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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Chloé Germaine Buckley

Cultural perceptions of the zombie have shifted dramatically in the twenty-first century. No longer only associated with anxiety and fear, zombie fiction often appeals to…

Abstract

Cultural perceptions of the zombie have shifted dramatically in the twenty-first century. No longer only associated with anxiety and fear, zombie fiction often appeals to pleasure. One source of pleasure comes from ludification, the process whereby game-like principals and gameful elements shape non-game activities. Increasingly, print fiction borrows from games and uses ludic elements to shape narratives. As such, it has become embedded in convergence culture, a dynamic media ecology where top down processes compete with bottom up processes. This chapter argues that ludified zombie fiction brings this media ecology into sharp relief, revealing ways that gamification and ludification are just as apt to reinforce capitalist processes of commodification and neo-liberal ideologies of power as they are to dismantle them. Through a close reading of three contemporary zombie fictions, this chapter exposes tensions and contradictions in ludification. The dead body of the zombie, the nihilistic landscape of the post-zombie apocalypse and the futility of human endeavour in the face of walking death are all elements of genre that undercut the gamified pursuit of external utility-oriented goals. The chapter explores these knotty ethical and ideological problems, not only considering the zombie apocalypse as a gameful space for rethinking social organisation, but also recognising it as a platform for the promotion of neo-liberal ideologies that perpetuate existing power inequalities through coercive disciplinary regimes.

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Death, Culture & Leisure: Playing Dead
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-037-0

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Man-Eating Monsters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-528-3

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Death, The Dead and Popular Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-053-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Dahlia Schweitzer

The contemporary zombie genre is known for exploring what the end will look like, with its widespread infection, chaos and violence – all images that resonate in a…

Abstract

The contemporary zombie genre is known for exploring what the end will look like, with its widespread infection, chaos and violence – all images that resonate in a post-9/11 America. These zombie narratives also speak to a present-day America with their emphasis on diminishing individuality and agency. Unlike early Haitian incarnations of the zombie figure, the modern zombie terrifies because no singular agent possesses the victim’s mind. In contrast, the light-hearted CW television show, iZombie (2015–) rethinks the zombie paradigm. Not only does it envision how zombies would manifest in everyday life, without the requisite apocalypse, but it also subverts the antiquated gender politics common to the genre by providing viewers with a female zombie protagonist, Olivia Moore (Rose McIver) who is not only highly functional, but also female and with plenty of agency. Moore, through whose eyes the show is told, absorbs personality traits and memories belonging to the brains she eats, from frat boy to alcoholic, stripper to housewife. This device creates such a cornucopia of roles for McIver to explore that it brings to mind the work of American photographer Cindy Sherman, providing a rare multi-dimensional woman on TV. iZombie also takes the contemporary zombie text’s reliance on the trop of infection one step further. This chapter not only examines iZombie’s unusual female point of view, but also its portrayal of ‘zombie-ness’ as a chronic contagious illness with many similarities to HIV.

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Gender and Contemporary Horror in Television
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-103-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Emre Kaplanoğlu and Canan Yükçü

Introduction: The word “zombie” is associated with the “living dead” in our minds from horror movies we watch on TV. Recently, this concept has been used frequently to…

Abstract

Introduction: The word “zombie” is associated with the “living dead” in our minds from horror movies we watch on TV. Recently, this concept has been used frequently to identify the firms that are still standing while they should have been closed long ago. Zombie firms are apparently active, but their cash flows are only used to compensate interest expense of their debts. Banks prefer to re-finance these firms and restructure their sunken loans rather than following their debts and moving them out of the bank’s balance sheets. However, these inefficient and unproductive firms also consume the capital that can be transferred to more productive firms. Therefore, these firms live as long as the cash inflow, which is considered as fresh blood and meat for the living dead-zombie, and they consume the resources of other living healthy firms.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the existence of zombie firms which are listed in Borsa İstanbul manufacturing industry.

Methodology: The research period is between the years 2008 and 2018, and interest coverage ratio (ICR) is used for Borsa İstanbul manufacturing firms. There are several explanations of zombie firms in the literature, which are commonly constructed on a scope of profitability of a firm. In this research, the OECD’s preferred explanation and classification of zombies is chosen which describes a zombie firm as having an ICR (operating earnings to interest expenses) which is less than 1 over three consecutive years.

Findings: It has been noted from this research that ICRs differ in the research period of Borsa İstanbul manufacturing industry firms. About 62 of 109 firms traded on Borsa İstanbul manufacturing industry between 2008 and 2018 were classified as zombie firms because they had ICRs below one for three consecutive years or over.

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Uncertainty and Challenges in Contemporary Economic Behaviour
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-095-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Vladimer Papava

The purpose of this paper is to distinguish the economic foundations of post‐Communist capitalism and to examine the key economic problems of this type of society in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to distinguish the economic foundations of post‐Communist capitalism and to examine the key economic problems of this type of society in the context of the modern financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This question is approached by studying the “necroeconomy” as a phenomenon of post‐Communist capitalism and the international experience of the dead firms, so‐called “zombie‐firms”, which do exist and “successfully” function in the most developed of economies as well with Japan being the most obvious example. Unlike developed economies, which are exposed to the threat of the zombie‐ing of the economy under the conditions of a financial crisis, this threat is even greater for the countries of post‐Communist capitalism owing also to their exposure to necroeconomy.

Findings

It is found that the financial crisis creates the favourable conditions for the zombie‐ing of a necroeconomy. If in Japan, for example, the zombie‐economy never touched the processing industries, then one of the qualities of the necroeconomy is to concentrate exactly upon this sector of the economy. The zombie‐ing of a necroeconomy inevitably amounts to the zombie‐ing of this already‐dead sector as well.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is to determine the carriers of the necroeconomic and zombie‐economic routines – Homo Transformaticus and Zombie Economicus, respectively. The contemporary financial crisis creates the danger of the transformation of Homo Transformaticus into a Zombie Economicus.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Aaron Smith-Walter and Fatima Sparger Sharif

The zombie-plague apocalypse is a powerful social imaginary that focuses attention on the border between legitimate citizens and zombie “others.” The surge in the number…

Abstract

The zombie-plague apocalypse is a powerful social imaginary that focuses attention on the border between legitimate citizens and zombie “others.” The surge in the number of zombie apocalypse films provides an illuminating area for studying the role imagined for public administration by popular culture. The response to zombies in apocalyptic films brings to fore new realities with the re-conceptualization of the legitimacy and authority of government. This re-conceptualization provides content for analyzing the portrayal of existing governmental institutions overwhelmed by the apocalypse, including local governments, the military, public health agencies, emergency services, and public utilities,

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Nadine Dannenberg

A lot has been written on zombies lately and on the rather conservative US-American TV Show The Walking Dead (AMC, 2010–) in particular. A lot less has been written on the…

Abstract

A lot has been written on zombies lately and on the rather conservative US-American TV Show The Walking Dead (AMC, 2010–) in particular. A lot less has been written on the SyFy-Show Z Nation (2014–), although it is a sophisticated feminist take on the zombie lore. Centring around a group of survivors, who escort a human–zombie–cyborg across the US and Mexico, the show not only undermines the patriarchalism of its archetype, but also raises questions of post-humanism by the means of Donna Haraway or Rosi Braidotti. With the help of media-self-reflexive parody and pastiche, the series comments on its extradiegetic world as much as on its own genre and offers a deconstruction of stereotypical (gendered) tropes and conventions. In the following chapter, I use a selective close reading of the text and its representation politics to demonstrate how a feminist deconstruction of zombie-horror can come into being and how an (academic) distinction between Quality and Trash TV can be just as regressive as productive in this process.

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Gender and Contemporary Horror in Television
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-103-2

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Low interest rates and easy financing conditions in major economies have triggered a search for yield on the part of investors flushed with liquidity and this has allowed…

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DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB258826

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Nuno Azevedo, Márcio Mateus and Álvaro Pina

The linkages between credit allocation and productivity have particular relevance in Portugal. This study aims to investigate whether credit extended by the Portuguese…

Abstract

Purpose

The linkages between credit allocation and productivity have particular relevance in Portugal. This study aims to investigate whether credit extended by the Portuguese banking system has been allocated to the most productive firms within each sector.

Design/methodology/approach

With a data set covering 95% of total outstanding credit to non-financial corporations recorded in the Portuguese credit register, the authors investigate whether outstanding loans by resident banks to 64 economic sectors have been granted to the most productive firms. First, the authors estimate a baseline, reduced-form model of credit reallocation, where the parameter of interest gives the response of total credit granted to each firm to its level of productivity. Second, the authors assess how this response is affected by the share of credit allocated to unproductive firms. Third, the authors redo the analysis with credit granted to each firm by each banking group, instead of by the entire banking system, so that bank indicators can be taken on board.

Findings

The authors find evidence of misallocation, which reflects the joint effects of credit supply and credit demand decisions taken over the course of time, and the adverse cyclical developments following the accumulation of imbalances in the Portuguese economy for a protracted period. In 2008–2016, the share of outstanding credit granted to firms with very low productivity (measured or inferred) was always substantial, peaking at 44% in 2013, and declining afterwards with the rebound in economic activity and the growing allocation of new loans towards lower risk firms and away from higher risk firms. Furthermore, the authors find that misallocation is associated with slower reallocation. The responsiveness of credit growth to firm relative productivity is much lower in sectors with relatively more misallocated credit and when banks have a high share of such credit in their portfolios.

Originality/value

Banking system distortions are often mentioned as potential or likely culprits for capital misallocation, but they are not empirically analysed with credit data. The ability to explicitly analyse bank credit and link it to variables pertaining to both firms and banks is a novel feature relative to most previous studies, which largely rely on firm-level or sectoral data alone.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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