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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Nicole Hartnett, Luke Greenacre, Rachel Kennedy and Byron Sharp

This study aims to independently test the predictive validity of the Persuasion Principles Index (PPI) for video advertisements for low-involvement products with a measure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to independently test the predictive validity of the Persuasion Principles Index (PPI) for video advertisements for low-involvement products with a measure of in-market sales effectiveness. This study follows the inaugural test conducted by Armstrong et al. (2016) for print advertisements for high-involvement utilitarian products with a measure of advertising recall.

Design/methodology/approach

The method was in line with that developed by Armstrong et al. (2016) for rating advertisements and assessing the reliability of ratings. Consensus PPI scores were calculated for a data set of 242 matched pairs of television advertisements. For each pair, the authors determined whether the advertisement that better adhered to the persuasion principles performed better in-market.

Findings

Consensus PPI scores predicted the more sales effective television advertisement for 55% (confidence interval (CI) = 49%, 61%) of the 242 pairs. This result is no better than chance and much weaker than the result from the initial validation study, which found that the consensus PPI scores predicted the more recalled print advertisement for 74.5% (CI = 66%, 83%) of 96 pairs.

Research limitations/implications

This study replicated the application of the PPI as per Armstrong’s guidelines and extended validity testing to a different set of advertising conditions. Findings indicate that better adherence to the persuasion principles produces only a weak, positive effect for predicting the performance of television advertisements for low-involvement products. A research agenda that flows from the results is discussed.

Practical implications

The authors suggest that the PPI in its present form is best used to predict advertising performance under conditions as per the inaugural validation test (Armstrong et al., 2016).

Originality/value

Advertisers will require compelling evidence of the PPI’s predictive accuracy to adopt the tool for pre-testing advertising. This study is the first independent test of the predictive validity of the PPI and its generalisability across advertising conditions. Another contribution of this study is the assessment of Armstrong’s advice to remove unreliable ratings. The authors show that this procedure, surprisingly, does not improve the predictive accuracy of the PPI.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/EUM0000000001540. When citing the…

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/EUM0000000001540. When citing the article, please cite: Byron Sharp, (1991), “Marketing Orientation: More than Just Customer Focus”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 8 Iss: 4.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1991

Byron M. Sharp

Brand extension, the use of an existing brand name on a newproduct, is an exceedingly popular marketing tactic as companies attemptto economise on new product launches and…

Abstract

Brand extension, the use of an existing brand name on a new product, is an exceedingly popular marketing tactic as companies attempt to economise on new product launches and managers attempt to improve short run sales results. Review and analysis of current marketing research concludes that popular claims for general benefits of the practice are contradicted both by marketplace evidence and logical argument. Directions of future research to determine whether any specific conditions exist where brand extension might be an appropriate brand management tactic are outlined.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Byron M. Sharp

Examines the inherent risks of brand extension alongside empiricalevidence of the success rates of brand extensions compared withbrand‐name product launches. Concludes…

Abstract

Examines the inherent risks of brand extension alongside empirical evidence of the success rates of brand extensions compared with brand‐name product launches. Concludes that the brand extension is justifiable only when it can be clearly shown to enhance the success of a new product launch and existing brand equity. Puts forward a number of rules for the appropriate use of brand extension.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Kerry Mundt, John Dawes and Byron Sharp

Many service organisations seek to grow by selling additional different products to their existing customers. Many managers are evaluated on the level of customer loyalty…

Abstract

Purpose

Many service organisations seek to grow by selling additional different products to their existing customers. Many managers are evaluated on the level of customer loyalty in terms of cross‐product holdings – for example, the average number of bank products or insurance policies held per customer. The purpose of this paper is to provide managers and researchers with some contextual knowledge and norms concerning “cross‐category” loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to compare the levels of loyalty for competing brands, five relevant loyalty metrics were used in the analysis, with data sourced from two service industries, banking and insurance.

Findings

The results show little variation in loyalty scores between competing brands, and what variation there is can be explained by historic factors, without reference to CRM strategies. This suggests that investments into CRM and cross‐selling initiatives seem to have less effect on loyalty metrics than many marketing textbooks and CRM advocates have assumed.

Practical implications

Marketers should be very cautious of setting ambitious goals for increasing loyalty to their brand at a cross‐category level.

Originality/value

Very few research papers have explored the issue of cross‐category loyalty. This is despite the value of the specific loyalty metrics as key performance indicators in service industries such as banking and insurance.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Malcolm Wright, Anne Sharp and Byron Sharp

Over the last 30 years a range of empirical generalisations has been developed about the performance of competitive brands in frequently purchased product categories…

Abstract

Over the last 30 years a range of empirical generalisations has been developed about the performance of competitive brands in frequently purchased product categories. These generalisations have been based mainly on European and US data, and this paper addresses the question of whether they also hold in Australia and New Zealand. We examined consumer panel data from four different markets (supermarkets, department stores and retail fuel in Australia and retail fuel in New Zealand) and found similar patterns to those in Europe and the USA, although there were some minor exceptions, and also some interesting variations between markets. Our results suggest that there is much that Australasian marketers can learn from using models such as the Dirichlet, which was developed in the Northern hemisphere, to identify norms and exceptions in their own markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Byron Sharp

In this article which is based on a marketing analysis of MichaelPorter′s definition of competitive strategies, the confusion present inmarketing and strategic management…

Abstract

In this article which is based on a marketing analysis of Michael Porter′s definition of competitive strategies, the confusion present in marketing and strategic management texts as to the definitions of the three strategies of low cost, differentiation and focus is noted. The idea that using price to differentiate means a firm is using a low cost strategy is dismissed and the value of a definition of focus strategy as merely some degree of extreme differentiation is questioned. New definitions of the three strategies are proposed which are based upon the idea that firms react to, and take actions which influence, the structure of the market in which they operate. They influence market structure through determining the market′s proximity level ‐the minimum level of marketplace performance which a firm must reach in order to compete across the broad marketplace. If a firm has the ability to reach this level and go further to excel in the provision of one or more benefits, it can implement a differentiation strategy. Alternatively, it can attempt to lift the market′s proximity level or partake in imitative activity, which reduces the potential bases for differentiation in the market, a low cost strategy (only sensible for the firm with the lowest costs of production). If a firm lacks the ability to reach the proximity level, it must seek segments which do not require reaching proximity in order to serve them, a focus strategy.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Byron Sharp

As the wine industry globally is pushed towards a marketingorientation, what does this mean for companies and their managers andowners? Distinction should be made between…

Abstract

As the wine industry globally is pushed towards a marketing orientation, what does this mean for companies and their managers and owners? Distinction should be made between market orientation and marketing orientation. Market orientation places the customer at the top of the organisational chart, yet in the wine industry the customer can be very fickle. As such it does not encapsulate the marketing concept of the matching process – it is not a marketing orientation. The true marketing orientation has evolved from a realisation of the inadequacies of production and sales orientation. Marketing orientation should give equal weight to customer demands and to company requirements. It must choose its markets and manage its own productive capabilities in order to achieve its goals in pursuit of a strategic policy. In the wine industry in particular, it is imperative for management that customer and company needs and wants should be correctly balanced.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Byron Sharp and Nicole Hartnett

– This paper aims to reflect on the generalisability of the predictive validity test of the Persuasion Principles Index (PPI) conducted by Armstrong et al. (2016).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reflect on the generalisability of the predictive validity test of the Persuasion Principles Index (PPI) conducted by Armstrong et al. (2016).

Design/methodology/approach

Different aspects of the test are considered, such as the sample of ads, the dependent variable and the comparability of the methods used to predict effectiveness, in terms of how relevant these are to real-world advertising testing.

Findings

The sample of ads and the testing procedure may have contributed to the success of the PPI predictions over the other copy-testing methods. The sample of print ads does not bear a close resemblance to current advertising. The competing copy tests do not represent modern advertising copy testing.

Research/limitations/implications

More research is needed to test the validity of the principles and the predictive accuracy of the PPI across a range of conditions (e.g. different ads, media, products and cultures). Testing against advertising sales effectiveness would be the ideal next step.

Practical/implications

It certainly seems the index method has the potential to help advertisers make better decisions regarding what executions to support, for high-involvement products at least. Given the accessibility of the software, it should be easy and cost effective for advertisers to trial the PPI.

Originality/value

This commentary directs researchers to the real-world conditions under which advertising pre-tests need to be evaluated.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Matthew Willcox

Abstract

Details

The Business of Choice: How Human Instinct Influences Everyone’s Decisions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-071-7

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