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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Ghizlane El bok and Abdelaziz Berrado

Categorizing projects allows for better alignment of a portfolio with the organizational strategy and goals. An appropriate project categorization helps understand…

Abstract

Purpose

Categorizing projects allows for better alignment of a portfolio with the organizational strategy and goals. An appropriate project categorization helps understand portfolio’s structure and enables proper project portfolio selection (PPS). In practice, project categorization is, however, conducted in intuitive approaches. Furthermore, little attention has been given to project categorization methods in the project management literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and practitioners with a data-driven project categorization process designed for PPS.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested process was modeled considering the main characteristics of project categorization systems revealed from the literature. The clustering analysis is used as the core-computing technology, allowing for an empirically based categorization. This study also presents a real-world case study in the automotive industry to illustrate the proposed approach.

Findings

This study confirmed the potential of clustering analysis for a consistent project categorization. The most important attributes that influenced the project grouping have been identified including strategic and intrinsic features. The proposed approach helps increase the visibility of the portfolio’s structure and the comparability of its components.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research regarding project categorization methods, particularly for the purpose of PPS. A novel data-driven process is proposed to help mitigate the issues raised by prior researchers including the inconsistencies, ambiguities and multiple interpretations related to the taken-for-granted categories. The suggested approach is also expected to facilitate projects evaluation and prioritization within appropriate categories and contribute in PPS effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2017

Elizabeth G. Pontikes and Ruben Kim

This article suggests that both producers and analysts are strategic about categorization. Producers use categorization to maintain a balance of differentiation and…

Abstract

This article suggests that both producers and analysts are strategic about categorization. Producers use categorization to maintain a balance of differentiation and legitimacy, whereas analysts seek to influence categorization and clarify boundaries. Ideas are explored for software producers and Gartner, the preeminent high-technology analyst. Findings show evidence of strategic categorization. Producers move to proximate market categories in response to competition. Gartner reports on large categories and those that receive investment and stops reporting on categories that have fuzzy boundaries. Compared to analysts, producers may be more influential in category creation than previous research has acknowledged.

Details

From Categories to Categorization: Studies in Sociology, Organizations and Strategy at the Crossroads
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-238-1

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2017

Rodolphe Durand, Nina Granqvist and Anna Tyllström

The popularity of research into categories has grown in recent decades and shows no sign of abating. This introductory article takes stock of the research into two facets…

Abstract

The popularity of research into categories has grown in recent decades and shows no sign of abating. This introductory article takes stock of the research into two facets of categorization, addressing it both as a cognitive and a social process. We advocate a rebalance toward the social process of categorization, paying more heed to the entity to be categorized, the actors involved, their acts, and the context and timing, which informs these activities. We summarize the contributions to the volume in relation to these dimensions and briefly discuss avenues for future research.

Details

From Categories to Categorization: Studies in Sociology, Organizations and Strategy at the Crossroads
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-238-1

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2003

Joel A.C Baum and Theresa K Lant

Organizations create their environments by constructing interpretations and then acting on them as if they were true. This study examines the cognitive spatial boundaries…

Abstract

Organizations create their environments by constructing interpretations and then acting on them as if they were true. This study examines the cognitive spatial boundaries that managers of Manhattan hotels impose on their competitive environment. We derive and estimate a model that specifies how the attributes of managers’ own hotels and potential rival hotels influence their categorization of competing and non-competing hotels. We show that similarity in geographic location, price, and size are central to managers’ beliefs about the identity of their competitors, but that the weights they assign to these dimensions when categorizing competitors diverge from their influence on competitive outcomes, and indicate an overemphasis on geographic proximity. Although such categorization is commonly conceived as a rational process based on the assessment of similarities and differences, we suggest that significant distortions can occur in the categorization process and examine empirically how factors including managers’ attribution errors, cognitive limitations, and (in)experience lead them to make type I and type II competitor categorization errors and to frame competitive environments that are incomplete, erroneous, or even superstitious. Our findings suggest that understanding inter-firm competition may require greater attention being given to the cognitive foundations of competition.

Details

Geography and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-034-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Gina L. Miller, Naresh K. Malhotra and Tracey M. King

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1305-9

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Tilottama G. Chowdhury and Feisal Murshed

This paper proposes that categorization flexibility, operationalized as the cognitive capacity that cross-categorizes products in multiple situational categories across…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes that categorization flexibility, operationalized as the cognitive capacity that cross-categorizes products in multiple situational categories across multiple domains, might favorably influence a consumer’s evaluation of unconventional options.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental research design is used to test the theory. An exploratory study first establishes the effect of categorization flexibility in a non-food domain. Study 1 documents the moderating role of decision domain, showing that the effect works only under low- (vs high-) consequence domain. Studies 2A and 2B further refine the notion by showing that individuals can be primed in a relatively higher categorization flexibility frame of mind. Study 3 demonstrates the interactive effect of categorization flexibility and adventure priming in a high-consequence domain. Study 4 integrates the interactive effects of decisions with low- vs high-consequence, adventure priming and categorization flexibility within a single decision domain of high consequence.

Findings

Consumers with higher- (vs lower-) categorization flexibility tend to opt for unconventional choices when the decision domain entails low consequences, whereas such a result does not hold under decision domain of high consequences. The categorization flexibility effects in case of low-consequence decision domain holds true even when consumers are primed to be categorization flexible. Furthermore, with additional adventure priming, consumers show an increased preference for unconventional options even under a decision domain with high consequence.

Research limitations/implications

This study could not examine real purchase behavior as results are based on cross-sectional, behavioral intention data. In addition, it did not examine the underlying reason for presence of cross-domain categorization flexibility index.

Practical implications

The results suggest that stimuli may be tailored to consumers in ways that increase the salience and the perceived attractiveness of unconventional choices. Further, data reinforce the notion of cross-categorical interrelations among different domains, which could be leveraged by marketers.

Originality/value

This study represents the first documentation of the potential ways by which unconventional product choice might be a function of individuals’ categorization flexibility level across different types of decision domains. The findings yield implications that are novel to both categorization and consumer decision-making literature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Magnus Soderlund

The purpose of this study is to examine categorization leakage from employees in service encounters in terms of indications that the customer has been categorized as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine categorization leakage from employees in service encounters in terms of indications that the customer has been categorized as either poor or rich. Given that customers perceive themselves as belonging to one of these two categories, leakage can result in perceptions of the categorization as either correct or incorrect, and the specific purpose is to assess the impact of such outcomes on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Two between-subjects experiments were used to manipulate service employees’ leakage of categorization clues; the participants were subject to leakage comprising clues that they had been categorized as either poor or rich. The participants’ self-perceived membership in the poor and rich categories was used as a measured factor.

Findings

The results indicate that customers are indeed sensitive to how they are categorized in service encounters. More specifically, when categorization in terms of the categories poor and rich was leaked to the customer, being correctly categorized (either as poor or rich) was more satisfying than being incorrectly categorized. In addition, given the valenced charge of these two categories, the results indicate that the category charge per se also influences satisfaction.

Originality/value

The present study adds employee categorization leakage to the existing literature dealing with employee-related factors affecting customer satisfaction in service encounters.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Tilottama Ghosh Chowdhury, Feisal Murshed and Adwait Khare

The purpose of this study is to propose that high categorization flexibility’s positive influence on hedonic or affect-laden choice is attenuated by conservation and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose that high categorization flexibility’s positive influence on hedonic or affect-laden choice is attenuated by conservation and nutrition mind-sets. Further, categorization flexibility can also promote utilitarian or cognitively superior preference and may have a role in steering customers toward healthier dietary choices.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies document that the pro-utilitarian impact of food categorization flexibility can be facilitated by priming conservation mind-set and nutrition mind-sets.

Findings

The results of this study show that conservation and nutrition mind-sets not only mitigate the earlier-demonstrated facilitative influence of food categorization flexibility on hedonic food preference, but also facilitate utilitarian food preference.

Originality/value

The current study provides the first evidence that food categorization flexibility can facilitate both hedonic and utilitarian preferences. The findings contribute to literature streams on categorization flexibility, resource-scarcity and hedonic versus utilitarian consumption. In addition, the findings offer specific prescriptions about encouraging customers to choose utilitarian and relatively more healthful food options, which in turn will improve the general welfare of the society.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Shirley C. Sonesh and Angelo S. DeNisi

Although several authors have suggested that host country nationals (HCNs) play an important role in the management of expatriates (e.g. Toh and DeNisi, 2003; Farh et al.

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Abstract

Purpose

Although several authors have suggested that host country nationals (HCNs) play an important role in the management of expatriates (e.g. Toh and DeNisi, 2003; Farh et al., 2010), research has also suggested that this relationship is not always good, and the flow of critical information to expatriates can be limited. This is especially true when HCNs categorize the expatriates as “out-group” members. The purpose of this paper is to examine potential determinants of categorization decisions as well as potential outcomes related to expatriate socialization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a dyadic survey approach to determine the antecedents to expatriate categorization and HCN socialization behaviors from the perspective of both the expatriate and HCN.

Findings

The results of survey data from 65 expatriate-HCN dyads indicated that expatriate ethnocentrism and the salience of the expatriates’ nationality were important predictors of categorization, but that categorization was related to only one dimension of socialization. However, affect was found to play a role in predicting socialization behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

There is potential selection bias since expatriates chose HCNs as respondents, but results suggested this was not a serious problem. Other limitations include a relatively small sample size and the fact that a number of contextual issues such as national stereotypes and MNC strategy, are not controlled for.

Practical implications

Implications of these findings for the successful management of expatriate assignments include sending over expatriates with the right relational skills, and those low in ethnocentrism, rather than just the right technical skills.

Originality/value

The present study was one of the first to empirically test the potential role of categorization in the process of socialization.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Deborah Lee and Lyn Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to understand the classification of musical medium, which is a critical part of music classification. It considers how musical medium is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the classification of musical medium, which is a critical part of music classification. It considers how musical medium is currently classified, provides a theoretical understanding of what is currently problematic, and proposes a model which rethinks the classification of medium and resolves these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is drawn from existing classification schemes, additionally using musicological and knowledge organization literature where relevant. The paper culminates in the design of a model of musical medium.

Findings

The analysis elicits sub-facets, orders and categorizations of medium: there is a strict categorization between vocal and instrumental music, a categorization based on broad size, and important sub-facets for multiples, accompaniment and arrangement. Problematically, there is a mismatch between the definitiveness of library and information science vocal/instrumental categorization and the blurred nature of real musical works; arrangements and accompaniments are limited by other categorizations; multiple voices and groups are not accommodated. So, a model with a radical new structure is proposed which resolves these classification issues.

Research limitations/implications

The results could be used to further understanding of music classification generally, for Western art music and other types of music.

Practical implications

The resulting model could be used to improve and design new classification schemes and to improve understanding of music retrieval.

Originality/value

Deep theoretical analysis of music classification is rare, so this paper’s approach is original. Furthermore, the paper’s value lies in studying a vital area of music classification which is not currently understood, and providing explanations and solutions. The proposed model is novel in structure and concept, and its original structure could be adapted for other knotty subjects.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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