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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1900

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons…

Abstract

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons for the judgment have to be based upon first principles of common‐sense, occasionally aided, but more often complicated, by already existing laws, which apply more or less to the case under discussion. The weak point in this particular case is the law which has just come into force, in which cheese is defined as the substance “usually known as cheese” by the public and any others interested in cheese. This reliance upon the popular fancy reads almost like our Government's war policy and “the man in the street,” and is a shining example of a trustful belief in the average common‐sense. Unfortunately, the general public have no direct voice in a police court, and so the “usually known as cheese” phrase is translated according to the fancy and taste of the officials and defending solicitors who may happen to be concerned with any particular case. Not having the general public to consult, the officials in this case had a war of dictionaries which would have gladdened the heart of Dr. JOHNSON; and the outcome of much travail was the following definition: cheese is “ coagulated milk or curd pressed into a solid mass.” So far so good, but immediately a second definition question cropped up—namely, What is “milk?”—and it is at this point that the mistake occurred. There is no legal definition of new milk, but it has been decided, and is accepted without dispute, that the single word “milk” means an article of well‐recognised general properties, and which has a lower limit of composition below which it ceases to be correctly described by the one word “milk,” and has to be called “skim‐milk,” “separated milk,” “ milk and water,” or other distinguishing names. The lower limits of fat and solids‐not‐fat are recognised universally by reputable public analysts, but there has been no upper limit of fat fixed. Therefore, by the very definition quoted by the stipendiary, an article made from “skim‐milk” is not cheese, for “skim‐milk” is not “milk.” The argument that Stilton cheese is not cheese because there is too much fat would not hold, for there is no legal upper limit for fat; but if it did hold, it does not matter, for it can be, and is, sold as “Stilton” cheese, without any hardship to anyone. The last suggestion made by the stipendiary would, if carried out, afford some protection to the general public against their being cheated when they buy cheese. This suggestion is that the Board of Agriculture, who by the Act of 1899 have the legal power, should determine a lower limit of fat which can be present in cheese made from milk; but, as we have repeatedly pointed out, it is by the adoption of the Control system that such questions can alone be settled to the advantage of the producer of genuine articles and to that of the public.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1910

Dr. COLLINRIDGE, the Medical Officer of Health to the City of London, had occasion recently to call attention to the diseased condition of certain imported meats, and it…

Abstract

Dr. COLLINRIDGE, the Medical Officer of Health to the City of London, had occasion recently to call attention to the diseased condition of certain imported meats, and it is most disquieting to learn that some of these were apparently sent out from the country of origin under official certificates.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1909

The Society of the White Cross of Geneva appears to have been founded with the object of organising on an international basis the attempts that are being made at the…

Abstract

The Society of the White Cross of Geneva appears to have been founded with the object of organising on an international basis the attempts that are being made at the present time in civilised countries to bring under control, and if possible to stamp out, certain abuses, frauds, and other injurious factors more or less existent in modern civilised life. Among the subjects to be dealt with are mentioned “les empoisonnements alimentaires,” and adulteration generally, and the principal part of the business of the International Congress which met at Geneva last year and whose second sitting has just ended in Paris, appears to have related to food questions. The objects aimed at by the society are, no doubt, excellent, but they are hardly likely to be attained if the procedure followed in certain respects at the Geneva and Paris Congresses is adopted in the future. Many of the questions brought before these Congresses were of a highly technical nature, and, for this reason, it was not only very desirable, but absolutely necessary that the matters under discussion should have been dealt with, so far as time allowed, by a thoroughly representative international body composed exclusively of scientific and legal experts of recognised position in their respective countries—that is to say, if the conclusions arrived at were to be taken as representing a serious expression of authoritative opinion. It does not appear that the conclusions and resolutions of these Congresses were arrived at by meetings constituted on these lines, and it is probably for this reason that very little, if any, impression has been produced by the gatherings referred to. The initial mistake appears to have been the admission of a number of people who were obviously only interested in the commercial aspects of the subjects dealt with, and who were sufficiently numerous and persistent to influence the meetings in directions favourable to what were declared to be the “requirements” of trade.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 11 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Zhongjun Tang, Tingting Wang, Junfu Cui, Zhongya Han and Bo He

Because of short life cycle and fluctuating greatly in total sales volumes (TSV), it is difficult to accumulate enough sales data and mine an attribute set reflecting the…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of short life cycle and fluctuating greatly in total sales volumes (TSV), it is difficult to accumulate enough sales data and mine an attribute set reflecting the common needs of all consumers for a kind of experiential product with short life cycle (EPSLC). Methods for predicting TSV of long-life-cycle products may not be suitable for EPSLC. Furthermore, point prediction cannot obtain satisfactory prediction results because information available before production is inadequate. Thus, this paper aims at proposing and verifying a novel interval prediction method (IPM).

Design/methodology/approach

Because interval prediction may satisfy requirements of preproduction investment decision-making, interval prediction was adopted, and then the prediction difficult was converted into a classification problem. The classification was designed by comparing similarities in attribute relationship patterns between a new EPSLC and existing product groups. The product introduction may be written or obtained before production and thus was designed as primary source information. IPM was verified by using data of crime movies released in China from 2013 to 2017.

Findings

The IPM is valid, which uses product introduction as input, classifies existing products into three groups with different TSV intervals, mines attribute relationship patterns using content and association analyses and compares similarities in attribute relationship patterns – to predict TSV interval of a new EPSLC before production.

Originality/value

Different from other studies, the IPM uses product introduction to mine attribute relationship patterns and compares similarities in attribute relationship patterns to predict the interval values. It has a strong applicability in data content and structure and may realize rolling prediction.

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

JiaRong Wang, Bo He and XiaoQiang Chen

This paper aims to obtain a symmetrical step-down topology with lower equivalent capacity and wider step-down range under the condition of the same output. Two new…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to obtain a symmetrical step-down topology with lower equivalent capacity and wider step-down range under the condition of the same output. Two new symmetrical step-down topologies of star-connected autotransformers are proposed in this paper. Taking the equivalent capacity as the main parameter, the obtained topologies are modeled and analyzed in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the research methods of design, modeling, analysis and simulation verification. First, the star-connected autotransformer is redesigned according to the design objective of symmetrical step-down topology. In addition, the mathematical model of two topologies is established and a detailed theoretical analysis is carried out. Finally, the theoretical results are verified by simulation.

Findings

Two symmetrical star-connected autotransformer step-down topologies are designed, the winding configurations of the corresponding topology are presented, the step-down ranges of these three topologies are calculated and the influence of step-down ratio on the equivalent capacity of autotransformer are analyzed. Through analysis, the target step-down topologies are obtained when the step-down ratio is [1.1, 5.4] and [1.1, 1.9] respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Because the selected research object is only a star-connected autotransformer, the research results may lack generality. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to further study the topologies of other autotransformers.

Practical implications

This paper includes the implications of the step-down ratio on the equivalent capacity of autotransformers and the configuration of transformer windings.

Originality/value

The topologies designed in this paper enable star-connected autotransformer in the 12-pulse rectifier to be applied in step-down circumstances rather than situations of harmonic reduction only. At the same time, this paper provides a way that can be used to redesign the autotransformer in other multi-pulse rectifier systems, so that those transformers can be used in voltage regulation.

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Zhongjun Tang and Bo He

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the number and quality of games that publishers have released, popularity of game genre, age rating and package size are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the number and quality of games that publishers have released, popularity of game genre, age rating and package size are configured to determine the mobile game takeoff in a short time.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the signaling theory, the authors present a conceptual model. Using actual data about 170 mobile games at their initial stage in the Apple App store, the authors test the conceptual model by applying fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Findings

The findings identify four solutions that explain Mobile game takeoff in a short time. The authors highlight the role of the number and quality of games released by publishers, as well as that of popular game genres, which are always core factors when present.

Originality/value

This paper complements the previous research on the diffusion of mobile games by exploring which information combinations can lead to mobile games takeoff in a short time from the perspective of configuration. FsQCA serves as a better tool for explaining the complex relationships among variables than a regression analysis approach does. The authors extend existing knowledge on how the number and quality of games that publishers have released, popularity of game genre, age rating and package size combine to lead to takeoff of mobile games in a short time.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Shujing Zhang, Manyu Zhang, Yujie Cui, Xingyue Liu, Bo He and Jiaxing Chen

This paper aims to propose a fast machine compression scheme, which can solve the problem of low-bandwidth transmission for underwater images.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a fast machine compression scheme, which can solve the problem of low-bandwidth transmission for underwater images.

Design/methodology/approach

This fast machine compression scheme mainly consists of three stages. Firstly, raw images are fed into the image pre-processing module, which is specially designed for underwater color images. Secondly, a divide-and-conquer (D&C) image compression framework is developed to divide the problem of image compression into a manageable size. And extreme learning machine (ELM) is introduced to substitute for principal component analysis (PCA), which is a traditional transform-based lossy compression algorithm. The execution time of ELM is very short, thus the authors can compress the images at a much faster speed. Finally, underwater color images can be recovered from the compressed images.

Findings

Experiment results show that the proposed scheme can not only compress the images at a much faster speed but also maintain the acceptable perceptual quality of reconstructed images.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a fast machine compression scheme, which combines the traditional PCA compression algorithm with the ELM algorithm. Moreover, a pre-processing module and a D&C image compression framework are specially designed for underwater images.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2017

Anna Zakharzhevskaya

This paper examines diverging views on the Chongqing model, the policy experiment led by Bo Xilai from 2007 to 2012 that was famous for its “red songs” and the campaign…

Abstract

This paper examines diverging views on the Chongqing model, the policy experiment led by Bo Xilai from 2007 to 2012 that was famous for its “red songs” and the campaign against organized crime. It has impressed both the supporters of socialist identity of China and the supporters of liberal identity and led to an intense debate concerning China’s path of development. This paper attempts to discuss and clarify to what extent the Chongqing model represented a genuine socialist experiment and the implications of the model for China’s future.

Details

Return of Marxian Macro-Dynamics in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-477-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1902

MR. JONATHAN HUTCHINSON, the eminent consultant, has just put forward a statement of the utmost importance with respect to the probable existence of a direct connection…

Abstract

MR. JONATHAN HUTCHINSON, the eminent consultant, has just put forward a statement of the utmost importance with respect to the probable existence of a direct connection between the consumption of arsenic‐contaminated food and the occurrence of cancer. He points out that certain modern “improvements” in processes of production have led to the contamination of various food‐products with small amounts of arsenic, and observes that “if, as seems proved, the continuous use of arsenic in small medicinal doses can predispose the skin to multiple cancer there seems no reason for doubting that it may do the same for the other tissues, and for the mucous membranes and the viscera,” while there must necessarily also be “the constitutional tendency, the appropriate age, and, in some cases, the local irritation.” Mr. HUTCHINSON refers to the recent successful tracing of the Manchester outbreak of “peripheral neuritis” to the use of arsenic‐contaminated beer as an example of what may be caused by the habitual ingestion of minute doses of arsenic. It is a remarkable fact that the increase in the occurrence of cancer may be looked upon as almost synchronising with the increasingly extensive adoption of those “improved” modern methods of manufacture, not only of beer but of other food‐products, which open the door to arsenic‐contamination; together with the great increase in the use of arsenic in medical prescriptions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1902

In the very able and striking address which he recently delivered before the Society of Arts, Sir WILLIAM PREECE insisted that commercial success—whether of a man, of a…

Abstract

In the very able and striking address which he recently delivered before the Society of Arts, Sir WILLIAM PREECE insisted that commercial success—whether of a man, of a body of men, or of a nation—is referable to the working of distinct laws, the recognition and study of which may justly be said to constitute a “science of business.” In terms rendered the more severe by their dispassionate and moderate character, Sir WILLIAM referred to the lamentable ignorance displayed by the legislature, by the manufacturer, and by the general public, of what may bo regarded as the most elementary facts and methods upon which such a science must be based. He pointed to the loose and bungling character of our commercial legislation; to the lack of co‐operation and combination; to the nonexistence of a properly organised and effective consular service whereby full information could be supplied and the interests of British trade, both home and colonial, might be studied and advanced; and finally to the lethargy of British producers and manufacturers themselves, who allow foreign competitors to drive them out of even their own home markets without making an effort to discard the old‐fashioned and worn‐out methods which have given those competitors the advantage. Of late years the warning voice has been raised from time to time, but it has been as a voice crying in the wilderness. The remarkable speech delivered at the Guildhall by H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES is fresh in the recollection of those who are not too drowsy or too indifferent to appreciate the vital nature and the magnitude of the evil. In 1891 Lord PLAYFAIR stated that if the Americans were right in principle in the management of some of their commercial concerns, “the whole policy of the United Kingdom was founded on a gigantic error, and must lead to our ruin as a commercial nation.” Sir WILLIAM PREECE is amply justified in attaching severe blame to the British manufacturer and producer. They have allowed “the Americans and the Germans to oust them out of their own markets, not by any superiority in the quality of their goods, but by lower prices, by superior knowledge of the demands of the markets, by the establishment of new markets, by better direct communication with foreign countries, by superior methods in business ways, by establishing regular intelligence departments, and, above all, by possessing and exercising superior commercial technical knowledge,” “and,” continued Sir.WILLIAM, “they must lay aside the commercial habits of their fathers.” With regard to food‐products, for instance, can it be truly said that any adequate steps are taken to secure any satisfactory and permanent improvement of the national food supply with respect to purity and good quality? Has anything been done, with governmental or legislative assistance, to make a systematic study of, and provide authoritative information upon such questions as the sources from which food stuffs are obtained, the adequacy or inadequacy of supplies, the true value of home‐produce and the advantages of utilising colonial products as far as possible? The answers to these questions can only be emphatically in the negative. There is no civilised country in the world in which the producer and vendor of adulterated, impoverished, and inferior articles of food can cany on their nefarious practices with more impunity, in certain respects, than in the United Kingdom, although, originally, we led the way in framing legislative enactments on these all‐important matters. At every port of entry today we might most appropriately set up the old waste‐land notice that “rubbish may be shot here.” As we offer all the necessary facilities, and as they are being taken advantage of more and more, wo might also freely advise that “rubbish should bo manufactured here” as well, What steps do British producers and manufacturers of articles of food take to move with the times, to set their houses in order, to protect themselves, and to enable the public to differentiate between the good and the bad? In the vast majority of instances the attitude they adopt is still one of unmasterly inactivity, except in the direction of unscientific and clumsy advertisement. On this they spend enormous sums without proportionate returns, and in following this course they constantly lay themselves open to condemnatory criticism by the publication of unauthorised and exaggerated statements which, in spit© of CARLYLE'S dictum “mostly fools,” are now merely received by the general public with a shrug of the shoulders. The time has come when, in order not only to develop their trade but in order to keep it, British manufacturers must give evidence of an independent and authoritative character to justify the faith that is presumably in them in recommending their goods to the public. Those who refuse to entertain new ideas and who are content to rest in a semi‐comatose condition on the achievements of the past,—relying merely on the possession of the hitherto reputable “name of the firm,”—by the operation of an inexorable law must inevitably drop out of the race.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 4 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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