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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Olavi Uusitalo

In international business international technology transfer is an important part. It involves several modes. Product or process technologies can be transferred to a host…

Abstract

In international business international technology transfer is an important part. It involves several modes. Product or process technologies can be transferred to a host country within a multinational company. Other modes include sale or licensing of technology. In these cases a company other than the technology owner takes technology to a host country. International technology transfer involves many matters such as transfer mode, government trade policies, risk of losing technology and influence of industry associations. In this chapter I report a longitudinal case study (1950–1980) of the diffusion of new manufacturing technology, suspension preheating, within the U.S. cement industry. Here I employ concepts from the literature on international technology transfer. Based on this analysis I identify what impact international technology transfer literature has on dominant design theory. Here I address in more detail the era of ferment of the most recent technology adoption (that is innovation).The U.S. cement industry was included in the original development of the dominant design model. However, technology adoption or innovation was defined as the first commercial introduction of a product made by a new manufacturing technology or process in the United States. This domestic definition of technology adoption neglects all aspects of international technology transfer mentioned earlier.While comparing the results of these two studies of the U.S. cement industry I found differences in the adoption time of technology and inconsistence in the introduction of the technology in the United States. I found that the length of the era of ferment was 29 years – contrary to the seven years reported in the development of dominant design model. This time difference has naturally impacted on the analysis of diffusion. It seems that the international business and international technology transfer literature have impacted on the dominant design model and theory.

Details

Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-713-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Khaqan Zeb, Yousaf Ali and Muhammad Waseem Khan

Cement industry for both developed and developing countries is important from the economic point of view. It is playing a vital role in economic development of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Cement industry for both developed and developing countries is important from the economic point of view. It is playing a vital role in economic development of a developing country like Pakistan. However, these industries are posing threat to the environment, human health and plant species. The purpose of this paper is to identify the most critical factors of cement industry that have a negative impact on the environment, human health and plant species in the context of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The factors are categorized into air pollution, noise pollution, soil pollution, human health and plant species. These factors are categorized on the basis of previous literature and environmental safety reports. Air pollution is caused by iron and sulphur while noise pollution is mainly caused by crusher room and rotatory kiln end. The soil is being polluted by zinc and lead while human health and plant species are being damaged by sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. For the analysis purpose, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique, i.e., decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) is used.

Findings

The result shows that the major cause of air pollution is “sulphur” while “crusher room and rotatory kiln end” are responsible for noise pollution. On the other hand, “mercury” is responsible for causing soil pollution while human health and plant species are influenced by the toxic effect of “nitrogen dioxide.”

Research limitations/implications

The results obtained are specific to cement manufacturing industry of Pakistan and cannot be generalized for any other manufacturing sector.

Practical implications

The proposed methodology shows the most critical factors toward which concertation should be given for mitigating their impact. This study will help the government and the cement industry to focus on all those elements that are the most responsible for causing different types of pollution.

Originality/value

No such work is reported in previous research that proposes a framework using DEMATEL technique for analysis of critical factors of cement industries that have a dangerous impact on the environment and human health, especially in a developing country, like Pakistan.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Sanjeev Shrivastava and Shrivastava R.L.

The purpose of this paper is to survey the technical performance of the cement industry including those related to procedures; groundwork of raw materials, fuels and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to survey the technical performance of the cement industry including those related to procedures; groundwork of raw materials, fuels and semi-finished products for processing; accessibility of machinery, plant and equipment for various operations; arrangement and process control management.

Design/methodology/approach

A broad range of survey and research was reviewed, and all revealed the methods to recognize the key influences for development of green technology. The study explores the present scenario of green manufacturing (GM) strategies of Indian cement companies and provides the industrial ecology, ways of reducing energy consumption, environmental impact data collection, design and control of manufacturing systems and integration of product and manufacturing system. It also reveals the problems in decision-making systems owing to the impact of the green product design. Here, in this paper, all information is obtained by the medium of internet, journals, articles, and magazines.

Findings

This paper describes a problem of global warming, gas, water and other wastages emissions at the time of cement manufacturing and put forward a path that enables decision makers to assess the perception of GM in their organization and in prioritizing GM efforts.

Originality/value

This perspective survey is to provide an integrative outlook of performance methods for GM practices in the Indian cement industries. It gives important information, which expectantly will help in cement industry to adopt GM practices. This paper fills the gap in the literature on identification, establishment, and validation of performance measures of GM for Indian cement industries.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Chukwumerije Okereke and Kristina Küng

The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of the carbon management activities of the cement industry in Europe, based on a study involving the four…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of the carbon management activities of the cement industry in Europe, based on a study involving the four largest producers of cement in the world. Based on this analysis, the paper explores the relationship between managerial perception and strategy, with particular focus on the impact of government regulation and competitive dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on extensive documentary analysis and in‐depth interviews with senior managers from the four companies who have been responsible for and/or involved in the development of climate change strategies.

Findings

It was found that whilst the cement industry has embraced climate change and the need for action, there remains much scope for action in their carbon management activities, with current effort concentrating on hedging practices and win‐win efficiency programs. Managers perceive that inadequate and unfavourable regulatory structure is the key barrier against more action to achieve emission reduction within the industry. Interestingly, EU cement companies are also shifting their CO2 emissions to less developed countries of the South.

Originality/value

The paper analyses corporate climate strategy in one of the most carbon intensive and yet least studied industries. With specific focus on the EU, the paper highlights a number of policy approaches for encouraging the cement industry on the path of deeper emission reduction.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

S. Fore and C. Mbohwa

The paper aims to observe a continuous process industry, the cement manufacturing industry with the aim of identifying greening opportunities in its production operations…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to observe a continuous process industry, the cement manufacturing industry with the aim of identifying greening opportunities in its production operations. The study analyses areas pertaining to the cement industry that impact the environment with specific focus on the industry within a developing, lower income country.

Design/methodology/approach

A cleaner production (CP) approach was used in a case study approach, focussing on issues such as gaseous emissions and particulate emissions. Both capital intensive and less intensive options are proposed. Source reduction and pollution prevention operations that were used in this study include chemical substitution, technology modification and on-site reuse/recovery/recycling opportunities.

Findings

The paper provides insights about how change is brought about within a continuous process industry. It suggests that successful leaders act as “integrating forces” on two levels: integrating the elements of corporate identity structures and mediating between the corporate branding structures and the individual. Capital interventions included redesigning the clinker conveyor, as well as restructuring the dust transportation system. There is a need for the developing countries to track and identify modern interventions that are available within industry and adopt them.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focusses on a single cement factory in a low income country, as the case study approach was used. As such, findings and options generated may not be generalized, as the processes from one industry to another tend to differ in different economies.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of greening manufacturing practices in the cement industry.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how greening practices can be enabled and enhanced in a continuous manufacturing industry. The work informs greening practices at any level, with a focus of production experiences in the cement industry in a lower technology, developing economy that is less industrialized.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Dinesh Seth, R.L. Shrivastava and Sanjeev Shrivastava

The purpose of this paper is to aim for the development and analysis of green manufacturing (GM)-based framework on the identified critical success factors (CSFs) and…

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1372

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to aim for the development and analysis of green manufacturing (GM)-based framework on the identified critical success factors (CSFs) and performance measures (PMs) in the context of the Indian cement industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The research follows survey method for data collection. For framework development, it uses factor analysis on the identified CSFs and regression along with the appropriate measures for checking statistical consistency and validity.

Findings

This is the first research towards GM framework for the Indian cement industry. Till date, no framework is available which could guide researchers and practitioners of this environment unfriendly industry. Study exposes lack of connectivity between CSFs and PMs for a GM framework and highlights weaknesses of cement industry in this regard. It offers a generalised GM framework linking PMs with top management, human resource management, organisational culture, green practices, process management and supply chain management.

Practical implications

The framework is expected to help both researchers and practitioners from cement, construction and other industries who are serious towards GM implementation and are looking for appropriate mechanism. This framework if implemented properly will result in enhanced productivity.

Originality/value

This work is one of the few and pioneering efforts to investigate GM linking CSFs and PMs in Indian manufacturing sectors and the first in cement industry. Not many studies are available in the context of cement industry, which is the lifeblood of infrastructure and construction sectors. The importance of the work increases as it is conducted in the Indian context, which is undeniably an important economy of the world.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Nickolaos Chatziaras, Constantinos S. Psomopoulos and Nickolas J. Themelis

Cement production has advanced greatly in the last few decades. The traditional fuels used in traditional kilns include coal, oil, petroleum coke, and natural gas. Energy…

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Abstract

Purpose

Cement production has advanced greatly in the last few decades. The traditional fuels used in traditional kilns include coal, oil, petroleum coke, and natural gas. Energy costs and environmental concerns have encouraged cement companies worldwide to evaluate to what extent conventional fuels can be replaced by waste materials, such as waste oils, mixtures of non-recycled plastics and paper, used tires, biomass wastes, and even wastewater sludge. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is based on literature review.

Findings

The clinker firing process is well suited for various alternative fuels (AF); the goal is to optimize process control and alternative fuel consumption while maintaining clinker product quality. The potential is enormous since the global cement industry produces about 3.5 billion tons that consume nearly 350 million tons of coal-equivalent fossil and AF. This study has shown that several cement plants have replaced part of the fossil fuel used by AF, such waste recovered fuels. Many years of industrial experience have shown that the use of wastes as AF by cement plants is both ecologically and economically justified.

Originality/value

The substitution of fossil fuels by AF in the production of cement clinker is of great importance both for cement producers and for society because it conserves fossil fuel reserves and, in the case of biogenic wastes, reduces greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the use of AF can help to reduce the costs of cement production.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

Seema Sharma

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform non‐parametric production efficiency analysis of cement companies in India. Relative technical and scale efficiencies are…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform non‐parametric production efficiency analysis of cement companies in India. Relative technical and scale efficiencies are estimated for the year 2005‐2006. Design/methodology/approach: Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used to calculate the technical and scale efficiency measures of the companies. Within DEA framework, the input oriented variable returns to scale (VRS) model is employed for the study. A representative sample of 20 companies which account for 85.5 per cent of the total market share is studied. The selection criterion for the inclusion of a firm in the analysis has been market share of one per cent or more. Findings: Findings suggest that 50 per cent of the firms are found to be technically efficient and they are also operating at optimum plant size. Whereas 25 per cent firms are exhibiting decreasing returns to scale inferring over utilization of their plant capacities and the rest 25 per cent are showing increasing returns to scale signifying underutilization of plants. Input targets and reductions are suggested for the inefficient firms. Overall, the industry seems to do well on both the efficiency parameters since the average scores for technical and scale efficiency for the industry came out to be 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Originality/value: This current paper is the first study to apply DEA tool to get insights on productivity efficiency of the cement firms in India.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Nida Abdioğlu and Sinan Aytekin

Introduction: Turkish cement industry, which sustains growth trend between the years 2015 and 2018, is the biggest cement producer of Europe besides the growth success…

Abstract

Introduction: Turkish cement industry, which sustains growth trend between the years 2015 and 2018, is the biggest cement producer of Europe besides the growth success. Production trend in cement industry reversed after the decrease in the value of Turkish Lira and increased inflation in 2018. The data of this industry, which contributes to Turkish economy directly and indirectly, have become one of the leading indicators.

Aim: From this point of view, 17 cement industry firms which are traded in Borsa İstanbul equity market continuously are examined in terms of their Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization, Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC), Export Rate Ratio and Gross Sales. These variables are analyzed between the period 2013:Q1 and 2019:Q2.

Method: Independent variables in the models are Industry Production Index (IPI), CBRT Dollar/TL selling rate of exchange, Tangible Asset Ratio, Growth Rate, Financial Leverage Ratio, Current Ratio, Market-to-Book Ratio (MB), Price-to-Earnings Ratio (PE), and Return on Equity (ROE).

Findings: According to panel regression results, Dollar/TL exchange rate is the unique independent variable that affects four dependent variables. While Dollar/TL exchange rate negatively affects Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and Gross Sales, it positively affects CCC and Export Rate. MB ratio positively affects CCC. In contrast, IPI, Tangible Asset Ratio, and Financial Leverage Ratio negatively affect CCC. Export ratio is negatively affected both by IPI and PE ratio. While MB ratio negatively affects Gross Sales ratio, IPI, Tangible Asset Ratio and Growth Rate positively affect it.

Details

New Challenges for Future Sustainability and Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-969-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Rohit Kumar Singh and Sachin Modgil

This paper aims to evaluate and prioritize the key supplier selection indicators and to establish the relationship between available alternatives and selected indicators…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate and prioritize the key supplier selection indicators and to establish the relationship between available alternatives and selected indicators by using step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) and weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS).

Design/methodology/approach

Authors have extracted the supplier selection criteria from literature and used a combined SWARA-WASPAS method to evaluate and rank the criteria’s. SWARA is applied for evaluating and weighting selection criteria, whereas WASPAS helped in evaluating different available alternatives based on supplier selection indicators.

Findings

Finding from SWARA suggests that supplier management is the high weighted criteria followed by information sharing and joint actions. WASPAS was used to evaluate the available alternatives and supplier A1 got the highest priority. Additionally, sensitivity analysis indicates the different scenarios for the best supplier selection.

Practical implications

Working executives can use the SWARA for assessment of weights of finalized indicators for their firm in the cement industry. Further, the calculated weights can be used for product and sum weightage through WASPAS to finalize the best supplier.

Originality/value

The originality of the manuscript lies in the sector and methodology. Author(s) applied the SWARA and WASPAS method for supplier selection in the Indian cement industry that will help working executives to evaluate their supply chain partners.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

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