Search results

1 – 10 of over 9000
Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Devika Vashisht

The motivation behind the study is to look at the impact of novelty in games on brand recall and attitude, and to dissect the directing job of game interactivity from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The motivation behind the study is to look at the impact of novelty in games on brand recall and attitude, and to dissect the directing job of game interactivity from the points of view of “contrast effect,” “engagement theory” and “transportation theory”.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (novelty: congruent or incongruent) × 2 (game interactivity: high or low) between-subject measures design was used. In total, 172 management students participated in the study. A 2 × 2 between-subjects measure multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Incongruent novelty results in higher brand recall but less favorable brand attitude than congruent novelty. Interactivity moderates the relationship between novelty congruence and brand recall such that in a high-interactivity condition, incongruent novelty results in higher brand recall than that in the low-interactivity condition. But, in case of the high-interactivity condition, congruent novelty results in more favorable brand attitude than that in the low-interactivity condition.

Practical implications

Developing high brand recall rates and attitudes are the prime objectives of the marketers for choosing a medium to advertise their brands. This investigation adds knowledge to the area of interactive marketing, particularly in-game advertising as a media technique to promote brands taking novelty and game interactivity factors into thought.

Originality/value

From the perspectives of interactive marketing, psychological elaboration, mind-engagement and transportation of experience, this investigation adds to the literature of advanced media advertising, explicitly to in-game advertising by looking at the effect of novelty and game interactivity.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Lance Kinney, Stephen R McDaniel and Larry DeGaris

Four demographic variables (education, age, gender and internet use) and two psychographic variables (attitude towards NASCAR sponsors and NASCAR involvement) were…

342

Abstract

Four demographic variables (education, age, gender and internet use) and two psychographic variables (attitude towards NASCAR sponsors and NASCAR involvement) were investigated for impact on NASCAR fan ability to recall sponsor brands. Regression analysis indicates that the above variables are significant predictors of ability to recall sponsor brands, combining to explain 33% of observed variance.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Devika Vashisht and Sreejesh S. Pillai

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude in the context of…

1907

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude in the context of online advergames. Specifically, this investigation uses limited capacity model of attention and persuasion knowledge model to expound the conditions under which brand placements create attention, elaboration and subsequent brand recall and brand attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (brand prominence: prominent versus subtle) × 2 (game involvement: high versus low involvement) × 2 (persuasion knowledge: high versus low) between-subjects measures design is used. A total of 224 student gamers participated in the study. A between-subjects measures multivariate analysis of variance is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that an advergame with prominent brand placement under low game involvement condition results in high brand recall but less favorable brand attitude than under high game involvement condition. Furthermore, a three-way interaction shows that for a prominent brand placement advergame with high game involvement, the subjects with high persuasion knowledge report high brand recall than the subjects with low persuasion knowledge. The findings also reveal that for a prominent brand placement advergame with high game involvement, the subjects with high persuasion knowledge report less favorable brand attitude than the subjects with low persuasion knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

This paper adds to advertising literature from a non-traditional advertising viewpoint, predominantly in the context of online advergames, and expounds the role played by brand placement and its boundary conditions to create customers’ brand memory and attitude. Furthermore, this investigation adds to the marketing knowledge on how and where to position and embed the brands effectively in advergames taking into account the characteristics of the gamer, such as the game involvement and gamers’ persuasion knowledge about the advergame.

Originality/value

This study adds to the works of online advertising, particularly the advergames by discovering the impact of brand prominence, game involvement and persuasion knowledge on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. Also, this study is the first in its stream toward understanding the moderating role of persuasion knowledge on Indian gamers’ recall and attitude in the context of online advertising.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Ho Keat Leng

The majority of sponsorship studies were conducted on sports events of a long duration. Given that sponsor recall is affected by duration of exposure, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of sponsorship studies were conducted on sports events of a long duration. Given that sponsor recall is affected by duration of exposure, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether sponsorship of an event of a shorter duration can be equally effective.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 241 respondents were randomly distributed to one control group and three experimental groups. In all groups, respondents were tasked to watch a video clip of a swimming event lasting less than ten minutes.

Findings

In the control group (n=74), the mean number of correctly recalled brands was 2.26 (SD=1.31). This was comparable to the mean number of recalled brands in earlier studies on sports events of longer duration. In experimental group 1 (n=37), respondents watched a video clip without the logos of the sponsors along the length of the pool. The findings suggest that signages along the competition arena may have limited effect on the recall rate and that brand prominence affects the recall rate. In experimental group 2 (n=68), respondents were tasked to watch a swimming event with longer duration. In this case, the longer duration of exposure led to a significantly higher number of brands recalled (M=2.94, SD=1.36) as compared to the control group. In experimental group 3 (n=62), respondents were tasked to focus on the swimming event. When spectators were more involved in the swimming event, there was a significant decrease in the number of brands recalled (M=1.87, SD=1.35) when compared to the control group. The results from experimental groups 2 and 3 suggest that duration of exposure and spectator involvement affects the recall rate of sponsors.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that sponsorship of sports events with a short duration can be as effective as longer events although this is dependent on the prominence of the sponsor, duration of the event and spectator involvement.

Practical implications

Given that many sports events are now broadcasted on YouTube and other social media where the duration is typically short, it suggests that sponsors may also benefit from sports events that are broadcasted on these platforms.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful information on sponsor recall and its relationship to duration of exposure.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Hyun Seung Jin, Gayle Kerr and Jaebeom Suh

The creativity-based facilitation effect, well documented by previous research, shows that creative advertisements (ads) are more memorable than regular (or less creative…

Abstract

Purpose

The creativity-based facilitation effect, well documented by previous research, shows that creative advertisements (ads) are more memorable than regular (or less creative) ads, that is, creativity facilitates memory. This current research aims to extend our understanding by investigating the impact of creativity on regular ads and competitive advertising. It examines whether creative ads impair the memorability of regular ads to determine whether a “creativity-based impairment effect” exists.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested creativity-based impairment effects in brand recall. Experiment 2 replicated and validated the impairment effect in recall, using a different presentation order of ads. In Experiment 3, effects of creative ads on competing vs non-competing brands were examined.

Findings

Results found that creative ads impaired the brand recall of regular ads, creative ads impaired the recall of competing brands more than non-competing brands and creative ads were recalled earlier in top-of-mind recall positions.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may look at whether different memory measures (e.g. recognition), different proportions of creative ads, and ads of familiar vs unfamiliar brands produce differential impairment effects.

Practical implications

One suggestion from this research could be to not only copy-test your own brand’s advertising, but also test the advertising of other brands so that the target ad’s relative levels of creativity can be assessed before media buying. As a result of this testing, when the brand identifies any potential impairment effects, the identified creative ads could then be tracked in terms of media placement, providing a guide of where “not to schedule” advertising.

Originality/value

This research makes an important theoretical contribution as the first to explore impairment effects in the context of creative advertising. In doing so, it offers important managerial insights for regular and competitive advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Monica D Hernandez and Michael S Minor

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to answer whether there is a difference between retrieving memory by using recall or false recall of brands in an interactive and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to answer whether there is a difference between retrieving memory by using recall or false recall of brands in an interactive and imagery-rich environment such as advergaming, and there are differences in memory in the same context if the languages of proficiency are based on the same script (e.g. alphabetic/alphabetic such as Spanish/English) versus cross-script (e.g. logographic/alphabetic, such as Chinese/English).

Design/methodology/approach

A series of international experiments addressed memory of brand placements in advergames – via correct and false recall – across groups of bilinguals from China, Mexico and South Korea.

Findings

The most salient finding of this study revealed advergame interactivity increased false memory more pronouncedly in the proficient groups (“experts”), supporting the notion of increased false recall as a result of feelings of accountability that experts naturally experience.

Research limitations/implications

The procedures of the international experiments were susceptible to some limitations concerning sampling design and experimental stimuli. Despite its limitations, this study helps to uncover the effect of these elements in short-term brand memory, to guide marketers for an effective use of brand and product placements in advergames.

Originality/value

Analysis of both correct and false recall of bilinguals in imagery-rich environments is of utmost importance. In these environments, memory may originate from experience or from imagination. The study addressed brand memory among diverse Internet audiences by taking into account both correct memory scores as well as false memory scores within the advergaming context.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Abstract

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Kyung-Ah Byun and Mayukh Dass

– The purpose of this study is to examine how product recalls affect brand commitment and post-recall purchase intention.

4842

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how product recalls affect brand commitment and post-recall purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The role of consumer and product recall characteristics based on attribution theory is tested using data collected through experiments and analyzed using a type of finite mixture model.

Findings

Results indicate varying effects of product recalls on commitment across these four customer groups and a strong effect of affective commitment on post-recall purchase behavior.

Originality/value

This paper proposes four types of consumers based on dichotomous levels of affective and calculative commitment, namely, Hard Cores, Don’t-Cares, Lovers and Rationalists, and shows how product recalls affect these consumer groups differently, and how this information assists brand managers in developing post-product recall consumer management strategies.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Devika Vashisht and Sreejesh S.

The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of advertising effects of nature of advergame (game speed) on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. More specifically…

1034

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of advertising effects of nature of advergame (game speed) on gamers’ brand recall and attitude. More specifically, this study investigates varying effects of game speed in advergames on young Indian gamers’ brand recall and attitudes under varied game-product congruence and persuasion knowledge conditions from attention, elaboration and persuasion perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (nature of advergame: fast or slow) × 2 (game-product congruence: high or low) × 2 (persuasion knowledge: high or low) between-subject measures design is used. Experimental data were collected from 235 Indian graduate students. ANOVAs and MANOVA with pre-planned contrasts are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that for a slow-paced advergame, low game-product congruence result in high brand recall than high game-product congruence. For a fast-paced advergame, there is no difference in brand recall between low game-product congruence and high game-product congruence. Furthermore, findings reveal that for a slow-paced advergame with low game-product congruence, subjects with high persuasion knowledge report high brand recall and less favorable brand attitude than subjects with low persuasion knowledge. On the other hand, for a fast-paced advergame with low game-product congruence, there is no difference in brand recall and brand attitude between the subjects with high persuasion knowledge and the subjects with low persuasion knowledge.

Practical implications

The findings of the study are very important for advertising practitioners, as selection of media that fit the advertised product with reference to the nature and content of the media is a planning strategy that has been widely used by media planners. Thus, if advertisers want to create high brand awareness by creating high brand memory, then slow-paced advergames with low congruent brand placements can be chosen as an effective in-game media strategy for online advertising. Additionally, game developers and marketers can plan and develop more effective advergames by taking into account the persuasion knowledge factor so that the implementation would have the strongest positive effect on consumers’ brand recall and brand attitude.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of non-traditional media advertising, specifically advergaming context by exploring the impact of nature of game and game-product congruence on gamers’ ad-persuasion. Also, this study is the first attempt to understand how the game speed and its boundary conditions influence gamers’ brand recall and attitude and in attention, elaboration and persuasion perspectives.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Devika Vashisht and Sreejesh S

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of brand placement strength on gamers’ brand recall as moderated by gamers’ prior game playing experience and game…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of brand placement strength on gamers’ brand recall as moderated by gamers’ prior game playing experience and game involvement in the context of advergames. Specifically, this research utilizes Limited Capacity Model of attention to explain how and under what conditions brand placements create attention, elaboration and subsequent brand recall.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (brand placement strength: prominent versus subtle) × 2 (prior game playing experience: experienced versus inexperienced) × 2 (game involvement: high versus low involvement) between-subjects measures design is used. Empirical data were obtained from 220 undergraduate student gamers. A between-subjects measures ANOVA is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

There are several important findings that can be inferred from the results. First, inexperienced gamers report high brand recall in prominent brand placements than subtle brand placements, whereas for experienced gamers, no significant difference in recall rates is found between prominent brand placement and subtle brand placement. Second, inexperienced gamers with low game involvement playing an advergame with prominent brand placement report high brand recall compared to inexperienced gamers with high game involvement playing an advergame with prominent brand placement.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the advertising literature from a non-traditional advertising perspective, particularly in the context of online advergames, and explains the role of brand placement and its boundary conditions to create customers’ brand memory. Moreover, this research contributes to the marketing knowledge on how to locate and embed the brands effectively in advergames, taking into account the individual characteristics of each advergame.

Practical implications

The findings are very important for advertising practitioners because selecting media that enhances the brand memory of the consumers through entertainment is a planning strategy that has been widely used by media planners today. Hence, advertising managers should think about designing advergames by taking into account the game involvement factor to make sure that the implementation has the strongest positive effect on consumers’ memory.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature of online advertising, especially the advergames by exploring the impact of brand placement strength and prior gaming experience on gamers’ brand recall. In addition, this study is the first step toward understanding the moderating role of game involvement on Indian gamers recall in the context of online advertising.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 9000