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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Carol A. Phillips and Neil Roscoe

Verocytotoxin‐producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7 is known to cause bloody diarrhoea (haemorrhagic colitis) and, in vulnerable groups, haemorrhagic ureamic syndrome. The majority…

422

Abstract

Verocytotoxin‐producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7 is known to cause bloody diarrhoea (haemorrhagic colitis) and, in vulnerable groups, haemorrhagic ureamic syndrome. The majority of outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of ground beef products, and cattle have been identified as an important environmental reservoir of the organism. Investigates the survival of the organism in ground beef products during normal cooking procedures. Finds that in certain products Escherichia coli 0157:H7 is able to remain viable and, therefore, maintain the potential for human pathogenicity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Anna Mills and Carol A. Phillips

Campylobacter spp. is the single most common cause of food‐borne illness in England and Wales and worldwide. Raw meat (particularly poultry) is commonly contaminated with the…

Abstract

Campylobacter spp. is the single most common cause of food‐borne illness in England and Wales and worldwide. Raw meat (particularly poultry) is commonly contaminated with the organism. Insufficient cooking and/or proper storage or cross contamination to foods not subsequently cooked are the main means by which humans become infected. The organism enters the human food chain because of its prevalence within the digestive tract of livestock herds and poultry flocks but the means whereby it initially colonises these are probably diverse. This study investigated the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in animal feed and therefore the possibility that, in certain circumstances, this medium may provide a vector for initial infection and a reservoir for further spread within the flock hence providing a means of entry into the human food chain.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Carol A. Phillips and Paul Bates

The species Arcobacter is related to the well‐known human pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, and has been linked to human illness, both by association and epidemiologically. In this…

401

Abstract

The species Arcobacter is related to the well‐known human pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, and has been linked to human illness, both by association and epidemiologically. In this study the survival of Arcobacter butzleri in acidic conditions and in ethanol has been investigated. The organism is not able to remain viable in acids below pH4.0 but the actual inhibitory pH depends on acid, growth conditions and growth phase. A. butzleri is able to survive in 10 per cent ethanol in culture and, when attached to stainless steel surfaces, 22.7 per cent of the organisms remain viable and recoverable after swabbing with 5 per cent ethanol compared with a control swabbed with water. The fact that this organism is able to survive under these conditions may have an impact in the food processing industry.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jodie Duggan and Carol A. Phillips

The numbers of reported cases of Listeria particularly Listeria monocytogenes in the UK have remained at a relatively low level since the peak which occurred in 1988‐1989. The…

593

Abstract

The numbers of reported cases of Listeria particularly Listeria monocytogenes in the UK have remained at a relatively low level since the peak which occurred in 1988‐1989. The majority of cases are sporadic and often the source of contamination is unknown. This study investigates the possibility that the home environment, which has previously been found to be the most common place of contamination for other bacteria, also provides a reservoir for human infection by Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 98 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Carol A. Phillips

Enteritis caused by members of the genus Campy‐lobacterisnow the most common cause of bacterial food poisoning incidents in theUK. Although isolates are reported to the…

469

Abstract

Enteritis caused by members of the genus Campy‐lobacteris now the most common cause of bacterial food poisoning incidents in the UK. Although isolates are reported to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), because reporting is voluntary and the symptoms are generally relatively mild, there is difficulty in assessing the true incidence of campylobacteriosis because of under‐reporting. Analyses some possible reasons for the trend in incidents of food poisoning due to Campy‐lobacter spp., and investigates the two most common modes of infection.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Marta F. Suarez

This chapter interrogates gender, inner conflict and narrative arcs of the characters of Daryl Dixon and Carol Peletier in the TV series The Walking Dead.From the outset, these…

Abstract

This chapter interrogates gender, inner conflict and narrative arcs of the characters of Daryl Dixon and Carol Peletier in the TV series The Walking Dead.

From the outset, these two characters are constructed in line with traditional gendered stereotypes, yet they both go through a transformation during the series, moving away from their starting point. Carol and Daryl are introduced to the audiences in scenes that situate them within traditional gendered roles and spaces. Thus, Carol is presented as submissive, compliant and obedient; she speaks with a soft voice and is positioned within domestic spaces in the camp site: by the camp fire, by the washing spot in the lake, inside the tent, etc. In contrast, Daryl is presented as a loner and a hunter, is referred to as a volatile person and portrays a physical appearance that echoes redneck masculinities (O’Sullivan, 2016).

This chapter will engage with theories of performativity and gender in relation to character design, in order to analyse and compare the ways in which these two characters challenge the gender stereotype through actions, yet often conform to it through the inner conflict and the solutions adopted.

Details

Gender and Contemporary Horror in Television
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-103-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Aljawharah Alsalamah and Carol Callinan

A number of studies on Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model have been published, since its inception in 1959, either investigating it or applying it to evaluate the…

3342

Abstract

Purpose

A number of studies on Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model have been published, since its inception in 1959, either investigating it or applying it to evaluate the training process. The purpose of this bibliometric analysis is to reconsider the model, its utility and its effectiveness in meeting the need to evaluate training activities and to explain why the model is still worth using even though other later models are available.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a “5Ws+1H” model (why, when, who, where, what and how); however, “when” and “how” are merged in the methodology. A total of 416 articles related to Kirkpatrick’s model published between 1959 and July 2020 were retrieved using Scopus.

Findings

The Kirkpatrick model continues to be useful, appropriate and applicable in a variety of contexts. It is adaptable to many training environments and achieves high performance in evaluating training. The overview of publications on the Kirkpatrick model shows that research using the model is an active and growing area. The model is used primarily in the evaluation of medical training, followed by computer science, business and social sciences.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive bibliometric analysis to reconsider the model, its utility, its effectiveness in meeting the need to evaluate training activities, its importance in the field measured by the growth in studies on the model and its applications in various settings and contexts.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Nina T. Dorata and Cynthia R. Phillips

This study examines the impact of school-district governance characteristics, which include board and management entrenchment and budget and audit committee expertise, on fiscal…

1335

Abstract

This study examines the impact of school-district governance characteristics, which include board and management entrenchment and budget and audit committee expertise, on fiscal measures. Despite the significant influence school boards have over the determination and use of the bulk of property taxes, virtually no empirical research exists that examines the influence of school-district governance structures on fiscal outcomes. We find a positive association between board entrenchment and spending and find a negative association between budget and audit committee expertise and spending. The findings of this study confirm that governance structure matters for fiscal outcomes and recommendations are provided to support efforts to improve fiscal efficiency of school-district governance.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Cameron Hughes, Jane L. Ireland and Carol A. Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to explore the function of crisis incidents in prisons within the UK and USA. The incidents reviewed included riots and hostage incidents, focusing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the function of crisis incidents in prisons within the UK and USA. The incidents reviewed included riots and hostage incidents, focusing only on information that was available publically. It did not intend to capture official reports not in the public domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Publically available information on incidents were systematically reviewed. Functional assessment and grounded theory were employed to examine background factors, triggers and maintaining factors. In total, 25 crisis incidents were analysed (UK =10 and USA =15) from the past 30 years. It was predicted that crisis incidents would be motivated by negative and positive reinforcement, with negative more evidenced than positive. Precipitating factors (i.e. triggers) were predicted to include negative emotions, such as frustration and anger.

Findings

Similarities in triggers and background factors were noted between hostage taking and riot incidents. Positive reinforcement was primarily indicated. Riots appeared driven by a need to communicate, to secure power, rights, control and/or freedom, whereas for hostage taking these functions extended to capture the removal of negative emotions, to inflict pain, to punish/gain revenge, to effect a release, to manage boredom and to promote positive emotions.

Research limitations/implications

The study is preliminary and focused on the reporting of incidents in publically available sources; consequently, the data are secondary in nature and further limited by sample size. Nevertheless, it highlights evidence for similarities between types of crisis incidents but also some important potential differences. The need to understand the protective factors preventing incidents and minimising harm during incidents is recommended.

Practical implications

It highlights evidence for similarities between types of critical incidents but also some important potential differences. Understanding differences between incidents is important in the tailoring of specific policies to address these areas. Understanding motivation and reinforcement is valuable in working towards the prevention of critical incidents. Understanding the protective factors preventing incidents and minimising harm during incidents is recommended.

Originality/value

This is an under-researched area. The study contributes to the field not only by focusing on providing a detailed analysis of an under-used source (public reporting) but by also identifying where gaps in research remain. The results demonstrate the value in understanding incidents through their motivation, particularly in distinguishing between negative and positive reinforcement.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Jeff Lowenthal

TransLighting Group, Inc. consists of two companies all centered around the transportation industry. The original company, TransLighting, was started in 1962 by Henry Phillips

Abstract

TransLighting Group, Inc. consists of two companies all centered around the transportation industry. The original company, TransLighting, was started in 1962 by Henry Phillips. Henry was an engineer with Ford Motor Company specializing in braking wiring systems. Over an eight-year period, he designed and patented several wiring and harness systems that are used in cars as of the 2006 model year. Back in the 1950s Henry had the opportunity to learn about and use LED technology. He even came up with a process using this technology to increase brake light visibility (i.e., the third or middle brake light on most cars). In June 1961 over dinner with another engineering buddy, Bill Acken, Bill figured that they could use this same technology to display roadside messages for motorists. Following license approval from Ford, Bill and Henry started TransLighting in White Lake, Michigan.

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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