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Book part
Publication date: 29 June 2016

Rhonda N. T. Nese and Kent McIntosh

All educators will inevitably face unwanted student behavior that they need to address. A ubiquitous response to unwanted behavior is exclusionary discipline practices…

Abstract

All educators will inevitably face unwanted student behavior that they need to address. A ubiquitous response to unwanted behavior is exclusionary discipline practices, including time-out, office discipline referrals, and suspensions. However, extensive research has demonstrated that these practices are associated with negative outcomes, including increased likelihood of further unwanted behavior, decreased achievement, and racial/ethnic discipline disparities. In this chapter, we provide a preventative alternative to exclusionary practices, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). SWPBIS is an evidence-based framework for implementing systems to reduce unwanted behavior and increase prosocial behavior, decreasing the need for exclusionary practices.

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Instructional Practices with and without Empirical Validity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-125-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Sara C. McDaniel, Sarah Wilkinson and Brandi Simonsen

Alternative Education Placements (AEPs) are unique and complex settings that serve students with varieties of needs and strengths, though in practice such settings may be…

Abstract

Alternative Education Placements (AEPs) are unique and complex settings that serve students with varieties of needs and strengths, though in practice such settings may be used most frequently to serve students with serious challenging behavior. Although research supports a number of individual interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), including intensive, individualized interventions, less is known about adapting such interventions for AEPs, and especially about the potential for AEPs to adopt a flexible, positive, multitiered framework for behavior and school climate. Emerging evidence suggests that Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) can be integrated into alternative education settings with careful planning. This chapter provides (1) an overview of AEPs, (2) a description of six steps recommended for integrating PBIS into AEPs, and (3) a brief overview of recent literature regarding PBIS in AEPs.

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Emerging Research and Issues in Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-085-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Matthew Hodder, Tom Syson, Zobia Aziz, Anthony Handy, Hafsa Khan and Julie Lancaster

Without effective support and intervention, young people with learning disabilities and severe challenging behaviour are at risk of placement in out-of-area residential…

Abstract

Purpose

Without effective support and intervention, young people with learning disabilities and severe challenging behaviour are at risk of placement in out-of-area residential settings or highly specialist child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) units. Such placements may be inappropriate and result in significant reductions to the quality of life of young people and their families. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Bradford positive behaviour support (PBS) service model in terms of its aims to improve quality of life, develop skills and maintain children living with their families in their own homes.

Design/methodology/approach

A service evaluation using quantitative and qualitative data from a range of sources to review the effectiveness of the PBS model being applied in Bradford and Calderdale was the methodology used.

Findings

When consistently implemented, the Bradford positive behaviour support–in reach service may improve quality of life, facilitate skill development in young people and their carers and reduce placements in residential and CAMHS inpatient units. Avoidance of such placements is likely to reduce the overall costs of service commissioning in Bradford.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates a novel approach being applied by a third sector agency to implement effective PBS with a small group of children, their families and networks. There is scope for this model to be successfully implemented in other areas.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2010

Sandy Bering

Securing better health and better care outcomes for people by effective use of public resources is at the heart of the commissioning agenda. Commissioning should ensure…

Abstract

Securing better health and better care outcomes for people by effective use of public resources is at the heart of the commissioning agenda. Commissioning should ensure that the needs and wishes of people are well understood, and the market managed, so there are a range of local supports and provision available at a reasonable price. This is particularly important for people with intellectual disability whose behaviour is challenging, where effective clinically informed leadership is essential. Although models of good practice have been demonstrated for more than 20 years, making this happen on a wider scale remains the real challenge. Common wisdom about positive practice is not common practice in meeting identified needs. This paper aims to demystify the ‘commissioning’ role, and highlights the case for change in current practice, exploring some of the key barriers that must be addressed and suggesting ways to achieve better outcomes.

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Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Valentina Iemmi, Martin Knapp, Caroline Reid, Catherine Sholl, Monique Ferdinand, Ariane Buescher and Marija Trachtenberg

Positive behavioural support has been considered as a valuable alternative to residential care for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and behaviour that…

Abstract

Purpose

Positive behavioural support has been considered as a valuable alternative to residential care for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges. While recent evidence suggests it has a positive impact on behaviour and carer ability to cope, there is little evidence of its economic costs or benefits. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the cost of providing positive behavioural support to ten children and adolescents with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges living in the community in Ealing, West London. Comparison was also made with the cost estimate of possible alternative support packages for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges in the UK, as obtained through a Delphi exercise.

Findings

Total cost of services per child was £1,454 per week for young people supported short-term, and £1,402 supported long-term. Children and adolescents were making use of a range of social care, education and health services. Over the full sample, half of the total cost was accounted for by education services. The Delphi exercise estimated the weekly cost of residential-based care as more expensive than the cost of community-based care for children and adolescents with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges. At the end of the ITSBS, all ten children and adolescents initially at risk of imminent residential placement were living in the community with less service-intensive and less expensive support. This suggests that avoiding residential-based care could reduce costs in the long term.

Originality/value

Positive behavioural support has potential to support people with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges in the community, leading to potential cost advantages. However, this is a small study and more robust research is needed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Ciara Padden

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on Stocks and Slater’s paper, “Training in positive behavioural support: increasing staff self-efficacy and positive

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on Stocks and Slater’s paper, “Training in positive behavioural support: increasing staff self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations”.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a narrative review of staff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) and challenging behaviour, drawing on Stocks and Slater’s paper and the core staff competencies outlined in the PBS Competence Framework (PBS Coalition, 2015).

Findings

Taking into consideration multiple outcome measures, including staff outcomes such as self-efficacy, changes in staff behaviour, and the impact on quality of life for service users, may provide a broader insight into the effects of staff training. Supports and systems such as hands-on training, supervision, and practice leadership are also important factors that are likely to lead to positive service user and staff outcomes.

Originality/value

This commentary reflects on Stocks and Slater’s paper in the broader context of staff training outcomes and factors that contribute to high-quality services for people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Mohd A. Al-Hawari, Shaker Bani-Melhem and Faridahwati Mohd Shamsudin

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of workplace happiness and work engagement on employee service innovative behavior from the perspective of positive

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of workplace happiness and work engagement on employee service innovative behavior from the perspective of positive psychology. The study also examines if work engagement mediates the relationship between workplace happiness and employee service innovative behavior. Finally, it investigates how co-worker socializing and the service climate of the organization moderate the relationship between work engagement and employee service innovative behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used survey data from 321 frontline employees working in the service sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Six major hypotheses were established and examined using the SPSS Statistics V22.0 Process. The measurement model was analyzed using Amos 22.

Findings

Workplace happiness and work engagement are found to be important factors affecting employee service innovative behavior. Workplace happiness influences employee service innovative behavior directly and indirectly through work engagement. Both service climate and co-worker socializing play a significant moderating role in the relationship between work engagement and employee service innovative behavior among frontline employees. Interestingly, service climate erodes this relationship while co-worker socializing enhances it.

Practical implications

This study provides guidelines for managers and practitioners in the service industry to promote frontline employee service innovative behavior. Specifically, the findings provide guidance for decision-makers on how to use workplace happiness to trigger the innovative service behaviors of frontline employees, taking into consideration the conditional role of service climate and co-worker socializing.

Originality/value

The literature on factors affecting the service innovative behavior of frontline employees in the service sector from the perspective of positive psychology is limited, especially in the context of the UAE. The data, framework and outcomes of this research address this gap and contribute to the current body of knowledge. Specifically, the study contributes to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in the field of positive psychology by validating the applicability of the theory in a wider organizational context.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2012

Douglas Cheney and Kelly Jewell

The 1990 reauthorization of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), emphasized the need for applied research in schools to prevent the development of…

Abstract

The 1990 reauthorization of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), emphasized the need for applied research in schools to prevent the development of emotional disturbance. Prevention research then led to mandates in IDEA 1997 that schools must develop positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) for children and youth whose behavior impeded their educational performance. This chapter describes how the ensuing research and implementation regarding each of the three-tiers of PBIS have influenced the educational outcomes of students with EBD. Recommendations for school staff using the three-tiered PBUS model are provided so that students with EBD can benefit from implementation of PBIS structures and supports.

Details

Behavioral Disorders: Practice Concerns and Students with EBD
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-507-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

David Allen, Wendy James, Jayne Evans, Sarah Hawkins and Rosemary Jenkins

This article summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. The main features of this approach are described, and the evidence for its…

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1822

Abstract

This article summarises the historical development of positive behavioural support. The main features of this approach are described, and the evidence for its effectiveness outlined. Despite clear empirical support for its use, relatively few people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour appear to have access to this form of therapeutic intervention. Reasons for this are discussed, along with recommendations for future development.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Caroline Dench

Although front‐line staff are the key agents in delivering positive behavioural support in care services, effective technologies for staff training in key behavioural…

Abstract

Although front‐line staff are the key agents in delivering positive behavioural support in care services, effective technologies for staff training in key behavioural competencies are not very well developed. The paper describes a training model that demonstrates effective outcomes for service users, participating staff and the host organisation. The critical elements of the training are outlined and principal outcomes described.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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