The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on how success and failure for international assignments have been defined, and integrate several proposals for these…
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on how success and failure for international assignments have been defined, and integrate several proposals for these definitions into a multi-dimensional model that considers task performance, relationship building, contextual performance and retention as all being part of how success or failure should be defined. The authors also discuss two proposed pre-requisites for success – absorptive capacity (operationalized at both the individual and the unit levels) and adjustment. The authors conclude by bringing in literature on performance management and how ideas about performance management must also be integrated into the discussion of the success or failure of international assignments.
This paper reviews existing proposals regarding the definition of expatriate success and failure, and proposes a multidimensional model of success based on the past literature. Based on this literature the authors also propose two pre-requisites for success and discuss several requisite KSAOs, as well as some suggestions from the literature on performance management.
The authors argue for a multidimensional model of expatiate success which includes task performance, relationship building, contextual performance and retention as part of what constitutes a successful assignment. The authors also argue that absorptive capacity and adjustment should be considered as pre-requisites for success, and that principles from performance management should be applied to dealing with international assignments.
A more comprehensive definition of success and failure should aid research by providing a better dependent variable, and by leading to research on various aspects of this outcome.
The proposed model and approach can hopefully help practice by clarifying the different dimensions of success and how performance management techniques can be applied to dealing with international assignments.
There has been a lot written about how we should operationalize the success or failure of international assignments. The present paper reviews that literature and integrates a number of ideas and suggestions into a multi-dimensional model which includes information about pre-requisites for success and relevant KSAOs, along with ideas from performance management to help insure the success of these assignments.
Although several authors have suggested that host country nationals (HCNs) play an important role in the management of expatriates (e.g. Toh and DeNisi, 2003; Farh et al.…
Although several authors have suggested that host country nationals (HCNs) play an important role in the management of expatriates (e.g. Toh and DeNisi, 2003; Farh et al., 2010), research has also suggested that this relationship is not always good, and the flow of critical information to expatriates can be limited. This is especially true when HCNs categorize the expatriates as “out-group” members. The purpose of this paper is to examine potential determinants of categorization decisions as well as potential outcomes related to expatriate socialization.
The paper employs a dyadic survey approach to determine the antecedents to expatriate categorization and HCN socialization behaviors from the perspective of both the expatriate and HCN.
The results of survey data from 65 expatriate-HCN dyads indicated that expatriate ethnocentrism and the salience of the expatriates’ nationality were important predictors of categorization, but that categorization was related to only one dimension of socialization. However, affect was found to play a role in predicting socialization behaviors.
There is potential selection bias since expatriates chose HCNs as respondents, but results suggested this was not a serious problem. Other limitations include a relatively small sample size and the fact that a number of contextual issues such as national stereotypes and MNC strategy, are not controlled for.
Implications of these findings for the successful management of expatriate assignments include sending over expatriates with the right relational skills, and those low in ethnocentrism, rather than just the right technical skills.
The present study was one of the first to empirically test the potential role of categorization in the process of socialization.
This paper proposes a methodology for governing expatriate assignments in the context of corporate‐level objectives.
The approach taken is to envisage expatriate managerial assignments within the theoretical framework of agency theory and the knowledge‐based view of the firm. The paper begins with the view that knowledge acquisition and integration is a primary goal for most expatriate assignments. The relationship between expatriate managers and multinational corporation (MNC) headquarters from an agency perspective are considered and the notion of a “knowledge contract” as a means of governing that relationship is discussed. Four corporate‐level international strategies available to MNCs (global, international, transnational, and multidomestic) are then examined and the extent of agency problems under each strategy is discussed.
The paper makes specific predictions about the type of knowledge contract that is most likely to address agency problems for each corporate strategy.
This research extends agency theory by introducing the knowledge contract as a means of managing agency concerns. This offers a broader range of contract alternatives, moving researchers beyond traditional agency theoretic prescriptions. The research also contributes to the literature on expatriate management by integrating assignment success with research on corporate‐level international strategy. Few authors have recognized organizational strategy as an important unit of study in international human resource management. Doing so, however, has yielded a unique set of contingency relationships that would otherwise be obscured.
Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time (Cahier 25), the consequences on employees of such a reduction can be assessed; and relevant attitudes and aspirations better known.
Considers the success of the Leader‐Member exchange (LMX) model tested over various populations. States that it has not been tested in the selection of employees for…
Considers the success of the Leader‐Member exchange (LMX) model tested over various populations. States that it has not been tested in the selection of employees for international assignments. Attempts to use this model to explain why females may not be selected or offered these roles. Concludes that initial results suggest that LMX quality may play a major role in international assignment selection and provides some implications for future research.
The purpose of this paper is to begin the integration of two separate but clearly related streams of research. Feedback and feedback-seeking have been separate areas of…
The purpose of this paper is to begin the integration of two separate but clearly related streams of research. Feedback and feedback-seeking have been separate areas of research for decades. In this paper, the authors argue that full understanding of feedback and its effects will not be possible unless these two literatures are integrated. Instead of just focusing on what would motivate people to seek feedback, how often and from whom, the authors argue that closer examination of how feedback-seeking affects feedback outcomes is warranted. Future directions for this research are discussed, including several research proposals.
After a brief review of the feedback and feedback-seeking literatures, the authors use theory on cognition and judgment to argue that feedback that is sought may differ in content from feedback that is unsought. Additionally, employees who seek out feedback may react differently to feedback than those who receive feedback without seeking it out. As recipient reactions are critical in how (or whether) feedback affects performance, the full context of the feedback process must be considered, including the impetus for feedback.
These two streams of literature have been existing independent of each other for some years. Yet, is should be clear that not only why or how one seeks feedback but how one reacts to that feedback should be examined. Furthermore, whether people deal with sought feedback differently than with feedback that is not sought needs to be studied.
Existe una larga tradición que trata los efectos del feedback en los resultados, pero, tradicionalmente, esta investigación se ha centrado en el feedback que se da sin que este sea buscado. Más recientemente se ha desarrollado una literatura sobre el feedback buscado. Estas dos corrientes de la literatura se han desarrollado de manera casi independiente, aunque en última instancia ambas estén interesadas en como el feedback afecta al comportamiento. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar brevemente estas dos literaturas y después tratar de integrarlas en una visión más coherente del proceso de feedback. La revisión se traduce en una serie de preguntas de investigación relativas a las similitudes y diferencias entre ambos tipos de feedback. Esperamos que ello genere investigación que reconozca la necesidad de considerar ambos tipos de feedback.
Los autores revisan la literatura en las dos áreas de la investigación en feedback y sugieren una serie de preguntas de investigación sobre los efectos diferenciales de cada tipo de feedback.
Los autores utilizan la investigación en procesos cognitivos para sugerir como el feeback que se busca puede generar reacciones diferentes a cuando el feedback es dado, y como esto puede afectar a la efectividad de las dos formas de feedback.
El artículo representa la mayor integración de las dos literaturas sobre feedback. Como resultado, el artículo presenta implicaciones importantes sobre cómo debe administrarse el feedback para mejorar el desempeño organizativo.
Feedback, Busqueda de feedback, Gestión del rendimiento, Procesamiento de la información
Tipo de artículo
Existe uma ampla tradição na investigação que trata dos efeitos do feedback nos resultados, mas tradicionalmente esta investigação se concentrou no feedback que acontece sem que este seja procurado. Mais recentemente se desenvolveu uma literatura sobre o feedback procurado. Estas duas correntes da literatura se desenvolveram de forma quase independente, embora na última instancia ambas estejam interessadas em como o feedback afeta al comportamento. O objetivo de este artigo é revisar brevemente estas duas literaturas e posteriormente tratar de integrar ambas numa visão mais coerente do processo de feedback. A revisão se traduz numa serie de perguntas de investigação relativas as semelhanças e diferenças entre ambos tipos de feedback. Esperamos que isso gere investigação que reconheça a necessidade de considerar ambos tipos de feedback.
Os autores revisam a literatura nas duas áreas da investigação no feedback e sugerem una serie de preguntas de investigação sobre os efeitos diferenciais de cada tipo de feedback.
Os autores utilizam a investigação em processos cognitivos para sugerir como o feedback que se procura pode gerar reações diferentes a quando o feedback acontece, e como isso pode afetar a efetividade das duas formas de feedback.
O artigo representa a maior integração das duas literaturas sobre o feedback. Como resultado, o artigo apresenta implicações importantes sobre como se deve administrar o feedback para melhorar o desempenho organizativo.
Feedback, Procura de feedback, Gestão do rendimento, Processamento da informação
Tipo de artigo
The aim of this article is to investigate how managers see, interpret and make sense of their performance management system experiences and recommend the way forward for…
The aim of this article is to investigate how managers see, interpret and make sense of their performance management system experiences and recommend the way forward for both policy and practice, in what makes effective appraisal systems.
The study applied the repertory grid to elicit the personal constructs of how managers make sense of their appraisal experiences. The cognitive mapping methodology allows the researcher to go deep into the respondents' “theories in use” to provide new insights on how they “think”. This, in turn, allows a better understanding of the language managers use to make sense of the experiences.
Core conceptual dimensions, cognitive maps and cluster diagrams were generated, providing implications for research, practice and new directions for future research.
Although the application of the grid technique was time‐consuming, the finer grain level of analysis provided a deeper appreciation of managers' “theories in use”. The study provides a cross‐sectional view of the current state of managerial cognitions. Findings open up new ways of thinking and new way of doing in appraisal research and practice.
The findings provided very meaningful insights on what managers look for in appraisal system effectiveness, along with the documentation of how they make connections between their own elicited personal constructs on system effectiveness.
The paper makes a modest contribution to both theory and practice from the perspective of managerial cognitions about the entire appraisal systems using a method originating from clinical psychology.