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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2014

Katrin Held and Nicola Berg

In developed markets, emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) seem to be more discriminated by host country nationals than foreign developed market multinational…

Abstract

Purpose

In developed markets, emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) seem to be more discriminated by host country nationals than foreign developed market multinational enterprises (DMNEs). They are challenged with host country nationals’ prejudices and face a stigma of being from emerging markets. While literature agrees that EMNEs suffer from additional disadvantages due to their country-of-origin, research fails to identify those factors that may lead to a higher discrimination against EMNEs than against foreign DMNEs.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on institutional theory, we look at institutional-related and resource-related antecedents that have an impact on various forms of direct and indirect discrimination by host country nationals.

Originality/value

Our framework analyzes the crucial differences between host country nationals’ perception of EMNEs and foreign DMNEs and the resulting challenges for EMNEs in the developed world. It enhances our understanding of the importance of institutional environments in explaining differences in host country nationals’ discrimination against foreign MNEs.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2022

Ahmad Heidari

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal system that overrules these concerns within the body of the international investment laws. The question which remains is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal system that overrules these concerns within the body of the international investment laws. The question which remains is how can host countries and their ruling bodies maintain their national security without disregarding the legitimate expectations of foreign investments and their international responsibilities?

Design/methodology/approach

Balancing the relationship between the national security of the host country and the legitimate expectations of the foreign investments is one of the oldest challenges within the body of the international investment laws because the realization of the right to maintain the national security, without regulating the host countries, leaves room for corruption, and meeting the legitimate expectations of the foreign investments can lead to the disruption of the national sovereignty of the host country.

Findings

Studies show that the international investment laws do not take a clear stance when it comes to regulating the relationship between the national security of the host countries and the legitimate expectations of the foreign investments and that they are, in fact, in some cases, paradoxical and disorganized; there are instances of attempts to overprotect the national security of the host country, while the rights and the benefits of the foreign investments are disregarded,

Originality/value

At times there is an attempt to expand the realm of legitimate expectations of the foreign investments which would, in turn, disrupt the national security of the host country.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Laura Guerrero and Luciana Turchick Hakak

A dark side of global mobility is that many immigrants have negative work outcomes. Studies have analyzed the antecedents to poor work outcomes from the immigrants’ point…

Abstract

Purpose

A dark side of global mobility is that many immigrants have negative work outcomes. Studies have analyzed the antecedents to poor work outcomes from the immigrants’ point of view or from that of host country nationals. The purpose of this paper is to propose a relational model, which applies terror management theory to address how the economic mobility beliefs of immigrants and host country nationals interact and how these different combinations of beliefs affect the self-esteem of immigrants.

Design/methodology/approach

This theoretical model considers the impact of the social interactions between immigrants and host country nationals when immigrants’ mortality is salient.

Findings

In hostile environments that make immigrants’ mortality salient, lack of confirmation of immigrants’ beliefs about economic mobility from host country nationals can lead to a decrease in immigrants’ self-esteem and therefore to negative work outcomes.

Practical implications

As the number of immigrants grows, so do concerns about their ability to contribute to the economy. Lack of confirmation of their beliefs in a context in which their mortality is salient, is likely to lead to lower self-esteem and perhaps other negative outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper is the first, to the authors’ knowledge, to use terror management theory to advance our understanding of the outcome of a lack of confirmation from host country nationals of immigrants’ beliefs on economic mobility under conditions of mortality salience.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Ling Eleanor Zhang, Jakob Lauring and Ting Liu

This paper aims to explore the interplay between burnout, national identity and career satisfaction among diplomats. In particular, the authors focus on the roles of home…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the interplay between burnout, national identity and career satisfaction among diplomats. In particular, the authors focus on the roles of home and host country identification as an emotional resource for overcoming the negative effects of job-related burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses from 123 diplomats were used to assess the moderating role of home and host country identification on the relationship between burnout and career satisfaction.

Findings

Various combinations of high or low home or host country identification were tested, and the findings suggest that the negative effect of burnout on career satisfaction is reduced for those individuals that have high identification with both the home and the host country, while this is not the case for other combinations. This points to the beneficial effects of dual national identifications even for diplomats – a group that would normally be expected to identify strongly with the home country alone.

Originality/value

No existing study that the authors know of has explored the relationship between burnout, national identity and career satisfaction among diplomats or other types of expatriates. This is unfortunate because a better understanding of national identity could guide practitioners in finding ways to reduce the negative consequences of burnout in international organizations.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Paula Caligiuri, Nataliya Baytalskaya and Mila B Lazarova

For decades, expatriate scholars have understood that the individual factors of cultural humility and ethnocentrism and the contextual factors of feedback and support…

1392

Abstract

Purpose

For decades, expatriate scholars have understood that the individual factors of cultural humility and ethnocentrism and the contextual factors of feedback and support affect expatriates’ outcomes. The study, rooted in the observation that great advice and support are often ignored by expatriates, seeks to uncover why. Based in the humility literature, the authors test whether individual differences interact with support to affect expatriate performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed a matched sample of 62 expatriates and their supervisors from one multinational organization.

Findings

The study found that expatriates higher in cultural humility benefit more from the support and feedback offered in the host national work environment which, in turn, facilitates better supervisor ratings of performance. The authors also found that expatriates’ ethnocentrism has a direct negative influence on their ratings of performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings in the study are focussed and robust, but tested within a single organization. That said, the authors believe the results have implications for expatriate selection and for ways to manage the host national environment to improve expatriate performance.

Originality/value

The study joins the research conversation on how expatriates’ individual differences interact with the environments in which they are placed to affect their success. This study also underscores the importance of humility in the global professional context.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Okharedia Goodheart Akhimien and Simon Ayo Adekunle

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cultural distance and psychological adjustment of expatriates in Nigeria and perceived social supports…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cultural distance and psychological adjustment of expatriates in Nigeria and perceived social supports moderating the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a cross-sectional survey research design. Data were collected through 236 validly filled questionnaires by expatriates working in different industries in Nigeria. The research variables were measured using appropriate validated scales developed by different experts. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to establish the relationships among the variables.

Findings

The study found that the distance between expatriates’ home and Nigeria on each of the dimensions of cultural values: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance cultural value, long-term orientation and indulgence negatively influence the psychological adjustment of the expatriates in Nigeria. The study demonstrated that the larger the distance between expatriates’ home and Nigeria's cultural values, the larger the difficulties in the psychological adjustment of expatriates in the country.

Practical implications

This study provides useful insights and a better understanding to both present and future global human resource practitioners, multinational organizations, international institutions and local organizations operating in Nigeria with a global mindset on the cultural profiles of expatriates that are critical to adjust to working, social interactions and living environments in Nigeria.

Originality/value

It provides practical guidance to global human resource practitioners and employers on dimensions of cultural values distance between Nigeria and the home countries of expatriates that should be considered when deciding on, searching for, selecting, recruiting and relocating expatriates to work and live in Nigeria.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Lore Van Gorp, Smaranda Boroş, Piet Bracke and Peter A.J. Stevens

The purpose of this paper is to examine how repatriates’ emotional support network affects their experience of re-entry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how repatriates’ emotional support network affects their experience of re-entry.

Design/methodology/approach

This inductive, qualitative study is based on 27 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Belgian organizational repatriates.

Findings

The analyses suggest that expatriation empathy is a key attribute of organizational repatriates’ main emotional support providers. In addition, the results show that although partners are a main source of emotional support on re-entry, they are also important potential causes of distress. Lastly, the results suggest that the cultural diversity of a repatriate’s emotional support network is linked with characteristics of the assignment and that it affects the experience of repatriation.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide empirical evidence that the expatriation empathy of repatriates’ support providers is a more informative characteristic to consider compared with whether they have personal experience of expatriation. In addition, the results suggest that research should also take into account the negative side of social support, and, for example, consider the influence of crossover distress of partners who experience relocation difficulties themselves.

Practical implications

This study points to the possible benefits of organizing social activities or training for repatriates and their partner and any children, as well as the advantages of encouraging expatriates to invite home-country friends to visit.

Originality/value

Although most scholars agree on the importance of support for expatriates’ well-being, the sources of relevant emotional support have received little research attention so far, as has how this influences the repatriation experience.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Hyoung Koo Moon, Byoung Kwon Choi and Jae Shik Jung

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the antecedents of expatriates' cultural intelligence (CQ) by simultaneously considering previous working…

1297

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the antecedents of expatriates' cultural intelligence (CQ) by simultaneously considering previous working experiences in one's home country prior to expatriation, the number of co‐expatriates from their home country and local employees from the host country, perception of promotion opportunities, and self‐monitoring. In addition, the paper aims to examine the moderating effects of expatriates' portion of interaction with local employee and knowledge on length of expatriation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 165 Korean expatriates using self‐reported survey. Hypotheses were tested using multiple hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

Hypotheses were partially supported. Expatriates' previous working experiences with foreign nationals and in an overseas department in their home country were positively related to CQ. As expected, whereas the number of co‐expatriates from home country was negatively related to CQ, the number of local employees in the host country was positively associated with CQ. Expatriates' perception of a promotion opportunity and self‐monitoring were positively related to CQ. In addition, moderating effects of expatriates' portion of interaction with local employees and knowledge on the length of their foreign assignment were found.

Originality/value

This study contributes to deepen understanding about expatriates' CQ by considering various antecedents, such as previous experiences, human resource practices, and dispositions. The authors' results provide practical implications for multinational companies.

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Shi Li and Shizhong Huang

Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) dominated by Chinese enterprises have become increasingly conspicuous and prevalent in recent years. However, many of them were obstructed…

Abstract

Purpose

Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) dominated by Chinese enterprises have become increasingly conspicuous and prevalent in recent years. However, many of them were obstructed by foreign governments on the ground of “Threating National Security”. Overseas acquisition is a crucial step of Chinese Government’s “Going-Out” strategy, so analyzing the attribution of its success and failure is very important.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts empirical study method to analyze the factors from political and cultural perspectives based on a sample of 327 cross-border M&A transactions made by all listed companies in China from 1997 to 2010.

Findings

The result shows higher failure rate for those acquisition targets which could be classified as political sensitive assets; meanwhile, positive diplomatic relations and higher bilateral trust between China and the host country will facilitate the M&A transaction.

Originality/value

This paper offers a new research angle on cross-border M&As, which is the impact of culture factors, as well as diplomatic relationship, bilateral trust and war history between China and the host country on M&A transactions. This paper also constructs several ways of measuring the diplomatic relationship between countries.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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