilidad de generalizar las conclusiones del presente estudio debe considerarse teniendo en cuenta que se utilizaron muestras limitadas y datos transversales. Esta limitación hace que los hallazgos avancen en la senda para una mejor comprensión del comportamiento del cliente y no sean una conclusión definitiva.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados del estudio muestran que el CP tiene un efecto directo positivo en las SPVs, CS y CL. Aunque muchos investigadores han verificado la importancia y la función de la CP, falta literatura que evalúe la influencia de la CP en el contexto del sector de los cruceros. Al centrarse en esta carencia, esta investigación permite analizar empíricamente los diferentes efectos de la CP en relación con las SPVs, CS y CL en las preferencias de los cruceristas chinos.

Implicaciones sociales

Los resultados del estudio sugieren que la CP es un nuevo predictor de la CS y la CL en el sector de los cruceros. Por tanto, crear una experiencia positiva a través de la participación es crucial. Dado que los clientes son coproductores, es beneficioso para las compañías de cruceros aumentar la productividad laboral y reducir los costes guiándolos y estimulándolos a participar en el proceso de producción del servicio.

Originalidad/interés

Basado en la perspectiva de la lógica dominante del servicio, el propósito de este estudio es arrojar luz sobre el proceso de formación de la lealtad de los turistas chinos de cruceros. Los resultados empíricos indican que la participación del cliente (CP) influye positivamente en los valores personales del servicio (SPV), la satisfacción del cliente (CS) y la lealtad del cliente (CL). Los SPVs también tienen un impacto significativo y positivo en la CS. Además, el estudio también encuentra que el colectivismo tiene un fuerte efecto positivo en el CP. La sensibilidad al precio modera negativamente la relación entre CP, CPV, CS y CL.

Palabras clave

participación del cliente, valores personales del servicio, lealtad del cliente, sensibilidad al precio, turistas chinos de cruceros.

Tipo de investigación

Trabajo de investigación

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Article

Chuqin Yuan, Yanfei Wang, Wenyuan Huang and Yu Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influencing mechanism of coaching leadership (CL) on employee voice behavior (VB) based on cognitive-affective system theory of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influencing mechanism of coaching leadership (CL) on employee voice behavior (VB) based on cognitive-affective system theory of personality (CAPS). Specifically, the study intends to build a model of psychological security (PS) and openness to change (OC) that mediate the relationship between CL and employee VB at an individual-level and group-level from cognitive-affective dual perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

CL, employee VB, PS and OC were assessed in an empirical study based on a supervisor–subordinate dyads sample of 287 employees and 72 team leaders from enterprises in Southern China.

Findings

From CAPS theory perspective, the authors found that CL promotes employee VB and that PS and OC mediate the relationship between CL and VB.

Practical implications

Results underscore the importance of encouraging managers to engage in CL behaviors, which are conductive to enhancing employee PS and OC thereby improving employee VB. These results also highlight the significance of managerial attention to a secure voice atmosphere and the improvement of employees’ affective commitment to organizational change.

Originality/value

The research findings provide a significant contribution to the literature in that it shows PS and OC as crucial dual mediating mechanism through which CL influences VB. Moreover, this paper is one of the few studies answering the call to examine the effect of leadership at multiple levels.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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