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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt and Hossein Olya

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis …

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to combine symmetric and asymmetric perspectives in model evaluation, in the hospitality and tourism field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses PLS-SEM as a symmetric approach and fsQCA as an asymmetric approach to analyze structural and configurational models. It presents guidelines to conduct an fsQCA based on latent construct scores drawn from PLS-SEM, to assess how configurations of exogenous constructs produce a specific outcome in an endogenous construct.

Findings

This research highlights the advantages of combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA to analyze the causal effects of antecedents (i.e., exogenous constructs) on outcomes (i.e., endogenous constructs). The construct scores extracted from the PLS-SEM analysis of a nomological network of constructs provide accurate input for performing fsQCA to identify the sufficient configurations required to predict the outcome(s). Complementing the assessment of the model’s explanatory and predictive power, the fsQCA generates more fine-grained insights into variable relationships, thereby offering the means to reach better managerial conclusions.

Originality/value

The application of PLS-SEM and fsQCA as separate prediction-oriented methods has increased notably in recent years. However, in the absence of clear guidelines, studies applied the methods inconsistently, giving researchers little direction on how to best apply PLS-SEM and fsQCA in tandem. To address this concern, this study provides guidelines for the joint use of PLS-SEM and fsQCA.

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Anna Salonen, Marcus Zimmer and Joona Keränen

The purpose of this study is to explain how the application of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and experiments can advance theory development in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain how the application of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and experiments can advance theory development in the field of servitization by generating better causal explanations.

Design/methodology/approach

FsQCA and experiments are established research methods that are suited for developing causal explanations but are rarely utilized by servitization scholars. To support their application, we explain how fsQCA and experiments represent distinct ways of developing causal explanations, provide guidelines for their practical application and highlight potential application areas for a future research agenda in the servitization domain.

Findings

FsQCA enables specification of cause–effects relationships that result in equifinal paths to an intended outcome. Experiments have the highest explanatory power and enable the drawing of direct causal conclusions through reliance on an interventionist logic. Together, these methods provide complementary ways of developing and testing theory when the research objective is to understand the causal pathways that lead to observed outcomes.

Practical implications

Applications of fsQCA help to explain to managers why there are numerous causal routes to attaining an intended outcome from servitization. Experiments support managerial decision-making by providing definitive “yes/no” answers to key managerial questions that address clearly specified cause–effect relationships.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is to help advance theory development in servitization by encouraging greater methodological plurality in a field that relies primarily on the qualitative case study methodology.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Shahrokh Nikou, Malin Brännback, Alan L. Carsrud and Candida G. Brush

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior use causal statistical approaches to entrepreneurial intentions. This methodological approach, leads to the conclusion that there is a single pathway for all groups of people to achieve business start-up. Even though theory suggests approaches by women entrepreneurs to start a business may be influenced by different factors from those influencing men, results are inconclusive in these analyses. The authors argue that methodological preferences for linear, causal analytical approaches limit the understanding of gender similarities and differences in the business start-up process. The authors propose that when considering diverse samples, it is unreasonable to assume there is only a single pathway leading to business start-up.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) and data set of 2,038 respondents, the authors investigate factors predicting the intentions to start a business and evaluate the alternative conjunctive paths that emerge.

Findings

The fsQCA results shows that the relationship among conditions leading to entrepreneurial intentions is complex and is best represented as multiple and conjectural causation configurations. In other words, there are multiple significant pathways (refers to equifinality) that predict intentions to start a business start-up, and there are significant differences by gender.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the roll of gender as a sperate condition in the analysis. This paper offers implications for theory and future research and highlights the complexity of this domain.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Hossein G.T. Olya, Zehra Altinay Gazi, Fahriye Altinay Aksal and Mehmet Altinay

This paper aims to examine the causal models that predict disabled tourists’ behavioral intentions to use peer-to-peer (p2p) accommodations. This study also explores the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the causal models that predict disabled tourists’ behavioral intentions to use peer-to-peer (p2p) accommodations. This study also explores the causal models through complex combinations of demographic factors, host attributes and the levels of perceived charm, convenience and other service features of the accommodations as a means of describing disabled tourists’ behavioral outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was administrated to measure the study variables. Using the convenience sampling technique, the questionnaires were distributed among disabled individuals with orthopedic disorders who reside in North Cyprus in May 2016. The five respondents were later interviewed about their needs and expectations from p2p accommodations. A set of preliminary tests (for both reliability and validity) was conducted, and descriptive statistics were used based on the scale items. Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to test the proposed research model, which revealed sufficient and consistent conditions leading to behavioral intentions of disabled tourists in their use of p2p accommodations. The predictive validity of the model was then tested. Finally, the results of the fsQCA were evaluated based on the key tenets of complexity theory.

Findings

The findings reveal under which conditions disabled tourists tend to use p2p accommodations. This empirical study has relied upon the use of causal models integrating combinations of demographic variables and host and accommodation place attributes (i.e. charm, convenience and service features) which were put forth as sufficient predictive configurations of the behavioral outcomes of disabled tourists within the context of a sharing economy. Ultimately, this study finds that p2p customers are not limited to travelers with low income levels.

Research limitations/implications

The views of people with orthopedic problems in North Cyprus were obtained for testing the configurational model, which means that the results do not necessarily represent a large range of customers’ perspectives. Although this limitation was addressed through the application of a powerful compensatory analytical approach (fsQCA), it is advised that data from tourists with various types of disabilities in other countries be collected for future studies.

Practical implications

The results of this study provide practical implications for hosts on how to combine accommodation place characteristics (e.g. charm, convenience and service) with their own personal attributes (e.g. knowledge and eagerness) to bolster the disabled tourists’ intentions to use p2p accommodations. It is hoped that the results of the fsQCA using the demographic variables presented here will guide businesses toward performing target marketing. This is useful for hosts who wish to attract more disabled tourists, a profitable segment of the market.

Social implications

This study draws social attention to the disabled tourists as potential customers in the sharing economy. Conducting an empirical study that considers the social inclusion of tourists with disabilities in the emerging version of hospitality business is helpful to both the supply and demand sides.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first empirical study that investigates the indicators of disabled tourists’ intentions to use p2p accommodations. This study also adds to the current literature by modeling the behavioral intentions of disabled tourists within a sharing economy using a pragmatic and set-theoretic approach (i.e. fsQCA in conjunction with complexity theory).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Anderson Betti Frare, Ana Paula Capuano da Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda and Chris Akroyd

This study aims to understand the relationship between the elements of a startup firms’ management control system (MCS) package, its entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the relationship between the elements of a startup firms’ management control system (MCS) package, its entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected survey data from a sample of 100 Brazilian startups who had exited technology-based parks and incubators. The authors used two data analysis techniques, namely, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Findings

The findings show that cultural and planning controls were the only two MCS elements that were included in all high-performing startup firms’ MCS packages. The authors also found that EO has a positive influence on firm performance through the MCS package.

Research limitations/implications

The mixed-method approach allowed for a holistic view of the analyzed phenomenon. PLS-SEM analysis was applied to the symmetric relationships between the proposed relationships while fsQCA was used to analyze the asymmetric combinations between EO dimensions and MCS package elements, which promoted high firm performance.

Practical implications

The authors show how different combinations of MCS elements form a package, mediating EO, which can enable high performance.

Originality/value

Using fsQCA and PLS-SEM, the authors were able to better understand the important role that MCS package adoption has on a startups’ performance and provide new evidence regarding the interface between MCS and EO. This extends the understanding of the importance that cultural and planning controls have in an MCS package to support startup performance.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Siamak Seyfi, Raouf Ahmad Rather and Colin Michael Hall

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating…

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1043

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating role of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from tourists in the heritage city of Kashan, Iran. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) were applied to analyze the data.

Findings

The results of PLS-SEM showed that three dimensions of MTE as follows: local culture, involvement and knowledge, significantly directly or indirectly influence tourists’ behavioral intention toward a destination. However, the results of fsQCA identified greater heterogeneity among the respondents by highlighting the positive effects of hedonism and novelty on satisfaction and revisit and word-of-mouth intentions.

Originality/value

This study enriches the empirical evidence on MTE by constructing a composite picture of the memorability of tourists’ experiences within a heritage tourism context. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of dimensions of MTE on behavioral intentions using both symmetric (PLS-SEM) and asymmetric approaches to identify the more significant dimensions of MTE, as well as sufficient combinations of dimensions to predict behavioral intentions.

研究目的

本文旨在研究难忘旅游体验 (MTE) 各维度通过满意度这个中介变量来驱动遗产旅游游客行为意图的机制

研究设计/方法论/研究方法

实证数据是从伊朗遗产城市卡尚的游客那里收集的。本研究采用偏最小二乘结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA)对数据进行分析

研究发现

偏最小二乘结构方程模型的研究结果表明,难忘旅游体验(MTE)的三个维度:当地文化、参与度和熟悉程度,显著地直接或间接地影响游客对目的地的行为意向。然而,模糊集定性比较分析的研究结果表明受访者间存在更大的异质性,其结果凸显了享乐主义和新鲜感对满意度、重游意向和口碑(WOM)意向的正效应

独创性/价值

本研究通过构建遗产旅游背景下游客体验难忘性的相互影响机制,丰富了关于难忘旅游体验(MTE)的实证研究证据。本研究是第一个同时使用对称方法(PLS-SEM)和非对称方法(fsQCA)来探究MTE各维度对行为意向的影响的研究之一,通过这种方式可以识别出MTE各维度中更为重要的维度以及维度组合,以此来预测行为意向

Propósito

Este artículo investiga la influencia de las dimensiones de las experiencias turísticas memorables (ETM) en el fomento de las intenciones de comportamiento de los turistas del patrimonio a través del papel mediador de la satisfacción.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se recogieron datos empíricos de turistas en la ciudad patrimonial de Kashan, Irán. Para analizar los datos se aplicaron las técnicas partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) y fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Conclusiones

Los resultados que proporcionó el análisis PLS-SEM mostraron que tres dimensiones de las ETM: cultura local, implicación y conocimiento, influyen significativamente, de forma directa o indirecta, en la intención de comportamiento de los turistas hacia un destino. Sin embargo, los resultados del enfoque fsQCA identificaron una mayor heterogeneidad entre los encuestados al destacar los efectos positivos del hedonismo y la novedad sobre la satisfacción y las intenciones tanto de volver a visitar el destino como de realizar una comunicación de boca a boca (WOM).

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio enriquece la evidencia empírica sobre las ETM al construir una imagen combinada del carácter memorable de las experiencias de los turistas dentro de un contexto de turismo patrimonial. Este estudio es uno de los primeros en investigar los efectos de las dimensiones las ETM en las intenciones de comportamiento utilizando enfoques simétricos (PLS-SEM) y asimétricos para identificar las dimensiones más significativas las ETM, así como para determinar las combinaciones necesarias de dimensiones para predecir las intenciones de comportamiento.

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Umar Farooq Sahibzada, Yan Xu, Gul Afshan and Roshi Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations among knowledge-oriented leadership (KOL), knowledge worker satisfaction (KWS), knowledge worker productivity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations among knowledge-oriented leadership (KOL), knowledge worker satisfaction (KWS), knowledge worker productivity (KWP) and organizational performance (OP). The study hypothesizes that the explicit mixtures, i.e. KOL, KWS and KWP can improve OP.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample was composed of 248 academicians and management staff of higher educational institutes (HEIs). The relations were tested through Smart PLS 3.2.9. The fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method was also used for examining configurational paths.

Findings

The study found a substantial direct influence of KOL on OP. The findings revealed that KOL significantly affects KWS, and KWS enhances KWP, which ultimately improves the OP of HEIs. Grounded on the fsQCA, the outcomes exposed configurational trails to the enhanced OP.

Originality/value

There is scarce of studies that determine the connection of KOL, KWS, KWP and OP. This is one of the preliminary studies that examine the association of KOL, KWS, KWP and OP in HEIs. From a procedural viewpoint, the research subsidizes by merging symmetric and asymmetric tools to further understand structural issues. The use of fsQCA discloses numerous paths to improve OP and renders asymmetric relations. fsQCA also aids to comprehend the relations that might not be directly understandable via symmetric means.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Fang-Yi Lo, Wing-Keung Wong and Jessica Geovani

The authors aim to obtain the optimal combinations of factors from institutional environment adaptation mechanisms and internal resources or capabilities that influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to obtain the optimal combinations of factors from institutional environment adaptation mechanisms and internal resources or capabilities that influence the sustainability of a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a new index, called the sustainability index, based on the stakeholder perspective by employing a corporate credit risk index, an evaluation of a firm's corporate governance, corporate financial performance and firm age. The authors then apply both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression Analysis and Fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FsQCA) to obtain the optimal models for firms' sustainability.

Findings

The OLS analysis shows that the variables including financial leverage, slack, innovation capability, manufacturing capability and human capital that have significant influences on the sustainability of firms. Our FsQCA analysis obtains configurations of several solutions for firm sustainability and concludes that the fit of combinations of institutional factors and/or internal resources and capabilities of a firm is related to its sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations in our new index include these: first, one may add more key metrics to measure the index; second, the findings do not provide any necessary nor a sufficient condition to get sustainability for sure. The limitations of using multiple regression analysis are that it is not able to reveal the combinations of causal conditions that can lead to the outcome in the real world as well as to the sustainability of a firm in our study. To overcome the limitations, the authors apply fsQCA analysis to identify combinations of causal conditions to a firm's sustainability in our study.

Practical implications

Introducing the sustainability index enables us to find out all factors influencing the sustainability of a firm. The authors’ analysis can be used to identify combinations of causal conditions to lead to outcomes in the real world. Their analysis enables managers to know how to predict the sustainability of the firm. For example, the authors’ fsQCA analysis shows that low marketing capability will lead to the high sustainability of the firm. This information helps managers to make the decision or plan to achieve good results toward their businesses and get better allocate their resources and get a better investment.

Social implications

The authors’ analysis can be used to identify combinations of causal conditions to lead to outcomes in the real world and enable managers to know how to predict the sustainability of the firm. A correct prediction can assist companies in developing their future operations, which would enhance their competitiveness vis-à-vis rivals during this time of global economic volatility, which, in turn, enables firms to perform better and employ more employees that could help the entire society.

Originality/value

The sustainability index the authors developed in our paper is new in the literature and the findings obtained by both OLS Regression Analysis and FsQCA are new in predicting a firm's sustainability. The authors’ findings are useful for academics, managers and policymakers in predicting and maintaining a firm's sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2020

Hossein Olya, Timothy Hyungsoo Jung, Mandy Claudia Tom Dieck and Kisang Ryu

This paper aims to explore a complex combination of four realms of the experience economy in formulating memories and satisfaction among festival visitors by using…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore a complex combination of four realms of the experience economy in formulating memories and satisfaction among festival visitors by using augmented reality (AR), thus engaging visitors in the physical science experience. This study also identifies necessary conditions to achieve desired responses from visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

Asymmetrical modelling with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to investigate causal recipes of two configurations of the experience economy and evaluation of experience leading to both high and low scores from visitor engagement. Necessary condition analysis was applied to examine necessary predictors in visitor engagement. The proposed configuration model was tested by using data obtained from visitors to science festivals in the UK.

Findings

Five causal recipes explained the complex conditions in which visitors were more likely engaged in AR. Aesthetics, education, entertainment and satisfaction were necessary for high engagement among festival visitors.

Research limitations/implications

The results from fsQCA and analyses of necessary conditions help festival organizers improve visitor satisfaction and engagement in a memorable AR experience.

Originality/value

This empirical study deepens current festival understanding of how visitors experience AR by exploring combinations of complex configurations of the experience economy and evaluations of visitor experience based on memories and satisfaction. Unlike symmetrical approaches, asymmetrical modelling by using fsQCA can explore recipes for both high and low scores of visitor satisfaction and engagement. This is the first empirical study investigating necessary predictors of festival visitor behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Ilias Vlachos

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the necessary and sufficient antecedents of customer loyalty to logistics service providers (LSPs). Despite the abundance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically study the necessary and sufficient antecedents of customer loyalty to logistics service providers (LSPs). Despite the abundance of loyalty studies, few studies have empirically examined the complex causal relationships between loyalty and its antecedents using the appropriate research methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses fuzzy sets qualitative comparison analysis (FsQCA) to uncover the antecedents and antecedent configurations of customer loyalty. This study examined the necessity and sufficiency of five antecedents (operational collaboration, strategic collaboration, trust, service satisfaction and price satisfaction) and on five dimensions of loyalty (repurchase intension, switching costs, exclusiveness, referrals and overall loyalty). This study developed six research hypotheses based on existing literature and tested them empirically in a manufacturing context. This study compared results from FsQCA with regression analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that only a few antecedent configurations lead to customer loyalty, including a combination of strategic and operational collaboration, bundling of service offerings and combining competitive price with strategic collaboration. Further, the absence of trust negatively affects loyalty, but the presence of trust does not lead to loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to business to business literature by demonstrating how to use FsQCA analysis to test the presence of equifinality, conjunction and causal asymmetry of complex relationships. This study applies FsQCA between antecedent factors and customer loyalty. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to compare and integrate FsQCA with conventional regression analysis which is based on correlation-bounded logic.

Practical implications

This study shows that no single antecedents that can generate loyalty, yet, few antecedent configurations work better than others: collaborating at both strategic and operational level with your partner has the highest impact on loyalty. Another configuration that leads to loyalty is to combine competitive prices with strategic collaboration, which particularly stimulates repurchase decisions. Price is are not sufficient enough to lead to customer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study applied a novel analysis to uncover necessary and sufficient conditions that conventional methods such as regression analysis and structural equation modelling have limited power.

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