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Richard Marciano, Victoria Lemieux, Mark Hedges, Maria Esteva, William Underwood, Michael Kurtz and Mark Conrad

Purpose – For decades, archivists have been appraising, preserving, and providing access to digital records by using archival theories and methods developed for paper…

Abstract

Purpose – For decades, archivists have been appraising, preserving, and providing access to digital records by using archival theories and methods developed for paper records. However, production and consumption of digital records are informed by social and industrial trends and by computer and data methods that show little or no connection to archival methods. The purpose of this chapter is to reexamine the theories and methods that dominate records practices. The authors believe that this situation calls for a formal articulation of a new transdiscipline, which they call computational archival science (CAS).

Design/Methodology/Approach – After making a case for CAS, the authors present motivating case studies: (1) evolutionary prototyping and computational linguistics; (2) graph analytics, digital humanities, and archival representation; (3) computational finding aids; (4) digital curation; (5) public engagement with (archival) content; (6) authenticity; (7) confluences between archival theory and computational methods: cyberinfrastructure and the records continuum; and (8) spatial and temporal analytics.

Findings – Each case study includes suggestions for incorporating CAS into Master of Library Science (MLS) education in order to better address the needs of today’s MLS graduates looking to employ “traditional” archival principles in conjunction with computational methods. A CAS agenda will require transdisciplinary iSchools and extensive hands-on experience working with cyberinfrastructure to implement archival functions.

Originality/Value – We expect that archival practice will benefit from the development of new tools and techniques that support records and archives professionals in managing and preserving records at scale and that, conversely, computational science will benefit from the consideration and application of archival principles.

Details

Re-envisioning the MLS: Perspectives on the Future of Library and Information Science Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-884-8

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Article

Yaolin Zhou, Jingqiong Sun and Jiming Hu

The purpose of this paper is to identify the leading topics and developmental trends of archival information resource research in China by visualizing the intellectual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the leading topics and developmental trends of archival information resource research in China by visualizing the intellectual structure and evolution patterns of archival information resource research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study took China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) as the data source and extracted keywords from relevant articles in archival information resource research as the sample. First, the frequency and co-occurrence of keywords were calculated by using SCI2. Second, this study analyzed the co-word network indicators by using Pajek. Then, topic community detection was conducted by using a VOS viewer, as well as the visualization of intellectual structures. Next, this study developed a graphical mapping of the evolution of research topics over time by using Cortext.

Findings

The research topics of archival information resources in China were unbalanced but distinct. Researchers focus on the construction and utilization of archival information resource, which consist of five evident research directions. The phenomena of fusion and differentiation coexist in research topic evolution. There were both continuities of traditional research and innovations in emerging research. The archival information resource research tended to be systematized and extended, reflecting the vertical and horizontal extension of the research content.

Originality/value

Based on a large number of previous studies, this study adopted quantitative methods to reveal the intellectual structure and evolution patterns of archival information resource research in China, providing guidance for researchers and institutions to grasp research status and developmental trends.

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Article

Kim Abildgren

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that…

Abstract

Purpose

The Spanish Flu 1918–1920 saw a high degree of excess mortality among young and healthy adults. The purpose of this paper is a further exploration of the hypothesis that high mortality risk during The Spanish Flu in Copenhagen was associated with early life exposure to The Russian Flu 1889–1892.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 37,000 individual-level death records in a new unique database from The Copenhagen City Archives combined with approximate cohort-specific population totals interpolated from official censuses of population, the author compiles monthly time series on all-cause mortality rates 1916–1922 in Copenhagen by gender and one-year birth cohorts. The author then analyses birth cohort effects on mortality risk during The Spanish Flu using regression analysis.

Findings

The author finds support for hypotheses relating early life exposure to The Russian Flu to mortality risk during The Spanish Flu. Some indications of possible gender heterogeneity during the first wave of The Spanish Flu – not found in previous studies – should be a topic for future research based on data from other countries.

Originality/value

Due to lack of individual-level death records with exact dates of birth and death, previous studies on The Spanish Flu in Denmark and many other countries have relied on data with lower birth cohort resolutions than the one-year birth cohorts used in this study. The analysis in this paper illustrates how archival Big Data can be used to gain new insights in studies on historical pandemics.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article

Valerie Johnson, Sonia Ranade and David Thomas

This paper aims to focus on a highly significant yet under-recognised concern: the huge growth in the volume of digital archival information and the implications of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on a highly significant yet under-recognised concern: the huge growth in the volume of digital archival information and the implications of this shift for information professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Though data loss and format obsolescence are often considered to be the major threats to digital records, the problem of scale remains under-acknowledged. This paper discusses this issue, and the challenges it brings using a case study of a set of Second World War service records.

Findings

TNA’s research has shown that it is possible to digitise large volumes of records to replace paper originals using rigorous procedures. Consequent benefits included being able to link across large data sets so that further records could be released.

Practical implications

The authors will discuss whether the technical capability, plus space and cost savings will result in increased pressure to retain, and what this means in creating a feedback-loop of volume.

Social implications

The work also has implications in terms of new definitions of the “original” archival record. There has been much debate on challenges to the definition of the archival record in the shift from paper to born-digital. The authors will discuss where this leaves the digitised “original” record.

Originality/value

Large volumes of digitised and born-digital records are starting to arrive in records and archive stores, and the implications for retention are far wider than simply digital preservation. By sharing novel research into the practical implications of large-scale data retention, this paper showcases potential issues and some approaches to their management.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

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Article

Mauro Romanelli

The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual framework to explain how museums sustain intellectual capital and promote value co-creation moving from designing virtual…

Abstract

Purposes

The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual framework to explain how museums sustain intellectual capital and promote value co-creation moving from designing virtual environments to introducing and managing Big Data.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on archival and qualitative data considering the literature related to the introduction of virtual environments and Big Data within museums.

Findings

Museums contribute to sustaining intellectual capital and in promoting value co-creation developing a Big Data-driven strategy and innovation.

Practical implications

By introducing and managing Big Data, museums contribute to creating a community by improving knowledge within cultural ecosystems while strengthening the users as active participants and the museum’s professionals as user-centred mediators.

Originality/value

As audience-driven and knowledge-oriented organisations moving from designing virtual environments to following a Big data-driven strategy, museums should select organisational and strategic choices for driving change.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

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Book part

Victoria Chiu, Qi Liu and Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

The advances and continuous development of technology have been identified as significant influences on the accounting profession (AICPA, 1998). In the last twenty years…

Abstract

The advances and continuous development of technology have been identified as significant influences on the accounting profession (AICPA, 1998). In the last twenty years, both academia and the accounting profession have been giving much attention to the demand and opportunity for audits to be performed automatically, continuously and in nearly real time. This paper presents a comprehensive review of continuous auditing research by providing an overview of the emergence and growth of the continuous auditing literature and classifying the extant continuous auditing research on the basis of four research characteristics indicated by a newly developed research taxonomy.

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Article

Ciaran B. Trace and Yan Zhang

The purpose of this article is to examine the ways in which self-tracking data have meaning and value in and after the life of the creator, including how such data could…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the ways in which self-tracking data have meaning and value in and after the life of the creator, including how such data could become part of the larger historical record, curated in an institutional archive. In doing so, the article expands upon existing shared interests among researchers working in the areas of self-tracking, human–computer interaction and archival science.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 18 people who had self-tracked for six months or more were recruited for the study. Participants completed a survey which gathered demographic data and characteristics vis-à-vis their self-tracking behavior. In-person semi-structured interviews were then conducted to ascertain the beliefs of the participants regarding the long-term use and value of personal quantified-self data.

Findings

The findings reveal the value that people place on self-tracking data, their thoughts on proper modes for accessing their archive once it moves from the private to the public space, and how to provide fidelity within the system such that their experiences are represented while also enabling meaning making on the part of subsequent users of the archive.

Originality/value

Today’s quantified-self data are generally embedded in systems that create a pipeline from the individual source to that of the corporate warehouse, bent on absorbing and extracting insight from a totality of big data. This article posits that new opportunities for knowing and for design can be revealed when a public interest rationale is appended to rich personalized collections of small data.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Roshni Das, Kamal K. Jain and Sushanta K. Mishra

Archival research is a much under-rated and under-utilized method of research in management studies. Yet multi-disciplinary undertakings being observed in recent times…

Abstract

Purpose

Archival research is a much under-rated and under-utilized method of research in management studies. Yet multi-disciplinary undertakings being observed in recent times, such as in knowledge management (KM) systems, business history and social network studies, among others, indicate that there is a lot of potential to be explored. The purpose of this paper is to highlight this point and make a case for its inclusion in the researcher’s toolkit in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors follow a two-stage method here: the first stage being an improvised process to benchmark articles for this review; while the second stage involves content analysis and synthesis of the same.

Findings

The authors have dealt with the intricacies of the archival research methodology by minutely examining the fieldwork steps, proxies generation, other related processes of triangulation, etc. With the discussion on “multi-disciplinary undertakings,” the authors offer not only a selective bibliography of works that have effectively harvested this family of methods, but also critique the nuances involved. Finally, coming into more contemporary concerns and developments, the authors undertake an in-depth look at technological applications in the domain of KM, in case study mode. Methodological richness leads to substantive granularity. As such, the authors argue that archival methods contribute to the robustness, contextuality and holism of any research endeavor, more so in the study of business and organizations.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based on the literature review.

Practical implications

This paper makes a case for archival method’s contribution toward the robustness, contextuality and holism of any research endeavor, more so in the study of business and organizations.

Originality/value

This paper re-positions the method of archival research as a viable and sophisticated tool for researchers to employ effectively in singular or mixed method studies.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article

Victoria Louise Lemieux, Brianna Gormly and Lyse Rowledge

This paper aims to explore the role of records management in supporting the effective use of information visualisation and visual analytics (VA) to meet the challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of records management in supporting the effective use of information visualisation and visual analytics (VA) to meet the challenges associated with the analysis of Big Data.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory research entailed conducting and analysing interviews with a convenience sample of visual analysts and VA tool developers, affiliated with a major VA institute, to gain a deeper understanding of data-related issues that constrain or prevent effective visual analysis of large data sets or the use of VA tools, and analysing key emergent themes related to data challenges to map them to records management controls that may be used to address them.

Findings

The authors identify key data-related issues that constrain or prevent effective visual analysis of large data sets or the use of VA tools, and identify records management controls that may be used to address these data-related issues.

Originality/value

This paper discusses a relatively new field, VA, which has emerged in response to meeting the challenge of analysing big, open data. It contributes a small exploratory research study aimed at helping records professionals understand the data challenges faced by visual analysts and, by extension, data scientists for the analysis of large and heterogeneous data sets. It further aims to help records professionals identify how records management controls may be used to address data issues in the context of VA.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

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