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1 – 10 of over 10000
Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Zaheer Khan, David Ludlow, Wolfgang Loibl and Kamran Soomro

The aim of this paper is to present the effectiveness of participatory information and communication technology (ICT) tools for urban planning, in particular, supporting…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present the effectiveness of participatory information and communication technology (ICT) tools for urban planning, in particular, supporting bottom-up decision-making in urban management and governance.

Design/methodology/approach

This work begins with a presentation on the state of the art literature on the existing participatory approaches and their contribution to urban planning and the policymaking process. Furthermore, a case study, namely, the UrbanAPI project, is selected to identify new visualisation and simulation tools applied at different urban scales. These tools are applied in four different European cities – Vienna, Bologna, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Ruse – with the objective to identify the data needs for application development, commonalities in requirements of such participatory tools and their expected impact in policy and decision-making processes.

Findings

The case study presents three planning applications: three-dimensional Virtual Reality at neighbourhood scale, Public Motion Explorer at city-wide scale and Urban Growth Simulation at city-region scale. UrbanAPI applications indicate both active and passive participation secured by applying these tools at different urban scales and hence facilitate evidence-based urban planning decision-making. Structured engagement with the city administrations indicates commonalities in user needs and application requirements creating the potential for the development of generic features in these ICT tools which can be applied to many other cities throughout Europe.

Originality/value

This paper presents new ICT-enabled participatory urban planning tools at different urban scales to support collaborative decision-making and urban policy development. Various technologies are used for the development of these IT tools and applied to the real environment of four European cities.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Abbass F. Alkhafaji

The study of international business has become increasinglyimportant in recent years. So important that the American Assembly ofthe Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB…

3589

Abstract

The study of international business has become increasingly important in recent years. So important that the American Assembly of the Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has called for the internationalisation of business curricula. In 1992 and beyond, successful business people will treat the entire world as their domain. No one country can operate in an economic vacuum. Any economic measures taken by one country can affect the global economy. This book is designed to challenge the reader to develop a global perspective of international business. Globalisation is by no means a new concept, but there are many new factors that have contributed to its recently accelerated growth. Among them, the new technologies in communication and transport that have resulted in major expansions of international trade and investment. In the future, the world market will become predominant. There are bound to be big changes in the world economy. For instance the changes in Eastern Europe and the European Community during the 1990s. With a strong knowledge base in international business, future managers will be better prepared for the new world market. This book introduces its readers to the exciting and rewarding field of international management and international corporations. It is written in contemporary, easy‐to‐understand language, avoiding abstract terminology; and is organised into five sections, each of which includes a number of chapters that cover a subject involving activities that cross national boundaries.

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Ayman Assem, Sherif Abdelmohsen and Mohamed Ezzeldin

Cities lying within conflict zones have continually faced hardships of both war aftermath and long-term sustainable reconstruction. Challenges have surpassed the typical…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities lying within conflict zones have continually faced hardships of both war aftermath and long-term sustainable reconstruction. Challenges have surpassed the typical question of recovery from post-conflict trauma, preserving urban heritage and iconic elements of the built environment, to face issues of critical decision making, rebuilding effectiveness and funding mechanisms, leading to time-consuming processes that lack adequate consistent long-term management. Some approaches have explored methods of effective long-term city reconstruction management but have not fully developed comprehensive approaches that alleviate the management of such complex processes. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors devise an approach for the smart management of post-conflict city reconstruction. The authors focus on evaluation, strategic planning, reconstruction projects and implementation. The authors integrate building information modeling and geographic/geospatial information systems in a platform that allows for real-time analysis, reporting, strategic planning and decision making for managing reconstruction operations and projects among involved stakeholders including government agencies, funding organizations, city managers and public participants.

Findings

The approach suggested a smart management system for the reconstruction process of post-conflict cities. Implementing this system was shown to provide a multi-objective solution for post-conflict city reconstruction based on its interlinked modules.

Research limitations/implications

Results may lack generalizability and require testing on several cases to provide rigorous findings for different case studies.

Practical implications

Implications include developing smart management systems for use by city managers and government authorities in post-conflict zones, as well as bottom-up decision making by including participant citizens especially populations in the diaspora.

Originality/value

The approach offers an integrated platform that informs city reconstruction decision makers, allowing for strategic planning tools for efficient planning, monitoring tools for continuous management during and after reconstruction, and effective platforms for communication among all stakeholders.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Tom Lupton

It is suggested that change can be more successfully introducedfrom the bottom up than from the top down. Careful attention to theneeds of subordinates is not enough; the…

3277

Abstract

It is suggested that change can be more successfully introduced from the bottom up than from the top down. Careful attention to the needs of subordinates is not enough; the employee must play a major part in decision taking. Detailed knowledge normally resides with those closest to the work, therefore why not use this knowledge to help run the organisation thus releasing managers for the vitally important activity of gaining a better understanding of how the enterprise can cope more successfully with the external environment?

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Renée Marlin‐Bennett

Argues here that ICANN, as it is currently formed, falls well short of democratic ideals, despite a founding principle of providing “bottom‐up, representative decision

Abstract

Argues here that ICANN, as it is currently formed, falls well short of democratic ideals, despite a founding principle of providing “bottom‐up, representative decisionmaking”. Defines governance and explains how ICANN engages in governance of the Internet in important ways. Summarizes that if ICANN continues on its current trajectory, the end result is likely to be stability at the expense of democracy.

Details

info, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Kalinga Jagoda, Robert Lonseth and Adam Lonseth

The steady incline in oil prices combined with the recent credit crisis and downturns in financial markets has driven organizations to re‐evaluate their manufacturing…

3459

Abstract

Purpose

The steady incline in oil prices combined with the recent credit crisis and downturns in financial markets has driven organizations to re‐evaluate their manufacturing processes and bottom line. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a bottom‐up approach that may be used by firms in planning, managing and forecasting productivity improvements.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple‐case study approach was used: two comprehensive cases and seven short cases were used to illustrate the model.

Findings

The lack of understanding of the relationship between productivity, profitability and performance has led to the application of piece‐meal solutions for problems in productivity. Bottom‐up approach in improving productivity will provide better results than top‐down approach.

Originality/value

This paper describes the bottom‐up approach which has been successfully used for managing productivity improvement initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Sandford Borins

This article considers the nature and role of leadership in three ideal types of public management innovation: politically‐led responses to crises, organizational…

17821

Abstract

This article considers the nature and role of leadership in three ideal types of public management innovation: politically‐led responses to crises, organizational turnarounds engineered by newly‐appointed agency heads, and bottom‐up innovations initiated by front‐line public servants and middle managers. Quantitative results from public sector innovation awards indicate that bottom‐up innovation occurs much more frequently than conventional wisdom would indicate. Effective political leadership in a crisis requires decision making that employs a wide search for information, broad consultation, and skeptical examination of a wide range of options. Successful leadership of a turnaround requires an agency head to regain political confidence, reach out to stakeholders and clients, and to convince dispirited staff that change is possible and that their efforts to do better will be supported. Political leaders and agency heads can create a supportive climate for bottom‐up innovation by consulting staff, instituting formal awards and informal recognition for innovators, promoting innovators, protecting innovators from control‐oriented central agencies, and publicly championing bottom‐up innovations that have proven successful and have popular appeal.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Christian Wernz, Hui Zhang and Kongkiti Phusavat

Healthcare costs have increased considerably over the past decades around the world. Major contributors to this trend are expensive medical technologies. The purpose of…

1447

Abstract

Purpose

Healthcare costs have increased considerably over the past decades around the world. Major contributors to this trend are expensive medical technologies. The purpose of this paper is to use a case study approach to understand how organizational and country level factors influence hospital investment behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper developed a conceptual framework based upon decision theory and institutional theory from which key questions were derived. The paper conducted semi-structured group interviews with relevant stakeholders in six hospitals located in five countries (Germany, India, Thailand, South Korea, USA).

Findings

The paper found that the investment decisions of the interviewed hospitals are primarily affected by the healthcare system, the socio-economic and cultural context, and the organization's mission. Most of the interviewed hospitals consider multiple criteria in their decision-making framework and share similar organizational processes.

Practical implications

The paper identified an international best practice approach to investment decision making at one of the hospitals. The other hospitals, despite being leading institutions in their respective countries, do not have sufficiently advanced and objective assessment approaches and would benefit from a more data-driven and systematic decision process.

Originality/value

Prior research has documented that investment decisions at hospitals are driven by organizational factors. This paper shows how, in addition, country level factors – in particular healthcare system and cultural aspects – affect hospital decision-making behavior.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 114 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Marion Driessen-Willems, Floor Severens, Emily Darlington, Nina Bartelink, Stef Kremers, Patricia van Assema and Kathelijne Bessems

Adapting the Health Promotion School (HPS) approach to context specifics is acknowledged as being essential for implementation and achieving optimal effectiveness. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Adapting the Health Promotion School (HPS) approach to context specifics is acknowledged as being essential for implementation and achieving optimal effectiveness. This study aims to explore implementation variations on seven HPS spectra (such as top-down to bottom-up involvement of stakeholders) on which implementation of the HPS approach can vary, and the factors that relate to navigation on these spectra.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2020, fourteen HPS researchers and professionals from ten European countries participated in semi-structured interviews.

Findings

Navigation variations on the HPS spectra occurred throughout most spectra. Further, a tendency was found towards spectrum extremes of addressing multiple core-components, implementing non-disruptive Health Promotion (HP) programmes, and evaluating the HPS approach through an action-oriented research approach. Important general factors were resources, staff capacity and time available to staff members for implementing the HPS approach. Some spectra required more specific factors like organisational skills, leadership or a certain level of democracy.

Practical implications

The implementation of the HPS approach should be supported by implementation strategies addressing the spectrum-specific factors, but more generic factors such as staff capacity, resources and the level of democracy should also be considered.

Originality/value

This study explores navigation variations throughout HPS spectra rather than the HPS approach in general. It also nuances implementation diversity across and within different European contexts.

Details

Health Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Daniele Binci, Corrado Cerruti, Giorgia Masili and Cristina Paternoster

The purpose of this study is to explore the agile project management (APM) approach through the contextual ambidextrous lens by overcoming the traditional perspective that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the agile project management (APM) approach through the contextual ambidextrous lens by overcoming the traditional perspective that separates projects within the opposite planned-exploitation- and emergent-exploration-oriented forms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a grounded approach to five different agile-oriented companies for discovering how agile adoption shows both emergent (exploration-oriented) and planned (exploitation-oriented) tensions in a perspective that connects, rather than separates, them.

Findings

This study discovers five main categories, namely, approach, objectives, boundaries, leadership and feedback, that capture the tensions between planned and emergent issues of agile projects. The identified variables interact with different intervening conditions of the APM attributes (i.e. road map, product backlog, team backlog and solution delivery), activating different response actions (“exploitation embedded in exploration” and vice-versa), requiring, as a consequence, the need for contextual ambidexterity.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies different implications based on real project contexts, as the importance of a more complete picture of the APM approach, which also considers the combination of planned and emergent aspects of projects and, as consequence, the needs for dual capacities (T-shaped skills) both at project management and team levels.

Practical implications

This study identifies, in real project contexts, the relevance of integration between the corporate level and the agile project team. This implies the search for constant dialogue, with feedback exchange spread across all levels, also enabled by an integrated leadership approach.

Originality/value

This study highlights agile tensions in a real-world project context by describing how APM connects both explorative and exploitative aspects of change within the same APM initiative, in order to manage such tensions, which differs from previous studies that consider APM in alternation with a linear project management approach as stage-gate.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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