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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

P.R. Bingel, J.J. Brooks and J.P. Forth

The use of clay brickwork masonry as a cladding on framed building structures is reviewed and the problems with the modern form of construction for brickwork cladding…

Abstract

The use of clay brickwork masonry as a cladding on framed building structures is reviewed and the problems with the modern form of construction for brickwork cladding highlighted. The potential for developing simpler, improved forms of cladding, in which free vertical movement of the brickwork is restrained, is discussed. Preliminary results are presented of an ongoing programme of research to investigate the performance of clay brickwork under conditions of vertical restraint, involving the construction and monitoring of full‐scale brickwork test panels on a multi‐storey concrete frame.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

John Morton

Architects and engineers are turning to structural masonry more and more today to provide the solutions for their building needs. Over the past ten years or so a growing…

Abstract

Architects and engineers are turning to structural masonry more and more today to provide the solutions for their building needs. Over the past ten years or so a growing awareness of the use of masonry and a growing interest in designing in brickwork has been a discernable trend in the construction world. This article discusses structural masonry from three points of view. Firstly, it looks at the use of structural brickwork in Britain today — while this is predominantly unreinforced, reinforced brickwork is also discussed. Secondly, the article looks at some areas of design which, considered at the design stage, may avoid possible problems in the future. Finally, workmanship factors — which affect the structural performance of the completed building — are discussed.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

W.G. Curtin

Introduction The Victorian engineers built literally miles of mass brickwork retaining walls. Such walls relied on their dead weight to resist the overturning forces and…

Abstract

Introduction The Victorian engineers built literally miles of mass brickwork retaining walls. Such walls relied on their dead weight to resist the overturning forces and tensile stresses caused by the retained earth, or other material. But the walls were of relatively massive thickness, under‐exploited brick‐work's compressive strength, and were structurally restricted by brickwork's low tensile strength. The advent of the more cost‐effective reinforced concrete walls saw their vitual eclipse. Reinforcing the brickwork could result in a come‐back.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Michael Hammett

Notes some methods of restoring the soundness and good appearanceof brickwork. Discusses damage caused by frost, water penetration andsoluble salts. Outlines techniques of…

Abstract

Notes some methods of restoring the soundness and good appearance of brickwork. Discusses damage caused by frost, water penetration and soluble salts. Outlines techniques of repointing historic brickwork and special joint finishes, and examines the causes of cracks and instability. Mentions methods of cleaning brickwork, and suggests that the work be undertaken by skilled specialist contractors.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

T.L. Knight

The world abounds with numerous examples of fault‐free brickwork which have endured for centuries with little maintenance. In this country, bricks are an indigenous…

Abstract

The world abounds with numerous examples of fault‐free brickwork which have endured for centuries with little maintenance. In this country, bricks are an indigenous product and the use of brickwork is well understood, being a basically simple and economic method of building without sophisticated techniques.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Rachel Dodds and Lee Jolliffe

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Methodology/approach

Creative tourism in cities is profiled through a literature review and further investigated by means of a case study at a local attraction in Toronto, Canada. The choice of a site was one of a creative city and the re-purposing of a formerly industrial site for visitation.

Findings

The study of Evergreens Brickworks demonstrated the use of marketing techniques to identify markets and match visitors with experiences. The visitor segmentation method determined that pre-scheduled and bookable activities offered for locals need to be offered on a different basis for tourists, who may be one time visitors to the site. The product-market match process suggested areas in which products could be modified or indeed created.

Practical implications

This practical study offers lessons for other local visitor attractions and their managers desiring to identify market segments and match them with appropriate activities creating experiential tourism at the site level within the creative city context.

Originality/value

While many studies of the creative tourism concept and cities have been undertaken within the context of destinations this research offers a site-specific perspective as well as marketing perspective that will be of practical value to attraction managers.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

W.G. Curtin

Brickwork has been around for some 4,000 years and its durability, strength and other good qualities are well known. It is a useful structural material — but limited to…

Abstract

Brickwork has been around for some 4,000 years and its durability, strength and other good qualities are well known. It is a useful structural material — but limited to applications where there is relatively high compressive vertical loading and relatively low horizontal loading. (A brick wall can carry a high vertical load but it can be pushed over relatively easily.) This is because brickwork, like concrete, is weak in tension. Its tensile strength in bending is less than five per cent of its compressive strength. Again, like concrete, it can either be reinforced with steel to carry the tensile stress or prestressed to eliminate the tension.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

P. STEPHENSON, I. MORREY, P. VACHER and Z. AHMED

The extent of defects within the construction sector is considerable. This not only has implications for final built products, but also impacts on remedial and repair…

Abstract

The extent of defects within the construction sector is considerable. This not only has implications for final built products, but also impacts on remedial and repair work, time delays and additional cost. This research work aims to evaluate the success of applying knowledge engineering (KE) techniques to the domain of defect prediction focusing specifically on brickwork mortar. A structured approach is developed which relates to the prediction of defects on housing developments. Knowledge engineering techniques are assessed to facilitate the provision of domain knowledge readily accessible by design engineers and architects. The KE techniques are used as an alternative to the current methods, techniques and technologies used within the construction industry. This is achieved by assessment of the predictive approach to facilitate decreases in ‘quality losses’, i.e. decreases in pre‐mature failure and hence improved quality performance. Attention is also given to the consideration of complex defects to promote increased efficiency in communication and co‐ordination of information for design and building processes, thereby helping to reduce the cost of maintenance and repair work.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 9 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Gerard Lynch

Outlines the development of English brickwork from 1485 to 1914,highlighting the many external influences that were underpinning thestyles and practices of the various…

Abstract

Outlines the development of English brickwork from 1485 to 1914, highlighting the many external influences that were underpinning the styles and practices of the various periods, such as developments in materials, craft skills and practices, and the change in architecture.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Gerard Lynch

Second part of a perspective of the development of the English brick andits use since the 15th century. Evaluates the many varying externalinfluences such as trade links…

Abstract

Second part of a perspective of the development of the English brick and its use since the 15th century. Evaluates the many varying external influences such as trade links, architectural fashions, industrial developments and social factors that were invariably under‐pinning the styles and practices of the brickmaker and bricklayer down the centuries. Analyses this history in a series of chronological periods, i.e. 1485‐1603; 1603‐1830 and 1830‐1914. The pattern of study remaining consistent within each period, that being – what was the significant socio‐economic and political movement in relation to construction, and what, if any, part did it play in influencing change in the making and use of bricks. Looks at how and why brick manufacture and brickwork were responding, and when within these periods, considering who were the important figures in these changes and developments. Concludes that the brickwork, which marks each period, is the result not only of developments in the brickmaking process and the craft skills of the bricklayers, but also of foreign influences, social and economic changes in the country, and the inevitable gradual influence of building control, through legislation, necessary to ensure safe and sanitary housing in the urban environment of a major industrial country.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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