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Article

Marianna Sigala

This paper aims to debate the technology-driven transformation of customer relationship management (CRM) into social CRM, which entails a shift from a transactional and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to debate the technology-driven transformation of customer relationship management (CRM) into social CRM, which entails a shift from a transactional and automational solution to a customer experience management philosophy, reflecting high levels of customer empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review provides a critical analysis of the concept, tenets, aims and implementation approaches of social CRM. Arguments are summarised by developing a process-based framework for implementing social CRM.

Findings

By adopting a value co-creation approach that recognises the technology-fostered customer empowerment, the social CRM highlights the need to immigrate from relationship management to relationship stewardship. In this vein, social CRM implementation should support and foster dialogue facilitation and customer engagement in co-creating customer experiences. To achieve these, five approaches for implementing social CRM are proposed: collecting, analysing and interpreting customer insight; monitoring and improving the performance of CRM; developing holistic and seamless personalised customer experiences; gamifying CRM and loyalty programmes; and nurturing community relationship management.

Research limitations/implications

The five approaches to social CRM implementation are identified and validated based on current industry practices, theoretical arguments and anecdotal evidence of professionals’ perceptions about their outcomes. Future research is required to collect hard evidence showing the business and customer impacts of these approaches.

Practical implications

Social CRM immigrates relationship management from a transactional to a customer experience mindset that treats customers as co-creators of value and demands the tourism and hospitality firms to exploit the affordances of information and communication technologies to collect and analyse customer data for better understanding the customer; develop customer touch points that do not only aim to sell but also primarily aim to enhance the customer interactions and experiences; consider and treat the customers and the customer communities as co-creators, brand ambassadors and stewards of relations; and motivate and enable customer participation into value co-creation processes for developing customer experiences and building relationships.

Originality/value

Research in social CRM is emerging, but it mainly focusses on defining its scope and identifying the functionality and adoption of social CRM technology. The paper contributes to the literature by proposing five specific approaches and a process framework for implementing social CRM. Various directions for future research are also provided.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Jedsada Wongsansukcharoen, Jirasek Trimetsoontorn and Wanno Fongsuwan

This paper aims to develop structural equation modelling of variables that affect the banking performance effectiveness of Thai Commercial Bank branches in the financial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop structural equation modelling of variables that affect the banking performance effectiveness of Thai Commercial Bank branches in the financial service sector by gathering quantitative data.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of the study covers all 2,068 Thai Commercial Bank branches in Bangkok, Thailand. This research defined the Thai banks for data collection using stratified sampling (first step) and simple sampling (second step). Primary data were collected using a self-administered survey of 65 managers and 185 marketing officers. In the total sample, 69 (27.6 per cent) of the respondents were male and 181 (72.4 per cent) were female in the Thai Commercial Bank branches. The responses to the questions capturing focal constructs used a seven-point Likert scale. Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

It was found that significant relationships existed between social customer relationship management (CRM), relationship marketing orientation (RMO) and business strategies and banking performance effectiveness. The key success factors of social CRM and relationship marketing orientation were found to have indirect influences on banking performance effectiveness through mediation of business strategies. Additionally, the results of this research show that social CRM and RMO have direct and indirect influences on banking performance effectiveness through the mediation of focus strategy or differentiation strategy (p < 0.001).

Practical implications

Recent development of the digital communications in industrial marketing to achieve firm performance, chief executive officer, management officers and managers could consider setting managing and marketing plans for excellent performance, and long-term relationship by five steps.

Originality/value

These results add performance effectiveness and long-term relationships with business-to-business (B2B) service industry and bank customers (both retail and public enterprises) to the factors needed to respond to the highly competitive situation at present, which will be even more important with the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.

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Article

Alireza Souri, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Nima Jafari Navimipour and Reza Rezaei

The purpose of this paper is to present a formal verification method to prove the correctness of social customer relationship management (CRM)-based service composition…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a formal verification method to prove the correctness of social customer relationship management (CRM)-based service composition approach. The correctness of the proposed approach is analyzed to evaluate the customer behavioral interactions for discovering, selecting and composing social CRM-based services. In addition, a Kripke structure-based verification method is presented for verifying the behavioral models of the proposed approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Evaluating the customer behavioral interactions using the social CRM-based service composition approach is an important issue. In addition, formal verification has an important role in assessing the social CRM-based service composition. However, model checking can be efficient as a verification method to evaluate the functional properties of the social CRM-based service composition approach.

Findings

The results of model checking satisfied the logical problems in the proposed behavior model analysis. In the statistical testing, the proposed URM mechanism supported the four knowledge creation process conditions. It was also shown that the percentage of state reachability in the URM with KCP conditions is higher than the URM mechanism without supporting KCP conditions.

Originality/value

The comparison of time and memory consumption of the model checking method shows that the social CRM-based service composition approach covers knowledge process features, which makes it an efficient method.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article

Heini Sisko Maarit Lipiäinen

The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current discussion on digitization in companies’ marketing from a customer relationship management (CRM) perspective by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current discussion on digitization in companies’ marketing from a customer relationship management (CRM) perspective by examining the role and objectives of CRM and the exploitation of social media to serve the objectives of CRM in contemporary business-to-business (B2B) companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are collected through semi-structured themed interviews with key marketing/sales managers from three B2B firms.

Findings

CRM seems to be moving closer to the company’s core activity and becoming everybody’s business to a greater extent than ever before, but its main goal, to enhance customer relationships, will not necessarily change. Understanding the customer is vital and requires different functions to cooperate closely to ensure the firm has the best possible understanding of its customers. Public social media tools played almost no part in CRM, but closed social media systems might have potential in the future.

Research limitations/implications

The chosen research approach limits the generalization of the results.

Practical implications

It seems likely that firms will benefit from a collaborative working style over the traditional silo approaches. For B2B firms, public social media does not seems to be the most suitable source to serve CRM but private social media channels might have potential in the future.

Originality/value

The lack of empirical examination of the change from company ecosystem to customer ecosystem from a CRM perspective, and the lack of research on social media for CRM in the B2B context, determines the purpose of this study. Furthermore, digitization is a rather new and unstructured phenomenon and many companies are still considering how to reconcile to it.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article

Lanying Du, Jundong Hou and Yupeng Huang

This study aims to examine why cause‐related marketing (CRM) can develop, and how can the social system and enterprise link with nonprofit organization (NPO) to form a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine why cause‐related marketing (CRM) can develop, and how can the social system and enterprise link with nonprofit organization (NPO) to form a closed path to prompt the maximization for three parties' benefits, in order to provide a general framework to explore the mechanisms of power and action for CRM.

Design/methodology/approach

The logic deduction approach was used for an overview and conceptual paper based on research experience.

Findings

The paper stresses CRM should be a good marriage between a nonprofit and its sponsorship firm both organizations stand to benefit. Its mechanism of power is the result of the combined effect by the enterprise's push, NPO's pull and social system's supervision, and mechanism of action is under the social system's supervision, enterprise linked with NPO to form a closed path.

Research limitations/implications

A major weakness is that the influences of CRM on the enterprise and the NPO are only explained qualitatively, there are short of some data to test the validity of theories above. Further, investigation into this construct in the context of CRM would be helpful in understanding what are the role and the impact of CRM on firm and NPO in this domain. The main implication is that, this study presents an example and direction of how the enterprise, NPO, and social system are able to maximize their economic and social benefits.

Originality/value

This study contributes to examine the inter mechanisms of CRM from the perspectives of enterprise and NPO. The findings of this study are useful to and provide managerial implications for administrators of enterprise, NPO and social system aiming to make optimal decisions under the dual driven of institutional rationality and economic rationality.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article

Sarah Diffley, Patrick McCole and Elena Carvajal-Trujillo

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model examining the key factors that emerge from the social customer relationship management (CRM) process…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model examining the key factors that emerge from the social customer relationship management (CRM) process. Specifically, this study aims to address the chain-of-effects that occurs as a result of the social CRM process, leading to superior levels of hotel performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a quantitative approach. Using a mail and online questionnaire, data were gathered from 120 key informants in hotels in Ireland. The proposed model was tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the social CRM activities of hotels enhance hotel service innovation activities. This positively impacts the ability to develop a customer-linking capability, resulting in higher levels of customer performance. In turn, higher levels of customer performance leads to higher levels of financial performance.

Practical implications

Service innovation and customer-linking capability are identified as critical outcomes of the social CRM process that lead to enhanced hotel performance.

Originality/value

This study explains the chain-of-effects through which the social CRM process results in higher levels of performance.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Siti Hasnah Hassan, Noor Mohamed Mohamed Haniba and Noor Hazlina Ahmad

In this twenty-first century, the emergence of social media has been integral in business-related processes, especially in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)…

Abstract

Purpose

In this twenty-first century, the emergence of social media has been integral in business-related processes, especially in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which allows businesses to interact and build a relationship with customers to improve their sustainable service quality. Concisely, this study aims to examine the benefits of social customer relationship management (s-CRM) performance from the perceptive of SMEs owned by Muslims.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey method was used and the data were gathered from 135 SMEs which participated in Halfest (Halal Fiesta Malaysia) trade show in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Findings

Interestingly, the results revealed that the adoption of information and communications technology (ICT) has both direct and indirect impacts on s-CRM performance. On the other hand, the perceived value of s-CRM mediates the relationship between customer information management and performance of s-CRM. In this context, the perceived value was ascertained to be an influential factor for both ICT adoption and customer information management.

Research limitations/implications

With a connection to the results, this study concludes that to enhance business performance to sustain in the marketplace, the establishment of s-CRM is crucial, as it has significant implication in marketing, customer service and sales department of SMEs.

Originality/value

This paper provides new insight into the importance of s-CRM to SMEs to improve interactions with the key stakeholders and convey meaningful insight to instil customer-centric practices.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

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Article

Paul Greenberg

This paper aims to look at what CRM 2.0 is and how it impacts customer insights. It will show how CRM 2.0's incorporation of social tools and strategies with traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to look at what CRM 2.0 is and how it impacts customer insights. It will show how CRM 2.0's incorporation of social tools and strategies with traditional operational functions meets the demands of twenty‐first century “social” customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a combination of independent research by the author for the last decade and third‐party sources. This means direct client consulting, interviews with senior corporate management and copious access to expert sources and documents.

Findings

The new breed of customer requires corporate transparency, authenticity and interaction. To affect this intelligent, aggressive social consumer, richer insight than that of the past is necessary. CRM and social tools use combined provides the capability for this insight.

Research limitations/implications

CRM 2.0 as a fully integrated strategy and system remains immature, though the integration of CRM traditional technologies with social networks is ongoing and increasingly coexistent. CRM 2.0 thus must be seen as strategically maturing but technologically immature.

Practical implications

Any company that understands that their customers are demanding something more and different will adopt CRM 2.0 strategies to gain greater insight into their customers and to support creation of mutual value.

Originality/value

By systematically providing an understanding of how contemporary customers act and what they demand and how CRM 2.0 satisfies that, this adds to contemporary scholarship and modern business practice.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Teck-Yong Eng, Sena Ozdemir, Suraksha Gupta and Rama Prasad Kanungo

Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs and accountability of social enterprises influence social value creation in cause-related marketing (CRM) of three UK-based international charities. The study also explores how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs affect accountability of social entrepreneurship for social value creation of non-profit organizations in the UK context.

Design/methodology/approach

Our research aimed to inform international social entrepreneurship literature by exploring the impact of personal relationships on accountability and social value creation processes via cause-related marketing (CRM) practices using a case study method. The lack of clearly defined social value creation in social entrepreneurship, and somewhat intangible processes of relationally embedded ties, accountability, and their impact, the case study method is most suited for this study. In particular, inquiry-based investigation surrounding social value, embedded ties and accountability requires systematic and structured dissemination to capture latent constructs.

Findings

The findings show the importance of personal ties in the alignment of social mission with corporate social responsibility between UK-based international charities and commercial organizations across borders. In international social entrepreneurship, social value creation is facilitated by accountability of social goals while trust-based personal relationships assist access to commercial opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Further research could examine the role of trust in creating greater social value from an international social entrepreneurial perspective rather than from a solely non-profit social mission. It can also consider additional factors such as gender and cultural capital issues to investigate the role of personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs in the accountability and social value creation of non-profit organizations.

Practical implications

The need to fulfil social objectives, missions and obligations are central to the involvement of international social entrepreneurs in CRM activities with commercial organizations. Accountability through clear communications serves as the basis for brokering new ties or partnerships within the social relations of entrepreneurs, particularly weak ties rendering trust for third party endorsement and sharing of information. Although partnerships with commercial organizations may create social value in CRM, the reliance on personal relationships may expose international social entrepreneurs to unethical practice beyond immediate relationships and/or opportunistic behavior without formal contracting mechanisms. International social entrepreneurs must therefore match the core values of their social mission with potential partners in their CRM engagements.

Originality/value

The literature on international social entrepreneurship has not considered how social entrepreneurs' personal relationships at the individual level may impact accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation. This study builds on these studies by examining how individual level personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs with external stakeholders influence accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation at the organizational level. This study also builds on prior studies about entrepreneurial networks and network ties by examining the processes in which international social entrepreneurs use their personal relationships to access and utilize external resources for social value creation in CRM. Finally, this study contributes to previous research which provides limited insights into the international social entrepreneurship among organizations with reference to CRM where social value attributes are evaluated by embedded relational ties.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article

Marios Katsioloudes, Jim Grant and Donelda S. McKechnie

This article discusses optimizing customer retention using customer relationship management (CRM) linked with social cause‐related marketing (SCRM). Establishing a

Abstract

Purpose

This article discusses optimizing customer retention using customer relationship management (CRM) linked with social cause‐related marketing (SCRM). Establishing a socially responsible synergy between company and customer is targeted to managers seeking creative and innovative approaches that strengthen the value equation.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion focuses on the progression of CRM from early links to basic database information to its current complex form whereby customers may be outsourced if they do not meet loyalty and mutual value parameters. A ten‐question test for testing CRM strategy is included, along with the steps required for adding SCRM to the company‐customer relationship.

Findings

CRM maximizes customer satisfaction while SCRM maximizes customer loyalty. Together, CRM and SCRM can optimize customer retention by sharing socially responsible activities. Tremendous goodwill with customers and in the marketplace can be generated from the synergy of CRM and SCRM.

Originality/value

Increasingly, it is the customer that is “setting the pace” in the company‐customer relationship. Implementing a SCRM strategy strengthens the business bond while facilitating the transition from the company being dominant to the customer driving the relationship process. The successful integration strategy includes: identify; integrate; switch; shift; choose; and measure.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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