Describes a study of food choice among elderly people living in a rural area. The findings reveal that knowledge about “healthy foods” in this age group is good and that people…
Describes a study of food choice among elderly people living in a rural area. The findings reveal that knowledge about “healthy foods” in this age group is good and that people often choose healthier foods in preference to alternatives, despite finding the alternatives more palatable.
Describes self‐reported dietary supplement use among elderly people in the UK and explores the association between supplement use and socioeconomic, physical and dietary factors…
Describes self‐reported dietary supplement use among elderly people in the UK and explores the association between supplement use and socioeconomic, physical and dietary factors. A three‐phase survey incorporating face‐to‐face interviews, self‐completed four‐day dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire and follow‐up face‐to‐face interviews took place in urban Nottingham and rural Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Leicestershire. A total of 957 elderly people (aged over 65) were randomly selected from general practitioner lists. A total of 36 per cent of the urban respondents and 41 per cent of rural respondents were taking at least one dietary supplement. Respondents who did not smoke were of a higher social class and had more qualifications were the most likely to take supplements. Fish oil was the most commonly taken supplement, followed by multivitamins, garlic tablets and vitamin C. The mean dietary intake of all respondents was above the reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) for nutrients studied. The diets of supplement users, excluding nutrients derived from supplementation, contained more iron, vitamin C, fibre, folate and oily fish than non‐users. Dietary supplement usage is widespread among the UK elderly, although supplement users within this sample do not appear to have diets which warrant supplementation to meet RNIs in the nutrients studied. Many advantages are, however, reported of consuming fish oils, garlic and higher intakes of anti‐oxidants.
Q‐analysis is a methodology for investigating a wide range of structural phenomena. Structures are defined in terms of relations between members of sets and their salient features…
Q‐analysis is a methodology for investigating a wide range of structural phenomena. Structures are defined in terms of relations between members of sets and their salient features are revealed using techniques of algebraic topology. However, the basic method can be mastered by non‐mathematicians. Q‐analysis has been applied to problems as diverse as discovering the rules for the diagnosis of a rare disease and the study of tactics in a football match. Other applications include some of interest to librarians and information scientists. In bibliometrics, Q‐analysis has proved capable of emulating techniques such as bibliographic coupling, co‐citation analysis and co‐word analysis. It has also been used to produce a classification scheme for television programmes based on different principles from most bibliographic classifications. This paper introduces the basic ideas of Q‐analysis. Applications relevant to librarianship and information science are reviewed and present limitations of the approach described. New theoretical advances including some in other fields such as planning and design theory and artificial intelligence may lead to a still more powerful method of investigating structure.
Life studies are a rich source for further research on the role of the Afro‐American woman in society. They are especially useful to gain a better understanding of the Afro‐American experience and to show the joys, sorrows, needs, and ideals of the Afro‐American woman as she struggles from day to day.
Medical uncertainty is recognized as a critical issue in the sociology of diagnosis and medical sociology more generally, but a neglected focus of this concern is the question of…
Medical uncertainty is recognized as a critical issue in the sociology of diagnosis and medical sociology more generally, but a neglected focus of this concern is the question of patient decision making. Using a mixed methods approach that draws upon autoethnographic accounts and third-party interviews, we aim to illuminate the dilemmas of patient decision making in the face of uncertainty. How do patients and supportive caregivers go about navigating this state of affairs? What types of patient–doctor/healthcare professional relationships hinder or enhance effective patient decision making? These are the themes we explore in this study by following patients through the sequence of experiencing symptoms, seeking a diagnosis, evaluating treatment protocols, and receiving treatments. In general, three genres of culturally available narratives are revealed in the data: strategic, technoluxe, and unbearable health narratives.
Fidelity data in clinical trials are not only necessary for appraising the internal and external validity, but also could provide useful insights how to improve the application of…
Fidelity data in clinical trials are not only necessary for appraising the internal and external validity, but also could provide useful insights how to improve the application of an intervention in everyday settings. The purpose of this paper is to understand the current literature of fidelity measurements in complex interventions for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and behaviours that challenge.
The electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus were searched for studies published between 1990 to 2017 that have mentioned fidelity in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions for people with ID and behaviours that challenge based on positive behaviour support or applied behaviour analysis principles. The authors also searched the grey literature and reference lists.
Five randomised controlled trials were included in the review. The authors found variable and inconsistent fidelity measurements reported in the studies. The most frequently provided fidelity elements found in four out of five studies were adherence of implementation, dose and some aspects of quality of delivery.
Research recommendations for a standardised approach of measuring fidelity in such studies are suggested.
The first review of such type that confirms the paucity of research measuring fidelity in complex interventions in this population.
Preserving our built heritage from the onslaught of weather, pollution, development and the effects of tourism is a complex endeavour. Appended to this is the need to ensure that…
Preserving our built heritage from the onslaught of weather, pollution, development and the effects of tourism is a complex endeavour. Appended to this is the need to ensure that heritage buildings are inclusive to all users. Thus, built heritage is plagued with contradictions and conflict between conservation goals and those to support inclusivity given the limited resources often available. Dementia has been purposely selected for this study as numbers of diagnosed sufferers are increasing at an alarming rate, and enagement with heritage has been proven to support well-being. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
This research review draws on systematic principles and presents an analysis of the available literature on well-being programmes designed for people living with dementia and their care supporters, with particular reference to programmes in heritage settings, and the resulting impact for users.
This review critically evaluates the available evidence from published literature on the role of the heritage setting, on how it impacts on the experience of dementia participants. In doing so, it draws on findings from the experiences and well-being of people living with dementia and their care supporters; assesses the current state of knowledge, identifies support implications and makes recommendations for future research. In doing so, it highlights a dearth in the literature on research related to the physical environment setting, particular addressing any cognitive impairments that may arise that can alter psychosocial processes, such as lighting, temperature, acoustics and materiality, so that they can be understood and suitably adapted to support the well-being of those living with dementia.
The scant lack of financial resources to support inclusivity in built heritage, and the argument that some heritage cannot be adapted, often leads to only limited opportune for people with dementia. Thus, there is an inherent need for an understanding of current research and well-being programmes so that it can be focalled in the future to support built heritage tourism in a way that it is inclusive to all.